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    Negative impacts of social media as my space and facebook on teenagers  in the u.s.a. Negative impacts of social media as my space and facebook on teenagers in the u.s.a. Document Transcript

    • Negative impacts of social media as MySpace and Facebook on teenagers in the U.S.A. Trends in Communication 01/11/2013 Isabela Moreno S1072597 Manuel Bertoa S1072563 Jiri G. Dolezal S1072574
    • Summary Social media and its unordinary use affects whole social community, it has got negative impacts on the brain as well as on mental health. In this paper we have answered several sub-questions and a main-question about social networking issues and we confirmed that teenagers are the most affected by social networks. More than 93 % of teens between 12-19 years old in the United States use the Internet regularly and the 73 % of them use social networking communities. In our research we found out, that the biggest effects and risks of social media on youth by pediatrics are: limited capacity for self-regulation susceptibility to peer pressure online expressions of offline behaviours: o clique-forming o sexual experimentation and sexting o cyber-bullying o privacy issue o internet addiction o sleep deprivation Social media can be a good friend however even much worse enemy, to us, to our kids, to youth and we need to know about it, control it and react to prevent ourselves. By pediatrics, to reduce the risks of social networking on youth, adults should guide them in their beginnings with Internet so that in the future they will become capable of making safe and responsible decisions on their own and we will know that our young population is safe. The key element to stop spreading of cyber-bullying, sexting and other issues linked with use of social media, is in the hands of parents. Parents need to be aware of risks of social media and its negative impacts and have to make sure that they know about online activities of their teenagers. Foreword We would like to use this opportunity and thank to our tutor Miss. José Kooken. This research wouldn‟t be done without your help and advices. We hope that our research will help adults and young to understand risks of social media and how to prevent their impacts. 2
    • INDEX Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 4 Problem statement ........................................................................................................ 5 Methodological justification Results ...................................................................................... 5 ................................................................................................................................ 6 Reference list .................................................................................................................. 14 Attachments .................................................................................................................... 16 3
    • Introduction We cannot deny that social media has taken over conventional media in the world today. We can easily see that they have impacts on our society. Social media is changing the way we interact, share and communicate, however it's not necessarily improving these aspects of our society. True to be told, social media can have the exact opposite effect. Whether it's minimizing face to face interaction, breaching our society's privacy and internet bullying social media are having a huge impact on today's society. Not just impact on ourselves, but more concerning impact on youth. That‟s the reason, why we have chosen this topic. We need to protect young generation and help them to become strong and healthy human being. So next time when we're logging onto our Facebook, MySpace, Twitter or any other social network, why not to take a minute and ask ourselves: 'How is social media impacting me?' Because maybe if we can answer question about ourselves, we will be able to protect the others, especially the teenagers. 4
    • Problem statement The aim of this work is to guide through the negative impacts of social media to just better understand their influence on ours youth in the age of 12 – 19, as the most vulnerable group of users of social media. We had set main question and some sub questions to guide potential reader of this work to have some “mind food” about social media and their negative influence. In our research we are going to answer following main question: How pediatrics evaluate the inordinate use of social media like MySpace and Facebook on teenagers from 12 – 19 years old in U.S.A? To achieve quality results we are going to answer next sub questions to get to the source of the problem. 1. 2. 3. 4. Briefly overview the most negative impacts of social media on society. Negative effects of social media on the brain How is affected the mental health of teenagers? What can parents do to prevent the risks of social media on youth? Methodological justification We used some databases for finding scientist articles about our topic. Databases were namely: Google Scholar, LexisNexis Academic, Scientific Journals and Springer. Selected keywords were: negative impacts, social media, youth, teenagers, pediatrics, and health risks. Quantitative research method was used to find all information needed for our topic. It was used all sources and databases, so we had over 20 articles to use for qualitative research method. We selected and summarized the most important risks and issues linked to issue of use social networks by youth from the most valuable sources, which were used as a results of our research. 5
