The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information:


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The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information: Open data, open source, open standards

Presented at ASPRS GeoTech 2013 conference:

The many dimensions of "open" provides users with higher quality geospatial information. Open Standards ensures interoperability to information whether its served by proprietary or open source software. Open Source software benefits the development of open standards and leads to a business ecosystem that includes more providers, more partnerships and more customers.[1] In the end the user does not care if the code is open or proprietary. Users care about access to data and the quality of the data. Open Data has advanced with the recent policies from GEOSS Data-CORE [2] and the US Open Government Initiative [3]. Open Earth Observation data from government sources benefits industry and users. Open standards, Open source and Open data can result in higher quality information. The fusion of data from multiple sources results in higher quality. Fusion is possible based on multiple data sources that can be interrelated [4]. Improving Data Quality through knowing the uncertainty and the provenance of derived information is dependent upon an open landscape of geospatial information.


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The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information:

  1. 1. ® The Open Landscape of Geospatial Information Open Data, Open Source, Open Standards George Percivall OGC Chief Engineer ASPRS GeoTech 2013 9 December 2013 © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium
  2. 2. The Open Landscape of Geo Information Open Source its about the code Open Data its about the license Open Standards its about interfaces & encodings Related but Distinct Concepts that allow greater use of information OGC ® © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium 2
  3. 3. Open Source Software Open Source Definition 1. Free Redistribution 2. Source Code 3. Derived Works 4. Integrity of Source Code 5. No Discrimination: Persons 6. No Discrimination: Fields 7. Distribution of License 8. License Not Product Specific 9. Not Restrict Other Software 10. License Technology-Neutral OGC OS Development • OS Geo • LocationTech • Apache Foundation • Independent activities ® © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium 3
  4. 4. OS Geo Projects • Web Mapping – – – – – – – – – – • Desktop Applications deegree geomajas GeoMoose GeoServer Mapbender MapBuilder MapFish MapGuide Open Source MapServer OpenLayers • Metadata Catalogs – GRASS GIS – Marble – QGIS • Geospatial Libraries – – – – – – FDO GDAL/OGR GEOS GeoTools OSSIM PostGIS – GeoNetwork OGC ® © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium 4
  5. 5. Hosted by Eclipse Foundation Community of open source projects and a trade association of companies • Incubating Projects – GeoMesa – uDig • Proposed Projects – JTS Topology Suite – GeoGit – SpatialHadoop – GeoTrellis – GeoMesa – Geoff – GeoScript OGC • Strategic Members ® 5
  6. 6. Apache Software Foundation • Spatial Information Systems • SOLR • CouchDB (Geocouch) • Hadoop (SpatialHadoop, WPS-Hadoop) • Open Climate Workbench OGC ® 6
  7. 7. Open Source and Open Standards • SQLite – Cross-platform C library that implements a self-contained, embeddable, zero-config SQL database engine – Maintained by SQLite Consortium • OGC GeoPackage - universal file format for geodata – – – – – Built on SQLite, so works on any desktop or mobile OS Application and platform independent, Self-describing Connected / disconnected environment use The modern alternative to shapfile, GeoTIFF, SDTS and vendor specific • Experience it here: OGC ® © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium 7
  8. 8. Open Data: Open Knowledge Definition A work is open if: • Access at no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably downloading via the Internet without charge. • Free of restrictions on Redistribution • Reuse through derivative works • Distribution in an open data format • May require attribution with redistribution • Integrity: modifications use different name or version • No discrimination against persons, groups, endeavors Above is highly paraphrased. Go see the source: OGC ® © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium 8
  9. 9. Recent US Government Executive announcements on US Open Data and Earth Observations • Open Data Policy - Managing Information as an Asset – OMB Directive M-13-13 (9 May 2013) – “Open data” is publicly available data structured in a way that enables the data to be fully discoverable and usable by end users. • National Strategy For Civil Earth Observations – OSTP April 2013 – Establish a publicly available open data policy and a supporting data-management approach that addresses all aspects of the data life cycle, including open publishing of data, and metadata and quality-assurance management. • National Plan for Civil Earth Observations – to be published OGC ® © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium 9
  10. 10. GEOSS Data Sharing Principles • Full and Open Exchange of Data • Data and Products at Minimum Time delay and Minimum Cost • Free of Charge or Cost of Reproduction
  11. 11. GEOSS Information System and GEOSS DataCORE • GEO Portal - new version released last week • More than 14 million discoverable Resources • More than 1.2 million are • Brokered Search of >20 Community Catalogues • Example search found: 1081 datasets for Land Cover © GEO Secretariat
