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Does “Effort Lead to Success” ? A look at the research done by Carol Dweck “ Self Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Pers...
Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a fixed trait that you have,...
Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a fixed trait that you have,...
Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a fixed trait that you have,...
Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a fixed trait that you have,...
Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>Holding an  ENTITY THEORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure/Diffic...
Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a malleable aspect which you...
Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a malleable aspect which you...
Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a malleable aspect which you...
Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>Holding an  INCREMENTAL THEORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure/D...
“Helpless Reaction” <ul><li>Seen in “bright” girls on transferring to Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Seen in  Entity Theorist...
Research showed this to be true for other aspects too <ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity Theorist : “meant...
Research showed this to be true for other aspects too <ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity Theorist : “meant...
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>Establishes child’s  Entity  or  Incremental  Self-Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage labels...
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child PRAISED for their  INTELLIGENCE  after a job well done: </li></ul>
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child PRAISED for their  INTELLIGENCE  after a job well done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VULN...
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child PRAISED for their  INTELLIGENCE  after a job well done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VULN...
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child PRAISED for their  INTELLIGENCE  after a job well done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VULN...
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their  INTELLIGENCE or other FIXED TRAIT : </li></ul>
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their  INTELLIGENCE or other FIXED TRAIT : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VU...
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their  INTELLIGENCE or other FIXED TRAIT : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VU...
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their  EFFORT or STRATEGIES : </li></ul>
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their  EFFORT or STRATEGIES : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MASTERY ORIENTA...
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their  EFFORT or STRATEGIES : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MASTERY ORIENTA...
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFORT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>Beware of  CONTINGENT SELF-WORTH : </li></ul>
Criticism and Praise <ul><li>Beware of  CONTINGENT SELF-WORTH : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When child feels worthy only when th...
Self Esteem <ul><li>Well-meant but misguided practices </li></ul>
Self Esteem <ul><li>Well-meant but misguided practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SE seen as something children have or do not ...
Self Esteem <ul><li>Well-meant but misguided practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SE seen as something children have or do not ...
Self Esteem <ul><li>Well-meant but misguided practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SE seen as something children have or do not ...
Self Esteem <ul><li>Operating within  ENTITY THEORY   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>boosts EGO instead of boosting EFFORT </li></u...
Self Esteem <ul><li>Operating within  ENTITY THEORY   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>boosts EGO instead of boosting EFFORT </li></u...
Self Esteem which is to be? <ul><li>LOW EFFORT </li></ul><ul><li>EASY SUCCESS </li></ul><ul><li>OTHERS’ FAILURES </li></ul...
How to facilitate the second kind of Self Esteem? <ul><li>EMPHASIZING LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING CHALLENGES </...
How to facilitate the second kind of Self Esteem? <ul><li>EMPHASIZING LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING CHALLENGES </...
How to facilitate the second kind of Self Esteem? <ul><li>EMPHASIZING LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING CHALLENGES </...
What can we do? <ul><li>Teach students to think of brain as a MUSCLE which strengthens with use </li></ul>
What can we do? <ul><li>Teach students to think of brain as a MUSCLE which strengthens with use </li></ul><ul><li>Teach st...
What can we do? <ul><li>Teach students to think of brain as a MUSCLE which strengthens with use </li></ul><ul><li>Teach st...
What can we do? <ul><li>Teach students to think of brain as a MUSCLE which strengthens with use </li></ul><ul><li>Teach st...
What can we do? <ul><li>Teach students to think of brain as a MUSCLE which strengthens with use </li></ul><ul><li>Teach st...
“ Effort  DOES  Lead to Success” A look at the research done by Carol Dweck “ Self Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Per...
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Effort Does Lead to Success

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A synopsis of Carol Dweck's research and book: Self Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development; this has particular reference to the ABC's motto "Effort Leads to Success"

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Transcript of "Effort Does Lead to Success"

