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For the people that are in the Grade 12 International Law Class taught by Ms. Roti, here is the 26 Page power-point for Chapter 2.

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  1. 1. Historical Development of Law
  2. 2. ANCIENT TRIBAL SOCIETIES <ul><li>small bands of hunters; few people </li></ul><ul><li>developed standards of behaviour that would allow them to live in peace with each other </li></ul><ul><li>few rules; not written down; passed on by word of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>no official punishment; fear of being outcast </li></ul><ul><li>common punishment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Babylonian Influence <ul><li>Developed over thousands of years </li></ul><ul><li>- first known written law </li></ul><ul><li>- Code of Hammurabi </li></ul><ul><li>- King Hammurabi,1728 - 1686 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>a. Advanced society </li></ul><ul><li>- unique laws to control / guide </li></ul><ul><li>- derived from the Gods </li></ul><ul><li>- directing Hammurabi </li></ul><ul><li>Dealt with : </li></ul><ul><li>- administrative / domestic / criminal issues </li></ul><ul><li>- laws directed towards children </li></ul>Hammurabi and Shamash – God of Justice
  4. 4. King Hammurabi <ul><li>many laws came into effect because Babylon had become a successful trading centre – a complex society – and many people traveled through the area </li></ul><ul><li>too many laws for people to remember </li></ul><ul><li>the King had the laws carved into stone pillars and placed in the centre of the temple where everyone could see them </li></ul>
  5. 5. But… <ul><li>these laws were very harsh </li></ul><ul><li>they followed the “eye for an eye” principle </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. “If a man has struck his father, his hand shall be cut off.” </li></ul><ul><li>too severe </li></ul><ul><li>no distinction between a deliberate and accidental act </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes the innocent were unfairly punished </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. “If a man kills the daughter of another man, then his daughter shall also be killed </li></ul>The Problem…
  6. 6. Egyptian Influence <ul><li>religion was important in earlier societies; people lived in fear of disobeying their gods </li></ul><ul><li>for many centuries, the ruler and the priest (or religious leader) operated independently of one another </li></ul><ul><li>around 3000 BCE religion and government came together </li></ul><ul><li>the pharaoh served both roles and was seen as the link between the gods and the subjects </li></ul><ul><li>people had a religious duty as well as a civic duty to obey the laws </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>- highly developed society </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Pharaoh descendent of gods </li></ul><ul><li>- word was law </li></ul><ul><li>(b) the laws of ancient Egypt were at least partially codified </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Egypt: first court system </li></ul><ul><li>- overseers: aristocracy / priests </li></ul><ul><li>(d) no legal advocates – parties presented arguements </li></ul>Egyptian law Ma'at - symbol of truth, order, balance and justice
  8. 8. Egyptian Criminal Law <ul><li>Pharaoh decided most important cases or appointed a special commission with full authority to pass judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stolen or embezzled goods – return goods with fine twice their value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corporal punishment – 100 strokes by cane; in more serious cases bleeding cuts added or branding (sign of permanent dishonour) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exile to Nubia or Western Oasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sent to labour in distant mines or quarries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mutiliations (hands, tongue, noses, ears) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capital punishment (on a stake, burnt alive, drowned, decapitation) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Hebrew or Mosaic Law (1500 B.C.E.) <ul><li>based on : The Ten Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>God presented these laws to Moses on top of Mount Sinai (according to the Book of Exodus in the Bible). </li></ul><ul><li>These laws were the laws of God, given to Moses who had the right to interpret them and rule on disputes; people had little input </li></ul><ul><li>Still the :eye for an eye” principle </li></ul>
  10. 10. Better legal situation because: <ul><ul><li>laws were less harsh compared to preceding laws under the Code of Hammurabi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punishment was now directed at the guilty and protected the innocent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distinguished between an accident and a deliberate act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there was a real relationship between obedience to the law and one’s relationship with God </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Greek Influence <ul><li>Draco – 620 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>lawgiver – homicide 1 st known written law </li></ul><ul><li>reputation of being extremely severe with his punishments </li></ul><ul><li>death penalty </li></ul><ul><li>Solon – 549 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>created many new laws </li></ul><ul><li>kept exile as punishment for homicide as Draco had </li></ul><ul><li>created 4 categories of law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul></ul>Law givers were not rulers or kings – appointed officials whose job was to write laws
