Maps And Places


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A powerpoint slide show given at Keele University's Geography Booster Course to the 2007/8 PGCE students.

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Maps And Places

  1. 1. “ Humans must rise above the Earth… to the top of the atmosphere and beyond. For only thus will we understand the world in which we live.” Socrates, 400 BC You are here
  2. 2. Learning Objectives – Session 1 <ul><li>By the end of this session you will have learnt: </li></ul><ul><li>The relevance of maps an places in the curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>All about the ‘vital statistics’ of planet Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>What maps are and a range of different types of maps. </li></ul><ul><li>How the earth is projected onto a world map. </li></ul>See… Maps and Places Rationale
  3. 3. What is the relevance? <ul><li>“ The study of geography should particularly aim at leading pupils to…acquire a framework of knowledge about locations and places that will help them set local, national and international events within context, and that will support their development of Geographical understanding.” (DfES) </li></ul><ul><li>The NC requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Children should learn the essential skills of map reading/use. </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s locational knowledge is not formally assessed. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of support for children’s cognitive development. </li></ul><ul><li>3 Key elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map competence – ability to locate places/features on map/globe/atlas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of personal world - Local Cognitive map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of significant places/features nationally/globally – Global Cognitive Map built up through study/experiences. </li></ul></ul>See Appendix for ‘ COMMON problems with learning about maps and places…’
  4. 4. The Earth Ball <ul><li>When you catch the Earth Ball… </li></ul><ul><li>State your name … and choose ONE place/feature in the world that BEST sums up YOU. Be prepared to offer a brief explanation ! </li></ul>
  5. 5. The World’s Easiest Quiz <ul><li>A bit of confidence boosting now… 13 Questions (unlucky for some) </li></ul><ul><li>Which animal are the Canary Island named after? </li></ul><ul><li>From which country do Panama hats originate? </li></ul><ul><li>From which animal do we get catgut? </li></ul><ul><li>From where do we get Chinese gooseberries? </li></ul><ul><li>From what is a camel-hair brush made? </li></ul><ul><li>Where was Patrick Patron Saint of Ireland born? </li></ul><ul><li>Where was Indian dish chicken tikka masala invented? </li></ul><ul><li>Where was India Ink invented? </li></ul><ul><li>What colour is most of Greenland? </li></ul><ul><li>From which part of the British Isles did the Scots originate? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do Turks originally come from? </li></ul><ul><li>In which country was the sport baseball invented? </li></ul><ul><li>Where in the world did turkeys originate? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Answers: The World’s Easiest Quiz <ul><li>Which animal are the Canary Island named after? Isle of Dogs </li></ul><ul><li>From which country do Panama hats originate? Equador </li></ul><ul><li>From which animal do we get catgut? Sheep and Horses </li></ul><ul><li>From where do we get Chinese gooseberries? New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>From what is a camel-hair brush made? Squirrel fur </li></ul><ul><li>Where was Patrick Patron Saint of Ireland born? Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Where was Indian dish chicken tikka masala invented? Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Where was India Ink invented? China </li></ul><ul><li>What colour is most of Greenland? White </li></ul><ul><li>From which part of the British Isles did the Scots originate? Northern England </li></ul><ul><li>Where do Turks originally come from? Central Asia/Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>In which country was the sport baseball invented? No one knows </li></ul><ul><li>Where in the world did turkeys originate? North/central America </li></ul>
  7. 7. Earth’s Vital Statistics <ul><li>Circumference at the equator: 40,031 km </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter through N-S poles: 12,712 km </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter at the equator: 12,755km (bulging is due to centrifugal force of Earth’s rotation) </li></ul><ul><li>Surface area: 509,917,488 km ² </li></ul><ul><li>Volume: 2,019,609 km³ </li></ul><ul><li>Average temperature: Night 32°F (0°C); Day 72°F (22°C) </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: any given moment: 2,200 thunderstorms occur on the earth’s surface </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Number of languages: 5,800 </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean volume: 2.4 billion km³ </li></ul><ul><li>Deepest part of the ocean: </li></ul><ul><li>Mariana trench, Pacific ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest living species: </li></ul><ul><li>Bristlecone Pines (5,000 yrs old) </li></ul><ul><li>Known/Catalogued species: 1.7 million </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown species: 5-30 million </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere height from sea level: 18,000 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: 99% of the atmosphere is in the lowest 50 miles (80km) with weather limited to first 5-10 miles. </li></ul>Statistics cont…