    • Results Brief overview of negative impacts of social media on society We could discuss for very long time about pro and cons of social media however the aim of this research is to show and provide high spectrum of information about negative impacts of usage of social media. The aim of this article is to reveal danger for teenagers, however to get some background for our topic, we are going to show very briefly, that social media can negatively affects every one of us. Because the topic is too wide, we would like to point out just the most negative impacts such as: - Lacking communication skills According to Rodrigo Campodonico (2012), one of the negative impacts is that social media has contributed to a downward slope in communication skills. Various factors involved in social network communication are having a negative impact on people's communication skills. For example the amount restriction of characters forcing us to express ourselves in as few words as possible, or the option to edit our comments diminishing spontaneity. This negative impact of social media has specifically been proved in communication between teenagers. While teenagers spend more and more time chatting through computers or cell phones, face to face conversation are becoming less common loosing quality real time, face to face interaction. It refers to these social network relationships as 'electronic relationships' and states that they're not the same as real relationships, affecting our ability to differ for example acquaintances and genuine friendships. - Addiction to social media According to Elizabeth Koikai (2013), another issue is "social network addiction" explaining the amount of time we are spending on social media and most important of all, the dependency we're acquiring to it can compare to that of a drug addict to its respective drug. Another example of the negative impact of communication through social media can be seen in the recent England Riots. As social media can reach masses in a fast manner, social networks were used to organize riots which ended in wreckage of property and injuries, according to Gavin Stamp (2011). - A false sense of connection According to Cornell University's Steven Strogatz, social media sites can make it make it more difficult for us to distinguish between the meaningful relationships we foster in the real world, and the numerous casual relationships formed through social media. By focusing so much of our time and psychic energy on these less meaningful relationships, our most important connections, he fears, will weaken. - Cyber-bullying According to Jung B. (n.d.), the immediacy provided by social media is available to predators as well as friends. Kids especially are vulnerable to the practice of cyber-bullying in which the perpetrators, anonymously or even posing as people their victims trust, terrorize individuals in front of their peers. The devastation of these online attacks can leave deep mental scars. In several well-publicized cases, victims have even been driven to suicide. 6
    • - Decreased productivity While many businesses use social networking sites to find and communicate with clients, the sites can also prove a great distraction to employees who may show more interest in what their friends are posting than in their work tasks. (Jung, B. (n.d.)) - Privacy Social networking sites encourage people to be more public about their personal lives. Because intimate details of our lives can be posted so easily, users are prone to bypass the filters they might normally employ when talking about their private lives. What's more, the things they post remain available indefinitely. (Jung, B. (n.d.), Hatter, K. (n.d) & Melissa De Zwart, David Lindsay, Michael Henderson and Michael Phillips, 2011) - Constant comparison with others We all look at each other‟s social media sites and statutes, admiring clothes, lifestyles and even relationships. But when it comes down to it, people mostly tend to share only the most glittering highlights from their lives, deliberately leaving out the black ones. But this is not taken into consideration when people start comparing their lives to others and they end up feeling miserable which can at times even lead to low self-esteem, and depression. (Jung, B (n.d.)) - Distraction One of the major disadvantage of social media is the distraction which is caused in everyday lives. Many of us can‟t go an hour without checking for updates and new messages and this is likely to cause us distraction from what‟s really important in our life. Instead of focusing on work, school and family, we spend majority of our time online looking for the next juicy status update, headline or photo. (Jung, B (n.d.)) 1) Negative effects of social media on the brain a. It might make you spend more money. As a recent research indicates the intensive usage of social media produces a decreased of our self-control, which experts believe could lead to higher spending. According to Columbia University Professor Keith Wilcox, the way you counteract this is by raising your self-awareness. It's not about don't spend time on Facebook, but just be aware of what it might be doing to you." b. It alters your appetite. Research which has been done by Women's Health proved that "food porn" photos can activate the brain's reward center and persuade viewers to overeat; that even looking at food images after a meal can trigger hunger. c. It messes with your ability to think independently. HP Labs found that people were more open to peer pressure within social networks. 7
