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This presentation discusses the structural changes that occur during oral processing, and how these determine sensory perception. Tactile perception is discussed theoretically on the basis of the ...

This presentation discusses the structural changes that occur during oral processing, and how these determine sensory perception. Tactile perception is discussed theoretically on the basis of the forces exerted onto the tongue surface and the sensitivity of mechanoreceptors. Specific attention is given to the state of lubrication of the tongue surface, introducing a new acoustic real-time in vivo measering technique for the state of lubrication of the human tongue surface.

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    Gva effo st 2011 Gva effo st 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • SensoryManagement Jennifer Aniston (W Magazine photo shoot ) George van Aken george.vanaken@nizo.nlEFFoST, September 2011, BerlinTogether to the next level
    • Introducing NIZO food research Processing centre Application centre• Independent, private contract HQ - Ede, The Netherlands research company for the food industry• Founded in 1948, now leading European research company• Roots in dairy industry• Working with customers to achieve their goals• HQ in “Food Valley” in The Netherlands Offices abroad: • Offices in France, UK, USA, France - Mr. Damien Lemaire UK - Dr. Jean Banks Japan USA / Canada - Dr. Ralf Jäger• 200 professionals Japan - Dr. Maykel Verschueren• State-of-the-art facilities & food- grade processing centre Research centre• ISO 9001:2000 certified Technology for your success Together to the next level
    • Product groups My main involvementsTogether to the next level
    • Sensory management→WHY IMPORTANT?→WHICH DIRECTION?NOT PRESENTED: WHICH SOLUTIONS? Together to the next level 4
    • TASTE: Motivation to buy Source: the Henley CenterTogether to the next level 5
    • Improves sensory High caloric properties (9 kcal /g versus 4 kcal/g (aroma release, smooth for sugar and protein, plasticity, lubrication)) Often low satiation) Metabolic One of the Creamy, syndrome, Rich, Obesity main FAT Pleasure directions Texturizer Main (thickeners, structure breaker, air stabilizer, frying agent) essential ingredientTogether to the next level 6
    • Research motivations• Dietary products • Reduced fat, high fiber, low salt and sugar • Enhanced satiety • Nevertheless tasty• Technology to produce such systems • Stable textures • Corrected microstructures • Fat replacers, controlled flavour release• Methods to quantify the sensory functionality • Of the original product • Of the healthier product • Toward understanding and directing technologyTogether to the next level 7
    • Sensory perceptionMULTIMODALITY AND ORALPROCESSING Together to the next level 8
    • Sensory response is multimodal PerceptionSensesVisionTouchSoundMouthfeelTasteSmell CCK, PYY, Gastrin,Nutritional Hedonic consumer vagus nervestatus response Together to the next level 9
    • Role of oral processing Sight visual ORAL PROCESSING F nasal retronasal Smell L A Taste release V O Chemical release U R T Touch tactile initial bite E X mastication T U Hearing breakage R E First bite TIME Swallow Together to the next level 10
    • In-mouth sensory perception of food emulsions depends on oral processing palatemucins Taste buds mechanoreceptors Together to the next level 11
    • Instrumental toolbox at NIZO Textural Changes Compositional Changes ( e.g. viscosity, friction) ( e.g. oral food deposition, aroma release, taste-receptors interaction) full fatty melting fatty creamy creamy smooth palatable sweet lingering satisfying coating chewable coating full of flavour Tribology Rheology Analysis of Adhered Artificial Olfactometer(native sample) (native sample) expectorates mucous layer throat PTR-MS (chemical, analysis (in vitro aroma (in vivo aroma rheological, (tongue scraping, release) release) tribological) acoustic) Instrumental toolbox Together to the next level 12
    • Cross modal interactions: Viscosity affects flavour intensity perception Nose space Sensory intensity 5 4.5concentration (au) gel 1 4 gel 1 soft sensory Intensity Nose-space gel 2 3.5 gel 2 gel 3 3 gel 3 gel 4 2.5 gel 4 gel 5 2 gel 5 hard 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80 time (s) time (s) Texture-flavour interaction at perception level! (K. Weel, A. Boelrijk et al., published 2002) Together to the next level 13
    • Cross modal interactions:Aroma affects texture perception 90 80 70 • Equal firmness for each casein concentration perceived firmness 60 50 • Aroma concentration 40 varied as 30 A<B<C 20 10 ABC ABC ABC 0 Increasing caseinpH high concentration low pH Casein gels with variation in butter flavor.• Janine E. Knoop, 5th Conference on Consumer Sciences 2010, Bilbao Spain 06-09-10• Janine E. Knoop, G. Sala, J.H.F. Bult, M. Stieger, G. Smit, “Texture modification by butter aroma in cheeses and dairy model gels” Poster [P2.03] at the 7th NIZO Dairy Conference Together to the next level 14
    • Examples of the role of oral processingFOOD EMULSIONS Together to the next level 15
    • Role of oral processing:Large structural changes, even for thin liquid emulsions:THIS is what you taste!