  12. 12. Open Data: a Culture of Cooperation • “Who will pay for public access to research data?” – F. Berman and V. Cerf, Policy Forum, 9 August, p. 616 • Letter to Editor response by 44 persons in EarthCube – “Although the question of who pays for open data is important… – A greater challenge lies in implementing institutional and cultural changes required before data from government-sponsored research can be openly shared” – Science 29 November 2013: V. 342 pp. 1041-4042 • NSF's EarthCube – Cyber infrastructure for integrating data, tools, and models in the geosciences, – illustrates challenges and benefits of community engagement and institutional alignment OGC ® © GEO Secretariat
  13. 13. EarthCube Stakeholder Alignment Data and Principles Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Nick Berente, University of Georgia Burcu Bolukbasi, UIUC Leslie DeChurch, Georgia Tech University Courtney Flint, Utah State University Michael Haberman, UIUC John L. King, University of Michigan Eric Knight, University of Sydney Barbara Lawrence, UCLA Ethan Masella, Brandeis Uniersity Charles Mcelroy, Case Western Reserve University Barbara Mittleman, Nodality, Inc. Support from the National Science Foundation is deeply appreciated: Mark Nolan, UIUC NSF-VOSS EAGER 0956472, “Stakeholder Alignment in Socio-Technical Systems,” Melanie Radik, Brandeis University NSF OCI RAPID 1229928, “Stakeholder Alignment for EarthCube,” Namchul Shin, Pace University NSF GEO-SciSIP-STS-OCI-INSPIRE 1249607, “Enabling Transformation in the Social Sciences, Geosciences, and Cyberinfrastructure,” Susan Winter, University of Maryland NSF I-CORPS 1313562 “Stakeholder Alignment for Public-Private Partnerships” Ilya Zaslavsky, UCSD
  14. 14. Where such standards exist, EarthCube should use formal, internationally approved, geoscience-wide data access/sharing standards and protocols (e.g. ISO, OGC). (v100 R2) Where there are not formal, international standards, please indicate your priority between, on the one hand, EarthCube encouraging development or extension of formal, internationally approved, geoscience-wide data access/sharing standards and protocols (0) versus EarthCube have its own systems of standards and protocols (1). (v101 R2) 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Formal international standards EC encourage where no standards
  15. 15. Why Open Standards? • Prevents a single, self-interested party from controlling a standard • Lower systems and life cycle costs • Encourage market competition – Choose based on functionality desired – Avoid “lock in” to a proprietary architecture “People want government to be transparent, so why shouldn't the technology be?” Jim Willis, Director e-Government Rhode Island • Stimulates innovation beyond the standard by companies that seek to differentiate themselves. OGC ® Source: Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness, April 2006. Committee For Economic Development.
  16. 16. How does the OGC define Open? • Freely and publicly available • Unencumbered by patents and other intellectual property • Non discriminatory • No license fees • Vendor neutral “What OGC brings to the table is…everyone has confidence we won’t take advantage of the format or change it in a way that will harm anyone” Michael Weiss-Malik, Google KML product manager • Data neutral • Agreed to in a Consensus Process OGC ® © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium 17
  17. 17. OGC Points of Interest Standard • POI Standard development – Began in W3C with OGC participation – OGC Standards Working Group formed to complete work – Final OGC vote and adoption process • Key Use Case for POI Standard – Authoritative sources maintain POIs • E.g. Starbucks maintains their POIs – Aggregators gather POIs from authoritative sources using OGC POI Standard • E.g., Google Gathers POIS from many sources – POI Aggregators offer services • E.g., Google offers search on PoI database OGC ® Copyright © 2013, Open Geospatial Consortium
  18. 18. OGC continues to expand on openness • Public mailing lists • Commenting and issue management on GitHub – Already in place for POI and GeoPackage SWGs • Public request for comments more often • Publication moving from proprietary MSWord format to PDF and HTML and ascii doc open formats • OpenPOIs code is public open source on GitHub – OpenPOIs as reference implementation showing capability OGC ® © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium 19
  19. 19. Advancements in Open Standards in OGC OWS-9 Testbed OGC ® Copyright © 2013, Open Geospatial Consortium
  20. 20. Advancements in Open Standards in OGC OWS-9 Testbed OGC ® Copyright © 2013, Open Geospatial Consortium
  21. 21. The Open Landscape of Geo Information • Symbiosis of all three “opens” – – – – Open Source is vital development of Open Standards Open Source thrives using Open Data Access using Open Standards flourishes with Open Data Policies built on Open Standards, Open Data and Open Source • OGC White Paper on “Open Source and Open Standards” – – – – Developed jointly by OS Geo and OGC Similarities and differences – Open Standards and Open Source Ensuring Interoperability of Proprietary and Open Source Software OGC ® © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium 22
  22. 22. Interoperability is about Organizations “Interoperability seems to be about the integration of information. What it’s really about is the coordination of organizational behavior.” George Percivall @percivall OGC ® Copyright © 2013, Open Geospatial Consortium
  23. 23. Additional References • OWS-9 Testbed Videos • Open Data by Arnulf Christl OGC ® © 2013 Open Geospatial Consortium 24