    • People is more likely to change their minds about "liking" some things and posts if they see that it is popular. d. It hurts your self-esteem. According to latest research, one of three people feels worse ("lonely, frustrated or angry") after spending time on Facebook, often due to perceived deficiencies when comparing themselves to friends. (Damon Beres, (n.d) & Lindsey Tugman, 2013.) 2) How is affected the mental health of teenagers? When teenager‟s use social media there are some positive and negatives aspects included that we must consider. Negative aspects can produce some disorders on their psychology and behavior. For teens, social networking is part and a train for life. It is because they post information and see the reaction in others. One advantage is that it can help shy teens to express themselves in a comfortable way. (Jordan K.Turgeon; 2011) While more than 4 in 5 (82 %) online teens ages 14-17 use online social networks, just a bit more than half of online teens ages 12-13 say they use the sites. (Amanda Lenhart, Kristen Purcell, Aaron Smith & Kathtyn Zickuhr) According to Larry D. Rosen, 2011 the principal problems that can have teenagers on their mental helth it could be: - Narcissism The use of social media doesn‟t necessarily cause narcissism but it can increase alreadyexisting symptoms. “For example, if someone prone to narcissistic behavior posts a status, and 20 people respond with their comments, the problem is perpetuated.” - Anxiety and depression According to Rosen‟s studies children who use more overall media can have problems with depression and anxiety. - Task switching It could be a problem if children can‟t concentrate in only one task and do it properly. 3) What can parents do to prevent the risks of social media on youth? Many teens usually spend sleepless nights on social media without the knowledge of their parents. The disruption of sleep has had adverse effects on the teens. It has led to cases of insomnia, mood swings, attention deficits at school and increased obesity just to mention a few. Three major issues of lacking parents awareness 1) Parents are unaware of the issues involved in the online connections. While kids are plugged in to social media, only about 40% of parents are involved themselves. Parents may 8
    • not be aware of their children‟s “pages” and don‟t fully understand privacy policies and they don‟t realize what kinds of public postings are taking place, involving their children. 2) Parents don‟t want to interfere in their children‟s social lives. Most parents want their children to be popular, accepted and enjoy a happy social life. Parents want to allow their children to be as connected as the other kids they associate with, and so they tell themselves that everything is ok. 3) Parents are afraid to take a stand. Many of “modern” parents are becoming apathetic to the real dangers that too much social media can present to their children. They don‟t want to push their teens away and so they allow their participation in social media to go unchecked rather than make a “big deal” out of it. These problems created by social media are not going away and will be growing. Parents have to get involved. Parents have the responsibility to protect their children and be aware of what is happening in their online world. How to prevent your kids Investigate and help your child set up privacy settings. Be aware of who can see what they post, and what is being posted about them. Talk with them about online safety. Make sure that your youth have plenty of offline time as well. Restrict the times and frequency of online interaction. Place all phones in the docking station at night where they are required to stay until everyone leaves for work and school in the morning. Consider allowing siblings to share a phone they can “checks out” from mom or dad. Create family-determined “unplugged” hours when children can participate in other activities such as outdoor games, reading, talking, playing together, etc. Social media has a tremendous effect on us today, but with parental participation and kids‟ cooperation, the effects can be positive for everyone. How pediatrics evaluate the inordinate use of social media like MySpace and Facebook on teenagers from 12 – 19 years old in U.S.A? According to Danah Boyd (The role of networked publics in teenage social life, 2007), online social networks like MySpace, Facebook or twitter became common destinations for teenagers in the United States in last years. The whole country experienced, how young people were logging in, creating complex profiles, publicly articulating their relationships with other participants, and writing extensive comments back and forth. These social networks developed significant cultural and sociological influence amongst American teens in a short period of time. “If you‟re not on MySpace, you don‟t exist” Skyler, 18, to her mom “I'm in the 7th grade. I'm 13. I'm not a cheerleader. I'm not the president of the student body. Or captain of the debate team. I'm not the prettiest girl in my class. I'm not the most popular girl in my class. I'm just a kid. I'm a little shy. And it's really hard in this school to impress people enough to be your friend if you're not any of those things. 9