    • Structural changes in the oral cavity Food emulsions Saliva-induced Formation of slimy droplet aggregation structures Droplet-coating of Inhomogeneous coverage oral surfaces of tongue papillae Amylase induced Droplet coalescence starch breakdown Fat spreading at air Droplet spreading at bubble surfaces tongue surface Fracture of gels into Release of „crumbs‟ emulsions dropletsVan Aken et al., Food Colloids, Dickinson ed., RSC, 2005, pp.356 – 366;Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2007, 12, 251-262. .
    • GEL FRACTURING dependent on gelling agent and droplet interaction ACTIVE saliva VISCOUS BOLUS of gel particles Thick INACTIVE and saliva saliva Gelledemulsion Rich HIGHER VISCOSITY by saliva –induced droplet flocculation rubbing, EXTENDED aroma release Creamy shear saliva Smooth shear LUBRICATING saliva FATTY COATING Liquid Droplet coating on oral surfaces Coatingemulsion Together to the next level 18
    • Effect of fat on aroma release Flavour release for low fat quark, full fat cream and vegetable cream in the presence (+) of Flavour release for low fat quark, full fat cream and vegetable cream in the presence (+) dairy flavour dairy flavour2.0E+05 1.2E+00 normalised intensity (a.u) low fat Quark (+) 1.0E+00 low fat Q full fat cream (+)Intensity (a.u) full fat c 8.0E-01 6.0E-01 4.0E-01 2.0E-01 ~+50%0.0E+00 0.0E+00 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 Time (min) Time (min) Adjust aroma concentration Difference in duration of Difference in intensity of aroma release releaseTogether to the next level 19
    • Toward understandingTACTILE PERCEPTION BY THETONGUE Together to the next level 22
    • What produces the forces sensedby the tongue?  Viscous forces of the fluid in palate motion relative to the tongue surface tongue  Friction of tongue and palate in palate contact  Particles grinding between tongue tongue and palate palate tongue
    • Main regimes thickness perception Curve from: Shama, F. and P. Sherman (1973). J. Texture Studies 4: 111-118.Viscousforces 104 Sensitivity RAperceived receptors measured by  Trullson and Essick J. Neurophys. 1997(77), 737-748 103 102 Average stress thresshold 101 Lower stress thresshold 100 Thickness not necessarily g& 100 101 102 103 104 shear rate (s-1 ) related to perceived viscous forcesVan Aken, G.A., Modelling texture perception by soft epithelial surfaces, Soft Matter, 2010, 6, 826–834
    • Tongue surface mechanoreceptors embedded in papilla filiformis 20 m Flaking cells on Source: Freeman,, Bracegirdle , nd An atlas of hystology 2 ed. the palate Heinemann Educational20 m Papilla filiformis (rabbit) Surface roughness of about 20 m Human filiform papillae
    • Tribological regimes (Stribeck curve) Friction force Hydrodynamic modelling Static surface bonds of the soft deformable Static friction papilla surface* Transient surface bonds and corrugationspalate boundary Only viscous forces Liquid starts to interpenetrate hydrodynamic papill Gap-width a mixed increases with speed  viscosity speed  viscosity * Van Aken, G.A., Modelling texture perception by soft epithelial surfaces, Soft Matter, 2010, 6, 826–834
    • Free flowing; Slowed free flow; Forced flow; Boundary Viscous shear friction Thinning time friction sensed too small; Boundary sensed; Viscous friction only if tongue shear friction is pressed sensed “RAW TONGUE” “CREAMY LIQUID” “THICK”minimum gap width (micrometers) 1000 Pn (Shama & Sherman) SW C V St Honey Mol ki h r e irr 100 Pa,  = 1 en 100 Pa,  = 0 100 mol e g e 140 Pa,  = 0 cho me Papilla surface a et d olat roughness em m a y 10 dil bl o mk e g il oi h 1 k l ur 1 10 t 100 1000 10000 Interaction with saliva viscosity (mPas)
    • Tactile perception of a fluidic food bolusSmoothtongueSandpapertongue high fat
    • Solids: breakdown path of fracturing an dissolution important Viscous emulsion ofNormal hard cheese coalesced droplets Forgeable particles, quickly hydrating 29 Slowly hydrating dense cheese particlesLight hard cheese separation Thin dilute emulsion of small droplets Technology for your success 29
    • Solids: hard cheese as example Low-fat cheeseMastication pathway (caricature) Full-fat cheese
    • Experimental evaluation of tongue roughnessTRIBOLOGY Together to the next level 31