  12. 12. Courts and Judicial System <ul><li>Greek Courts </li></ul><ul><li>cheap and run by amateurs </li></ul><ul><li>officials paid little and trials completed in a day </li></ul><ul><li>no lawyers and no official judges </li></ul><ul><li>normal case – 2 litigants arguing their case; audience or jury vote for one </li></ul><ul><li>side ; vote either guilty or innocence; then vote on punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Areiopagos </li></ul><ul><li>homicide court </li></ul><ul><li>made up of former archons or magistrates – court officials </li></ul><ul><li>Eleven – 11 member board of archons – in charge of prisoners & </li></ul><ul><li> executions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>right to arrest any criminal denounced to them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>could execute any criminal caught in the act ( ep autophoro ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>split into 4 types of courts ruled over by 51 members - ephetai </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prutaneion – tries cases of death caused by animal or inanimate objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palladion – involuntary homicide & killing of non-citizens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delphinion – justifiable homicide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phreatto – while in banishment for involuntary homicide – charged with </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>murder or intent to cause harm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Dikastic Courts </li></ul><ul><li>heard every kind of case </li></ul><ul><li>public prosecutions = graphe = a written indictment </li></ul><ul><li>private prosecutions = dike = prosecution </li></ul><ul><li>had power to decide the law, the facts & pass sentence </li></ul><ul><li>potential dikastes – must be full citizens, at least 30 years old </li></ul><ul><li>6000 fully qualified citizens took oath </li></ul><ul><li>normal case – dikastes = 500 members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private cases 200 to 400 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>verdict – vote for one or the other </li></ul><ul><li>no appeals  decision final </li></ul>
  14. 14. Roman Influence <ul><li>Roman Empire replaced Greek power </li></ul><ul><li>as society grew, there was a need for more laws </li></ul><ul><li>so…. there was a need to train people who could learn about the laws, and to interpret them </li></ul><ul><li>these were the forerunners of our LAWYERS </li></ul><ul><li>the Emperor at this time, Justinian, simplified and organized the laws. They were codified in the JUSTINIAN CODE </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Twelve Tables (451 – 449 BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the earliest written legislation of ancient Roman law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 bronze tablets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>displayed in central place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Justinian Code (527-565 CE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>written under direction of Roman Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justinian (483 – 565 CE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>set foundation for modern legal system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>code divided into 4 parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Institutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Digest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Novels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punishment – more humane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ community services” introduced </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Christian Influence <ul><li>British Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans occupied Britain for about 400 years (still some influence in law) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans left and the Anglo-Saxons invaded Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxons (4 th – 10 th centuries) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established the same rules throughout the land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land was the most valuable item in this society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land was divided into: 34 shrines or province </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shire courts – met twice per year; decided about land titles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into: Hundreds of counties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>County courts – met once per month; tried serious criminal offences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of: Towns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Town courts – met three times per year to deal with local offences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws were, for a long time, unwritten , and were based on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CUSTOMS and TRADITIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Law but no equity: law for all common people but didn’t apply to the upper class or the king </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Norman Influence 11 th Century <ul><li>William I (1066-1087) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten Articles of William the Conqueror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intent: clarify his position as conqueror </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>outline his position on certain legal issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>introduced feudalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>first reference to trial – Wager of law -> combat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 distinct courts: Baron, Church, King </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 institutions developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oath helper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheriff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>In