    • But I go on these really great vacations with my parents between Christmas and New Year's every year. And I take pictures of places we go. And I write about those places. And I post this on my Xanga. Because I think if kids in school read what I have to say and how I say it, they'll want to be my friend.” Vivien, 13, to Parry Aftab during a “Teen Angels “Just because I‟m on the computer at 2:30am, doesn‟t mean I‟m up to no good. Like last night (my mom) comes in and yells at me to go to bed. When I don‟t, she is all „well what are you doing, show me what you‟re doing.‟ Of course I was lurking Facebook profiles, cause there is nothing better to do, but that‟s annoying to explain, she wouldn‟t understand.” Pam, 17 From our point of the view, it is very important to develop a better understanding of those technologies and their impact on young population. Because of teenager‟s limited capacity for self-regulation and disposition to peer pressure, they are at some risk as they navigate and experiment with social media. Recent paediatrics‟ research indicates that there are often online expressions of offline behaviours as well as negative impacts on mental health hand in hand with lacking of communication skills. (O'Keeffe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011) For all those reasons, it is important, that parents will become aware of the effects of social media sites, given that they are not healthy environments for children and adolescents. Based on research of Youth work and social networking final report (NYA, 2008), teenagers in the U.S.A. are using social media for: Keeping in touch with friends and kith and kin; 
 Developing new contacts; Sharing content, engaging in self-expression and exploring identity;
 Hanging out and consuming content; Accessing information and informal learning; 
 Participating in informal groups and engagement opportunities. O'Keeffe and Clarke-Pearson (The impact of social media on children, adolescents and families 2011) did research amongst youth of age between 12 -17 about usage of technology in the U.S.A. The results were: 78 % of teens have a cell phone (almost 50 % from that number were smartphones); 23 % of teens have a tablet computer, a level comparable to the general adult population; 95 % of teens use the internet; 93 % of teens have a computer or have access to one at home. Various number of reports were done on that topic, however Chris Crosby (The effects of social media on teenagers, 2012) suggests that about 83 % of American youth use their phones for email, mobile internet and texting. His research further states, that these American teens send and receive text messages 144 times a day. If the teens are not texting, they are usually on social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace or Twitter where they chat, share photos and video and participate in gaming. There is no doubt, that social media sites have got positive influence on youth. From the view of pediatrics (O'Keeffe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011), social media can have a positive effect to teenagers such as staying connected with friends and family, making new friends, sharing 10
    • pictures, and exchanging ideas. Social media participation also can offer teenagers deeper benefits that extend into their view of self, community, and the world. However the negative impacts of social media on youth are more serious. Chou et al. (Social Media Use in the United States: Implications for Health Communication, 2009) in their research pointed out, that using of social media becomes a risk to adolescents more often than most adults realize. Paediatricians are in a unique position to help to understand impacts of social media and to encourage healthy use and persuade parents to monitor social networks activity of their teenagers for potential problems connected with social networks. Based on their research, most risks fall into the following categories: peer-to-peer; inappropriate content; lack of understanding of online privacy issues and outside influences of third-party advertising groups. Paediatricians are able to help parents to understand, that what is happening online is an extension of those issues mentioned above and that parents can be the most helpful if they can understand the core of issues and have strategies for dealing with them whether they take place online, offline, or, increasingly last months, both. According to O'Keeffe & Clarke-Pearson (2011) or Ybarra & Mitchell (2008), inordinate use of social media of teenagers is characterized by and can lead to: limited capacity for self-regulation susceptibility to peer pressure online expressions of offline behaviours: o clique-forming o sexual experimentation and sexting o cyber-bullying o privacy issue o internet addiction o sleep deprivation Based on the pediatrics´ research (Danah Boyd, 2007 or Crosby, 2012 as well as O'Keeffe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011), the most important negative issues connected with use of social media on teenagers are: Cyberbullying “Cyber-bullying is deliberately using digital media to communicate false, embarrassing, or hostile information about another person. It is the most common online risk for all teens and is a peer-to-peer risk.” Cyber-bullying is unfortunately quite common, can occur to any young person online, and can cause psychosocial outcomes including depression, anxiety, severe isolation, and, tragically, suicide. (Crosby, 2012) Cyber-bullying is the biggest danger of social media, especially in the recent years. Just in 2013, two 13 years old girls died because of cyber-bullying. Sexting 11