  1. 1. Does “Effort Lead to Success” ? A look at the research done by Carol Dweck “ Self Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development” Carol S. Dweck (2000) – Taylor and Francis Publishers
  2. 2. Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a fixed trait that you have, then you are an </li></ul>
  3. 3. Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a fixed trait that you have, then you are an </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENTITY THEORIST </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a fixed trait that you have, then you are an </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENTITY THEORIST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>► pursue performance goals </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a fixed trait that you have, then you are an </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ENTITY THEORIST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>► pursue performance goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ► makes you vulnerable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ► go for easy tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ► low effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ► give up easily </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>Holding an ENTITY THEORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure/Difficulty IMPLIES Low Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure/Difficulty provides proof that others can measure your intelligence directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You go for easily completed tasks that enable you to show your “intelligence” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You avoid challenging tasks which tests your “intelligence” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a malleable aspect which you can improve, then you are an </li></ul>
  8. 8. Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a malleable aspect which you can improve, then you are an </li></ul><ul><li> ► Incremental Theorist </li></ul>
  9. 9. Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>If you believe INTELLIGENCE to be a malleable aspect which you can improve, then you are an </li></ul><ul><li> ► Incremental Theorist </li></ul><ul><li> ► Pursue Learning Goals </li></ul><ul><li> ► You are empowered to learn and overcome difficulties </li></ul><ul><li> ► More willing to take risks </li></ul><ul><li> ► More effort </li></ul><ul><li> ► You learn </li></ul>
  10. 10. Your view of INTELLIGENCE affects the way you LEARN <ul><li>Holding an INCREMENTAL THEORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure/Difficulty IMPLIES change your EFFORT or STRATEGY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure/Difficulty provides a challenge to be taken on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence can be improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See success and difficulties in terms of personal EFFORT or learning STRATEGIES </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. “Helpless Reaction” <ul><li>Seen in “bright” girls on transferring to Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Seen in Entity Theorists when meeting more challenging tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Seen in Talented and Gifted Students when out of small pond situation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Research showed this to be true for other aspects too <ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity Theorist : “meant or not meant to be”, destiny, gives up relationship easily </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Research showed this to be true for other aspects too <ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity Theorist : “meant or not meant to be”, destiny, gives up relationship easily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental Theorist : develop relationship over time through hard work, successful conflict resolution, grows a relationship </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>Establishes child’s Entity or Incremental Self-Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage labels such as “smart”, “dumb” that convey intelligence as fixed entity </li></ul><ul><li>Praise child’s effort, strategies, progress – NOT their intelligence </li></ul>
  15. 15. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child PRAISED for their INTELLIGENCE after a job well done: </li></ul>
  16. 16. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child PRAISED for their INTELLIGENCE after a job well done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VULNERABILITY </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child PRAISED for their INTELLIGENCE after a job well done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VULNERABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>might show straight away (choosing assured success with easier work rather than challenging learning task) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child PRAISED for their INTELLIGENCE after a job well done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VULNERABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>might show straight away (choosing assured success with easier work rather than challenging learning task) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or later, after a failure experience (doubt his/her intelligence) – helpless reaction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their INTELLIGENCE or other FIXED TRAIT : </li></ul>
  20. 20. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their INTELLIGENCE or other FIXED TRAIT : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VULNERABILITY </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their INTELLIGENCE or other FIXED TRAIT : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VULNERABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when encounters later setbacks (measure him/herself from their performance and, in the presence of poor performance, would measure themselves negatively) – helpless reaction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their EFFORT or STRATEGIES : </li></ul>
  23. 23. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their EFFORT or STRATEGIES : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MASTERY ORIENTATED RESPONSE later </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>When child CRITICISED for their EFFORT or STRATEGIES : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MASTERY ORIENTATED RESPONSE later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>makes child alter effort or strategy in solving later difficult problem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFORT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STRATEGY to obtain a Mastery Orientated Response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOT on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PERSON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRAIT which produces vulnerability </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>Beware of CONTINGENT SELF-WORTH : </li></ul>
  27. 27. Criticism and Praise <ul><li>Beware of CONTINGENT SELF-WORTH : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When child feels worthy only when they have succeeded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and feel deficient or worthless when they fail </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Self Esteem <ul><li>Well-meant but misguided practices </li></ul>
  29. 29. Self Esteem <ul><li>Well-meant but misguided practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SE seen as something children have or do not have </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Self Esteem <ul><li>Well-meant but misguided practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SE seen as something children have or do not have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SE instilled also at fault – it is not something that we give children by telling them that they have a host of good things inside them </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Self Esteem <ul><li>Well-meant but misguided practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SE seen as something children have or do not have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SE instilled also at fault – it is not something that we give children by telling them that they have a host of good things inside them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leads adults to lie to children (exaggerate positives, sugar-coat negatives, hide information entirely) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Self Esteem <ul><li>Operating within ENTITY THEORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>boosts EGO instead of boosting EFFORT </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Self Esteem <ul><li>Operating within ENTITY THEORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>boosts EGO instead of boosting EFFORT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>works only in short term </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Self Esteem which is to be? <ul><li>LOW EFFORT </li></ul><ul><li>EASY SUCCESS </li></ul><ul><li>OTHERS’ FAILURES </li></ul><ul><li>(finding self-defeating ways of opting out of the system) </li></ul><ul><li>WORKING HARD </li></ul><ul><li>FACING CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><li>STRETCHING ABILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>(using knowledge and skills to help others) </li></ul>? ?
  35. 35. How to facilitate the second kind of Self Esteem? <ul><li>EMPHASIZING LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING EFFORT </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING STRATEGIES </li></ul>
  36. 36. How to facilitate the second kind of Self Esteem? <ul><li>EMPHASIZING LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING EFFORT </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the truth: when student does not have the skills or knowledge, or are behind others, NOT a sign of deep, shameful deficit. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a sign that they need to: </li></ul>
  37. 37. How to facilitate the second kind of Self Esteem? <ul><li>EMPHASIZING LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING EFFORT </li></ul><ul><li>EMPHASIZING STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the truth: when student does not have the skills or knowledge, or are behind others, NOT a sign of deep, shameful deficit. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a sign that they need to: </li></ul><ul><li>STUDY HARDER, FIND NEW LEARNING STRATEGIES </li></ul>
  38. 38. What can we do? <ul><li>Teach students to think of brain as a MUSCLE which strengthens with use </li></ul>
  39. 39. What can we do? <ul><li>Teach students to think of brain as a MUSCLE which strengthens with use </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students STRATEGIES for learning and problem solving </li></ul>
  40. 40. What can we do? <ul><li>Teach students to think of brain as a MUSCLE which strengthens with use </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students STRATEGIES for learning and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage labels that convey intelligence as a fixed entity </li></ul>
  41. 41. What can we do? <ul><li>Teach students to think of brain as a MUSCLE which strengthens with use </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students STRATEGIES for learning and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage labels that convey intelligence as a fixed entity </li></ul><ul><li>Praise student’s effort, strategies, progress, NOT their intelligence </li></ul>
  42. 42. What can we do? <ul><li>Teach students to think of brain as a MUSCLE which strengthens with use </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students STRATEGIES for learning and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage labels that convey intelligence as a fixed entity </li></ul><ul><li>Praise student’s effort, strategies, progress, NOT their intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Give students challenging work </li></ul>
  43. 43. “ Effort DOES Lead to Success” A look at the research done by Carol Dweck “ Self Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development” Carol S. Dweck (2000) – Taylor and Francis Publishers
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