  9. 9. Stats cont… <ul><li>Largest to smallest continent…. </li></ul><ul><li>Asia…Africa…North America…South America… Antarctica…Europe…Oceania </li></ul><ul><li>Number of countries: 194 (ish) </li></ul><ul><li>FACT: remember the territories/colonies which often refer themselves to being countries such as Puerto Rico and even the components of the UK (Scotland/England/Wales) but they are not fully independent countries, states, or nation-states! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Global Scale <ul><li>Map of the World </li></ul><ul><li>As a group, we will attempt to draw a world map – this is a conceptual drawing so it will not be to scale or be accurate! </li></ul><ul><li>What physical and human features should be included on it? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Maps, maps and more maps… <ul><li>What are maps? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A map is a symbolized representation of a space/place which highlights relations between features.” (Wikipedia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A map is the world expressed through the medium of cartography…maps re-describe the world. What we read on a map is as much related to an invisible world and to ideology as it is to phenomena seen and measured in the landscape. (Stanfords) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Maps are description of the way things are. It is a purposeful selection from everything that is known, bent to the map maker’s ends. Every map serves a purpose. Every map advances an interest.” (Wood et al) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Maps, maps and even more maps… <ul><li>What do we put on them? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and human features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale – large/medium/small (see appendix) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legend/key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are they constructed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In your own way! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compass/telescope/sextant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radar/infrared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By air/boat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS/GPS </li></ul></ul>Who is the audience? Reality?!
  13. 13. Some examples of different types of maps… <ul><li>The World Map – different projections; political </li></ul>
  14. 14. The World Map – different projections; physical
  15. 15. Chloropleth maps
  16. 16. Cartogram – proportional
  17. 17. What is this a map of? &quot;We are preparing ourselves for up to 1,000 dead bodies from this flood alone …” Insp Daniel Gezahenge, 2006 Territory size shows the proportion of all deaths caused by disasters, which overwhelm local resources, that died there 1975-2004.
  18. 18. Ordnance Survey
  19. 19. Topological
  20. 21. Topographical (Large scale detail/relief/physical and human features)
  21. 22. Topographical – street maps!
  22. 23. Conceptual See Appendix ‘ World According to Dubya’
  23. 24. Fantasy
  24. 25. Plans
  25. 26. Global DILEMMA <ul><li>You can’t show accurate… </li></ul><ul><li>at the same time… </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently… meet the Flat Map Flap… </li></ul>Shape! SIZE! Distance... Direction... A B
  26. 27. Mercator v. Peter’s Projections MERCATOR PETER But which is best?! Cylindrical Equal area Conformal
  27. 28. Other famous projections Hipparchus’ Azimuthal orthographic : &quot;realistic&quot; view of Earth as seen from space Hipparchus’ Azimuthal stereographic: circle-preserving; shows at most a hemisphere Mollweide’s elliptical: Pseudocylindrical, equal-area, meridians are ellipses Robinson’s Pseudocylindrical, equal-area compromise, poles are 1/3 as long as the Equator
  28. 29. Learning Objectives – Session 2 <ul><li>By the end of this session you will have learnt: </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between magnetic north, true north and Geographic north. </li></ul><ul><li>How to use longitude and latitude. </li></ul><ul><li>How countries can be grouped in different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of a ‘sense of place’. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between Great Britain, British Isles and the United Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>The major locations/features of the British Isles </li></ul>
  29. 30. Animaniac’s - Yakko’s World <ul><li>Whilst listening to this song… write down as many countries as you can. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Which North? Grid North? Magnetic North? True North?