    • Sexting can be defined as “sending, receiving, or forwarding sexually explicit messages, photographs, or images via cell phone, computer, or other digital devices.” (O'Keeffe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011) This new phenomenon occurs among the young population. Recent survey revealed, that 20 % of teens have sent or posted nude or semi-nude photographs or videos of themselves. There is another risk for teenagers and that is to be threatened or charged with felony child pornography charges, although some states have started characterizing such behaviours as juvenile-law misdemeanours. (Ybarra et al., 2008) Facebook Depression “Facebook depression” is defined as depression which is developed, when teenagers spend a great deal of time on social media sites, such as Facebook, and then begin to exhibit classic symptoms of depression. Acceptance by and contact with peers is an important element of adolescent life. The intensity of the online world is thought to be a factor that may trigger depression in some adolescents. As with offline depression, preadolescents and adolescents who suffer from Facebook depression are at risk for social isolation and sometimes turn to risky Internet sites and blogs for “help” that may promote substance abuse, unsafe sexual practices, or aggressive or self-destructive behaviours. (Danah Boyd, 2007) 12
    • Conclusion In this paper we have answered several sub-questions and a main-question about social networking issues and we can conclude that teenagers are the most affected by social networks. As a Kaiser Family Foundation study (Generation M2, 2010) shows, the three most popular computer activities among teens are social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook, playing computer games, and watching videos YouTube. The increasing use of Smartphone has increased the importance of social networks. Now young people are connected all day wherever they are. More than 93 % of teens between 12-19 years old in the United States use the Internet regularly, and the 73 % of them use social networking communities. Social media and its unordinary use affects whole social community, it has got negative impacts on the brain as well as on mental health. In our research we found out, that the biggest effects and risks of social media on youth by pediatrics are: limited capacity for self-regulation susceptibility to peer pressure online expressions of offline behaviours: o clique-forming o sexual experimentation and sexting o cyber-bullying o privacy issue o internet addiction o sleep deprivation To protect teenagers from these risks of social networking, pediatricians advice to parents that they should have more control over their children; monitor social networks activity of their teenagers for potential problems connected with social networks; be aware of who can see what they post, and what is being posted about them; talk with them about online safety; restrict the times and frequency of online interaction. To reduce the risks of social networking on youth, adults should guide them in their beginnings with Internet so that in the future they will become capable of making safe and responsible decisions on their own and we will know that our young population is safe. Social media can be a good friend however even much worse enemy, to us, to our kids, to youth and we need to know about it, control it and react to prevent ourselves. 13
    • Reference list AMANDA LENHART, KRISTEN PURCELL, AARON SMITH and KATHRYN ZICKUHR. “Social Media & Mobile Internet Use Among Teens and Young Adults” Pew Internet & American Life Project February. 2010 http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media/Files/Reports/2010/PIP_Social_Media_and_Young_Adul ts_Report_Final_with_toplines.pdf BOYD, DANAH. “Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life.” (2007) MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Learning – Youth, Identity, and Digital Media Volume (ed. David Buckingham). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. BRIAN JUNG. The Negative Effect of Social Media on Society and Individuals. [online]. (n.d.) http://smallbusiness.chron.com/negative-effect-social-media-society-individuals-27617.html CHOU, Wen-ying Sylvia, Yvonne M HUNT, Ellen Burke BECKJORD, Richard P MOSER a Bradford W HESSE. Social Media Use in the United States: Implications for Health Communication. Journal of Medical Internet Research [online]. 2009, vol. 11, issue 4, e48[cit. 2013-10-22]. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.1249. Available: http://www.jmir.org/2009/4/e48/ CROSBY, Chris. The Effecs of Social Media on Teenagers. In: SociallyActive [online]. 2012. vyd. [cit. 2013-10-22]. Available: http://sociallyactive.com/social-media-effect/ DAMON BERES. 5 Weird Negative Effects of Social Media on Your Brain. [online]. (n.d.) http://www.rd.com/slideshows/negative-effects-of-social-media/#slideshow=slide1 ELIZABETH KOIKAI. The Negative Impact of Social Media on our lives. In: current affairs & debate [online]. 2013. http://themoose.no/2013/05/08/the-negative-impact-of-social-mediaon-our-lives/ GAVIN STAMP. English riots: Social media were „force for good‟. [online]. 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-14931010 Kathryn Hatter. What Is the Danger of Teen Networking?. [online]. (n.d.)http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/danger-teen-networking-2237.html LINDSEY TUGMAN. 4 negative effects of social media. [online]. 2013. http://www.thv11.com/news/article/276713/143/4-negative-effects-of-social-mediaMELISSA DE ZWART, DAVID LINDSAY, MICHAEL HENDERSON and MICHAEL PHILLIPS. Teenagers, Legal Risks and Social Networking Sites. Pg 71. 2011. Available: http://newmediaresearch.educ.monash.edu.au/lnmrg/sites/default/files/SNSandRisks_REPO RT.pdf O'KEEFFE, G. S. a K. CLARKE-PEARSON. The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families. PEDIATRICS [online]. 2011-04-01, vol. 127, issue 4, s. 800-804 [cit. 2013-10-22]. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-0054. Available: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2011-0054 Part of a conversation from December 2004 that motivated Parry Aftab (Executive Director of Wired Safety) to help teens use social network sites safely; story shared by one of her “Teen Angels” (n.d) (http://www.teenangels.com) Passionate. Ultra-fast release cycles and the new plane. (n.d) http://headrush.typepad.com/creating_passionate_users/2006/03/ultrafast_relea.html 14