situations where guilt or innocence was undecided by the courts, a direct appeal was made to God. </li></ul><ul><li>It was believed that if a person was subjected to a physically painful or dangerous test, God would intervene and thus determine the guilt or innocence of the accused: TRIAL BY ORDEAL </li></ul><ul><li>Trial by Combat: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight with accuser </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trial by Water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accused bound and thrown in pond. If accused floated, was considered guilty and executed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If accused sank, was considered innocent and presumably rescued </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trial by Hot Irons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burns infected = guilty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trial by Bread and Cheese: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaks clearly = not guilty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In all trials, God protects the innocent </li></ul><ul><li>Used Compurgators – someone who testifies in favour of or vouches for another </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>By 11th century, COMMON LAW was established </li></ul><ul><li>traveling judges went form shrine to shrine and attempted to decide similar cases alike or in a COMMON way </li></ul><ul><li>Common law establishes PRECEDENT which is a principle used today. </li></ul>Henry I (1100 -1135 ) <ul><li>Henry II (1154 – 1189) </li></ul><ul><li>growth of common law & streamlining of legal procedures </li></ul>
  20. 20. History <ul><li>a. William the Conqueror (1066) </li></ul><ul><li>- developed Anglo-Saxon law </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Reeve of the Shire (12 th century) </li></ul><ul><li>- King’s enforcement officer </li></ul><ul><li>- police / judge / executioner </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Developed an accusatory system </li></ul><ul><li>- 12 freemen appointed </li></ul><ul><li>- made accusations </li></ul><ul><li>- became our jury of 12 </li></ul>
  21. 21. History <ul><li>b. Roman civil law </li></ul><ul><li>- integrated with English traditions </li></ul><ul><li>(1) King’s court </li></ul><ul><li>- dealt with common law </li></ul><ul><li>- criminal and civil matters </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Church courts </li></ul><ul><li>- dealt with canon law </li></ul><ul><li>- family and church matters </li></ul>
  22. 22. History <ul><li>(3) England: canon law / civil law </li></ul><ul><li>- developed into ‘common law’ </li></ul><ul><li>- King Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Judges replaced sheriff as court official </li></ul><ul><li>- traveled throughout a Shire </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Judges made law </li></ul><ul><li>- decisions became common </li></ul><ul><li>- followed each other’s rulings </li></ul><ul><li>- became known as “common law” </li></ul>
  23. 23. History <ul><li>c. Landowners / aristocrats </li></ul><ul><li>- based rules on king’s law </li></ul><ul><li>- nobility revolted </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Magna Carta – 1215 </li></ul><ul><li>- Great Charter (Latin) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Established laws of England </li></ul><ul><li>(3) US Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>- modeled after Magna Carta </li></ul>
  24. 24. History <ul><li>(4) 18 th century England </li></ul><ul><li>- becoming an industrialized society </li></ul><ul><li>- new business / technology </li></ul><ul><li>- new laws to manage </li></ul><ul><li>(a) United States of America </li></ul><ul><li>- struggling </li></ul><ul><li>- to form a new government </li></ul><ul><li>Law in the new America </li></ul>
  25. 25. History <ul><li>- common law of England </li></ul><ul><li>- adapted to Continental United States </li></ul><ul><li>a. Principles of common law </li></ul><ul><li>- still in effect </li></ul><ul><li>- left intact where did not interfere with state / </li></ul><ul><li> federal law (1990s) </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Never legislated </li></ul><ul><li>- accepted practice by the courts </li></ul><ul><li>- have codified common law </li></ul>
  26. 26. History <ul><li>b. Federalism </li></ul><ul><li>- federalist form of government </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Union of states </li></ul><ul><li>- under a federal government </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Two or more levels </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Federal </li></ul><ul><li>- provides certain services </li></ul><ul><li>- protection / taxes / representation </li></ul>
  27. 27. History <ul><li>(b) State </li></ul><ul><li>- provides certain services </li></ul><ul><li>- highways / schools / taxes </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Local </li></ul><ul><li>- provides certain services </li></ul><ul><li>- garbage / fire / taxes </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Based on common law </li></ul><ul><li>- unwritten law </li></ul><ul><li>- follow precedent / make up new law </li></ul>
  28. 28. History <ul><li>(a) Doctrine of Stare Decisis </li></ul><ul><li>- “ let the decision stand ” </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Unwritten laws that were appealed </li></ul><ul><li>- became “ case law ” </li></ul><ul><li>- which is written law </li></ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>- first governing document </li></ul><ul><li>- combined 13 colonies </li></ul><ul><li>- into a loose confederation </li></ul>
  29. 29. History <ul><li>a. Ratified </li></ul><ul><li>- March 1, 1781 </li></ul><ul><li>b. Replaced by the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>- June 21, 1788 </li></ul>