  31. 32. All the North’s <ul><li>There are three North’s commonly in use in Great Britain: </li></ul><ul><li>Grid north - navigational term referring to the direction northwards along the grid lines of a map projection. </li></ul><ul><li>True North - imaginary straight line between you and the geographic North Pole. This line is a circle that passes through you and both the North and South Poles. It is called a Meridian of Longitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic North Pole , is where your compass points towards, is not located at the geographic North Pole. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Hemisphere: Magnetic North is located south of the geographic North Pole. So, depending on your location, there is almost always an angular difference between True North and the direction your compass is pointing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between true and magnetic north is called &quot;magnetic variation&quot; and its value can be found in the orientation panel or margin of an Ordnance Survey map. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Latitude and Longitude <ul><li>Latitude (parallels) </li></ul><ul><li>Each degree – approx 69m (111km) apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Numbered 0 º - 90º N and S </li></ul><ul><li>0º = the Equator, dividing N and S hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>The poles = 90º N/S </li></ul><ul><li>Longitude (meridians) </li></ul><ul><li>Each degree – approx 69m (111km) apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Numbered 0 º - 180º E and W </li></ul><ul><li>Where they meet (180) – International date line </li></ul><ul><li>0º = Greenwich, London (Prime Meridian) , dividing E and W hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>The poles = 90º N/S </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Degrees longitude and latitude have been divided into minutes (') and seconds (&quot;). 60 minutes in each degree - each minute is divided into 60 seconds. For example, the Washington D.C is located at 38°53'23&quot;N , 77°00'27&quot;W. </li></ul>Latitude and Longitude cont…
  34. 35. Down Under… <ul><li>If you dug a hole deep enough where would you end up? </li></ul><ul><li>Find the nearest latitude and longitude to Stoke-on-Trent… </li></ul><ul><li>53 ºN - oppose it… 53ºS </li></ul><ul><li>2ºW - subtract from 180 = 178 </li></ul><ul><li> oppose the direction = 178 ºE </li></ul>
  35. 36. Groupings of Countries <ul><li>See Appendix – Countries and Capitals </li></ul><ul><li>EU – European Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>27 member countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined economy – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>largest in the world GDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(US$15.7) trillion in 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive branch – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which were the last 2 to join? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulgaria and Romania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which are pending? (green) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey, Macedonia, Croatia </li></ul></ul>Bulgaria Romania
  36. 37. NATO <ul><li>The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance – 26 countries (N/America/Europe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aims… to safeguard the freedom, heritage and civilisation of their peoples…to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area… to unite efforts for defence and for preservation of peace. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. OPEC <ul><li>Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC ) </li></ul><ul><li>Members - Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to protect producers on the world petroleum market. </li></ul>
  38. 39. OECD <ul><li>Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) </li></ul><ul><li>developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. </li></ul><ul><li>30 member countries (World Bank designates 25 as high income countries) </li></ul>
  39. 40. NAFTA <ul><li>North American Free Trade Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Members – Canada, Mexico, USA </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the world’s largest free trade area. </li></ul><ul><li>The Agreement has brought economic growth and rising standards of living for people in all three countries. </li></ul>
  40. 41. UN <ul><li>United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>aims to facilitate cooperation in international law and security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. </li></ul><ul><li>As of 2007, there are 192 United Nations member states </li></ul>
  41. 42. North South Divide LLEDCs? RICs? NICs?
  42. 43. Globetrotter – Which Continent? <ul><li>Work in pairs/threes… </li></ul><ul><li>You will have 5 minutes and 7 statements. Travel around the world (room) and plot the correct statement under the correct continent! Gook luck! </li></ul>
  43. 44. A Sense of Place <ul><li>2 interesting ideas from influential Geographers: </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Relph (1976) – ideas helped to establish the concept of a ‘sense of place’. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- interested in people’s own experience of the physical characteristics and activities took part in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- stresses individuality and uniqueness of places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- sees a process of homogenisation of the built environment encouraged by mass communication – a growing ‘placelessness’ </li></ul></ul>
  44. 50. Questions to think about… Are you comfortable with Relph’s ideas? The concept of ‘placelessness’, in particular, has been criticised by some Geographers. Is it possible to teach students to develop a sense of place? Should we spend time reflecting on their relationships with places?
  45. 51. <ul><li>2. Doreen Massey (1991) – concerned with people’s understanding of place in a shrinking world. </li></ul><ul><li>- places have multiple identities (multiple communities) </li></ul><ul><li>- places can be seen as part of a web of interrelationships. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A progressive sense of place would </li></ul><ul><li>recognise that what we need is a global </li></ul><ul><li>sense of the local, a global sense of place.” </li></ul>A Sense of Place cont
  46. 53. Questions to think about… Which of these ideas do you see as useful for informing your own teaching about places? How might Massey’s ideas inform teaching about immigration? What are the values underlying these ideas?