    • RODRIGO CAMPODONICO. Negative Effects On Communication Skills. [online]. 2012. http://worldissuesnz.blogspot.nl/ RUDD, ANDY. Hannah Smith suicide: Teenager used Ask.fm in secret after being banned from going on it by worried father. [online] (2013) http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uknews/hannah-smith-suicide-teenager-used-2184385 SociallyActive. The effects of social media on teenagers. (2012) Retrieved from http://sociallyactive.com/social-media-effect/ The Impact of Social Media. In: Youth Work and Social Networking Final Report: NYA [online]. 2008. vyd. [cit. 2013-10-22]. Available: http://www.practicalparticipation.co.uk/yes/what/what_does_it_change VICTORIA J. RIDEOUT, M.A., ULLA G. FOEHR, PH.D., AND DONALD F. ROBERTS, PH.D. (Kaiser family foundation study). “Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds” [online]. January 2010 http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/8010.pdf VIVIAN VAHLBERG. Fitting into their lives [online]. 2010. http://www.americanpressinstitute.org/docs/Foundation/Research/Fitting_into_their_lives.pdf YBARRA, M. L., K. J. MITCHELL, Ellen Burke BECKJORD, Richard P MOSER a Bradford W HESSE. How Risky Are Social Networking Sites? A Comparison of Places Online Where Youth Sexual Solicitation and Harassment Occurs: Implications for Health Communication. PEDIATRICS [online]. 2008-01-28, vol. 121, issue 2, e350-e357 [cit. 201310-22]. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-0693. Available: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2007-0693 15
    • Research plan Our problem statement Negative impact of social media as MySpace and Facebook on teenagers in the U.S.A. Main question How pediatrics evaluate the inordinate use of social media like MySpace and Facebook on teenagers from 12 – 19 years old in U.S.A? Sub-questions For answering the problem statement, we will use the following sub question: 1. What are the biggest risks for youth (12 – 19) using social media? Definition of our subject The goal of our research is to analyze impacts of inordinate use of social media from the view of pedestrians. Research will be concentrated on U.S.A. market and main social networks like Facebook and MySpace and their influence on personal development and main possible health risks on youth (12 -19 year old). Research is very actual and its main asset is to uncover dark side of social networks reflecting possible risks for youth users. The U.S.A. market has been chosen as a main market for this research, however usage of social networks is global and that‟s our research can be used for understanding such a concerning topic globally. The research will be done in the period of 2006- 2013. A time frame of 7 years. Keywords The keywords we will be using are: Social networks Facebook MySpace Health problems Internet Pediatrics U.S.A. inordinate use Teenagers Youth Risks Diseases Negative impact Similarities The period 2006 - 2013 (7 years) Period The research will be done in the period from 21st of September to the 30th of October 2013. 16
    • Sources Databases We will use the following databases: Scientific Journals Lexis Nexis Academic WorldCat Springer Publications and literature We will search for publications in above databases and on Google Scholar and Google Books and Springer. Practices We will use some examples of real life tragedies which happened in our time frame from mass media to show practical aspects of our research. Search engines Name Databases: Google Scholar, LexisNexis Academic, Scientific Journals, Springer Selected keywords: negative impacts, social media, youth, teenagers, health risks Key articles Title Journal Author The Impact Online of Social article Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life Online article DOI Gwenn 10.1542/peds.2011-0054 Schurgin O'Keeffe, Kathleen ClarkePearson Danah Boyd Year Volume 2011 127 Number Pages 4 10.1162/dmal.978026252483 2007 Unknown 16 17 7 26
    • Search in catalogues, databases, Internet Title The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families Author Gwenn Schurgin O'Keeffe, Kathleen ClarkePearson ISBN/DOI 10.1542/peds.2011-0054 Year 1 2011 Y 2 3 Y Y 4 5 Y Y Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life Social Media & Mobile Internet Use Among Teens and Young Adults How Risky Are Social Networking Sites? A Comparison of Places Online Where Youth Sexual Solicitation and Harassment Occurs: Implications for Health Communication. Teenagers, Legal Risks and Social Networking Sites Social Media Use in the United States: Implications for Health Communication Y = yes, N = no Danah Boyd 10.1162/dmal.978026252483 2007 Y Y Y Y N Y Amanda Lenhart et al. Not to be found 2010 N Y N Y Y M. L. Ybarra DOI: 10.1542/peds.20070693 2008 Y Y Y Y N Y Melissa de Zwart et al. ISBN: 978-0-646-55345-0 2011 Y Y Y Y Y W. Chou et. al. DOI: 10.2196/jmir.1249 2009 Y Y Y Y N Y 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Leading journal? Renowned publisher? Leading author? Content Up to date publication? Relevant publication? 18 6 Y Y Y
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