    • How to measure friction?• Tribometry • Measures the lubricating effect of food materials on artificial surfaces • Low frequency • In vitro, independent of individuals • Reproducible, established• Acoustic measurement (NEW) • Measures the sound generated by scraping surfaces • High frequency (more similar to the sensitivity of the tongue mechanoreceptors) • In vivo, in mouth • Includes the effects of the interaction between food and the mucosa (e.g. acidic and astringent food) • Includes the effect of oral processing • Includes the effects of pre-meals and individual differences •Together to the next level 32
    • Liquid and soft semi solids: tribological studies Silicon Rubber Load: 5N Temp.: 21°C0.6 water0.5 skim milk whole milk MTM tribometer0.4 yoghurt 3% fat yoghurt 0% fat0.3 yoghurt 3% fat quark 0% fat0.2 quark 10% fat0.10.0 5 10 100 800 Speed (mm/s)
    • Analysis of the in vivo scraping sound of the tongue (NEW)• For a good analysis, many additional sounds must be removed (breathing, clicks, air flow by tongue manipulations)• Most relevant seems to be the frequency ranges 100-1000 Hz and 4-12 kHz 1,E+00 water coffee with cream water (saliva) 1,E-01 coffee with (whipping) cream Log scale! 1,E-02 Effect is a factor 10 amplitude (V) 1,E-03 (1 order of 1,E-04 magnitude) 1,E-05 1,E-06 Line voltage as a function of time 1,E-07 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 frequency (Hz) Corresponding frequency spectrum of the cleaned signal Example: Water - coffee with (whipping) cream
    • WATER-SKIMMED MILK-FULL MILK-CREAM milk range milk range, standardized on water 3,5 1,E-02 skim milk water 3 full fat milk skim milk 1,E-03 full fat milk 2,5 cream cream Amplitude (V) Amplitude (V) 1,E-04 2 1,5 1,E-05 1 1,E-06 water 0,5 1,E-07 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Interpretation: • tongue friction increases by protein (not observed by conventional tribology), but is reduced in the presence of emulsified fat • translates to: skimmed milk more rough/dry/astringent than water, but milk fat makes it more smooth Together to the next level 35
    • Effect of half-fat creamer on coffee 1,E-01 45 40 1,E-02 35 saliva/background background saliva 30 black coffee/background 1,E-03 coffee blackAmplitude (V) Amplitude (V) coffee with creamer 25 coffee with creamer/background creamer 20 creamer/background 1,E-04 creamer later 15 creamer later/background 10 1,E-05 5 1,E-06 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Although the spectra are rather noisy, a clear trend is observed: • Coffee black • Coffee with creamer Less friction sound • Saliva • Pure creamer Later use of creamer again leads to a slightly larger signal. This may be because the grinding with black coffee had temporarily smoothened the tongue surface.
    • Kineticssystem: clean mouth with saliva 1E-01 No clear time 1E-02 saliva 1st second saliva 1,5-2 s dependence is 1E-03 saliva 3-3,5 s saliva 4,3-4,7 s observed for saliva.amplitude (V) 1E-04 1E-05 1E-06 1E-07 10 100 1000 10000 100000 frequency (Hz)
    • Kinetics system: half-fat coffee creamer 1E-01 2s Observed is a gradual 2,3 s 1E-02 2,7 s decrease in sound 1E-03 2,9 s amplitude 3,1 samplitude (V) 1E-04 This suggests that at the tongue surface, the 1E-05 native mucosal layer is 1E-06 slowly replaced by the ingredients of coffee 1E-07 10 100 1000 10000 100000 creamer (fat, proteins?) frequency (Hz)
    • Kineticssequence of systems in one run:half fat creamer – non carbonized soft drink – half fat creamerFrequency spectrum slightly smoothed Clearly, the acidic soft drink gives a higher signal than the half fat creamer. The signal of the half fat creamer is lower if it is preceded by the acidic soft drink. Possibly the grinding of the acidic soft drink smoothens the tongue surface
    • Applications acoustic tribology• Measurement tool for rough/dry mouthfeel (“sandpaper tongue”) o Low fat products o Astrigent products o High protein products• Measurement tool for surface textures o Fabrics, wood, etc. o Good-grip surfaces• Measurement tool hair care/skin care application (smoothness, silkiness)• Measurement tool for other applications (ball bearings, abbrasion, etc.)
    • Creating the future togetherTogether to the next levelTechnology for your success 41