  47. 54. GB, UK, BI? Britishness?? See Appendix: Filming the City Scotland England Wales Northern Ireland Republic of Ireland
  48. 55. Memory Mapping the British Isles <ul><li>RULES OF PLAY </li></ul><ul><li>Follow instructions about time limits very carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>Every team member must stay with their own number. </li></ul><ul><li>Every team should discuss their own strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Work as a team…EVERY member is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to remember as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>NO cheating. </li></ul><ul><li>NO physical contact such as barging or pushing. </li></ul><ul><li>The winners should get a prize. </li></ul>
  49. 56. Learning Objectives – Session 3 <ul><li>By the end of this session you will have learnt: </li></ul><ul><li>How food packaging can be used to investigate our interdependence with other countries </li></ul><ul><li>How ICT can help to teach about maps and places. </li></ul><ul><li>How maps are relevant to issues of sustainability. </li></ul>
  50. 57. Packaging Geography <ul><li>Detailed observation and reflection of images. </li></ul><ul><li>TASK </li></ul><ul><li>In pairs, using the vision frame provided have a go at analysing your food packaging! </li></ul><ul><li>Links to globalisation and interdependence, development, economics, organic farming methods, sustainability, ecological/carbon footprints/food miles etc </li></ul><ul><li>See Appendix – 8 way thinking: another great way of analysing a photograph, image, object. </li></ul>
  51. 58. Maps and Places and ICT <ul><li>Full list of websites: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Including Microsoft Live Local and Google Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Information Systems – </li></ul><ul><li>A GIS - computer system capable of capturing, storing, analyzing, and displaying geographically data (data identified according to location). </li></ul><ul><li>Some E.g.’s of FREE GIS - Environment Agency </li></ul><ul><li>What’s in Your backyard – </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  52. 59. Maps and Sustainability <ul><li>&quot;Now during high tides, the water comes right across the ground, where the houses are, and it never happened before ...&quot; Elia Tauita, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>The territories that emit the most greenhouse gases are the United States, China, the Russian Federation and Japan. However, the most emissions per person are in Qatar: equivalent to 86 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. Qatar has significant oil and gas reserves, and in 2002 was populated by 600,000 people. </li></ul>
  53. 60. WHO DREW THIS MAP?
  54. 62. The world at night…
  55. 63. Coast to Coast <ul><li>A Question to ponder… </li></ul><ul><li>If the oceans in the world receded and eventually disappeared, there would be no coastline left. Likewise, if the seas kept rising, the total global coastline would reach zero as the waters lapped over Mount Everest. At some height in between there must be a maximum total coastline on the planet. Does anyone know where this would be in relation to today’s sea level, and are we anywhere near such ideal conditions for a beach holiday? </li></ul>
  56. 64. Questions for a new Millenium <ul><li>What resources and skills will we need to flourish here over the next Millennium? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we work together to create a sustainable world whilst maintaining our distinct cultural heritages? </li></ul><ul><li>Will we wake up to see the incredible natural beauty that is the Earth, before we have irreversibly damaged or even destroyed it? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of world will our children inherit from us? How will this be mapped?! </li></ul>
  57. 65. What have you learnt?! <ul><li>The Training Game </li></ul>
  58. 66. The PGCE Year Enjoy it!
  59. 67. Contact details <ul><li>Miss Imogen Smith </li></ul><ul><li>St Thomas More Catholic College </li></ul><ul><li>Tel : 01782 234734 </li></ul><ul><li>E mail </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  60. 68. If the earth were only a few feet in diameter, floating a few feet above a field somewhere, people would come from everywhere to marvel at it. People would walk around it marvelling at its big pools of water, its little pools and the water flowing between. People would marvel at the bumps on it and the holes in it. They would marvel at the very thin layer of gas surrounding it and the water suspended in the gas. The people would marvel at all the creatures walking around the surface of the ball and at the creatures in the water. The people would declare it as sacred because it was the only one, and they would protect it so that it would not be hurt. The ball would be the greatest wonder known, and people would come and pray to it, to be healed, to gain knowledge, to know beauty and to wonder how it could be. People would love it, and defend it with their lives because they would somehow know that their lives would be nothing without it. If the Earth were only a few feet in diameter. Joe Miller ENJOY IT!