New Learning Emulsifiers &  Hydrocolloids In Confectionery Systems
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New Learning Emulsifiers & Hydrocolloids In Confectionery Systems

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A description of new learning 1. hydrocolloids for moisture & texture control as well as on ovderview of 2. emulsifiers in high sugar systems showing old knowledge is very out of date.

A description of new learning 1. hydrocolloids for moisture & texture control as well as on ovderview of 2. emulsifiers in high sugar systems showing old knowledge is very out of date.

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  • 1. New Learning Emulsifiers & Hydrocolloids in Confectionery Systems 01 June 2011, Geoffrey O’Sullivan ConTech 2011
  • 2. Agenda1. Introduction2. Ingredient survey for emulsifiers and hydrocolloids in confectionery1. New learning in emulsifiers2. New learning hydrocolloids3. Questions & discussion 2
  • 3. Introduction • Purpose of talk is not to give answers! • To share new thoughts and findings/learning • Stimulate - thoughts/NPD/research/dialogue • Hydrocolloids & emulsifiers in confectionery NOT INVENTED FORCONFECTIONERY ? 3
  • 4. Products Made by Esterification of Glycerol and Food Acids with Other Materials – Emulsifiers & Surfactants Triglycerides Food gradeVegetable and animal Propylene Lactic Citric Acetic Tartaric Glycerol glycol Sorbitol acid acid acid acid Fatty Polyglycerol Sorbitan acids - Lauric - Palmitic - Stearic - Oleic PGE PGMS SMS/STS SSL/CSL PGPR Mono-diglycerides (GMS)Distilled monoglycerides (DGMS) LACTEM CITREM ACETEM DATEM 4
  • 5. Overview of Common Mono-glycerides and Poly-glyceridesCommon Name DescriptionACETEM Acetic Acid Acetic acid ester of mono-glycerides made from fully hydrogenated palmEsters based oilCITREM Citric Acid Is a citric acid ester of mono-glyceride made from edible, refinedEsters LR10 sunflower oilCITREM Citric Acid Neutralised citric acid ester of mono-glyceride made from edible, fullyEsters N12 hydrogenated palm based oilLACTEM Lactic Acid Lactic acid ester of mono-glycerides made from fully hydrogenated palmEsters based oilPGE 20 Polyglycerol Is polyglycerol ester made from edible soya bean/or palm based oil and inEsters which the polyglycerol moitey is mainly di, tri and tetra glycerol 5
  • 6. Overview of Common Mono-glycerides and Poly- glyceridesPGMS SPV Propylene Distilled propylene glycol ester made from edible refined vegetable fattyGlycol Esters acidsPGPR 90 Polyglycerol Polyglycerol ester of poly-condensed fatty acids from castor oilPolyricinoleatesDistilled Distilled mono-glycerides made from fully hydrogenated palm based oilMonoglyceridesDistilled Distilled mono/glyceride made from sun flower oil with high content ofMonoglycerides 90 mono oleateDatem Diacetyl tartaric acid ester of mono/glyceridesmade from refined sun flower and/or palm oilSMS Sorbitan Esters Sorbitan monostearate made from edible fatty acidsSTS Sorbitan Esters Sorbitan tristearate based on edible, refined, vegetable fatty acidsThere are more types – such as sucrose esters - but not available for testing 6
  • 7. What is an Emulsifier?An emulsifier is a molecule consisting of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic(lipophilic part)The hydrophobic part of the emulsifier may consist of a fatty acidThe hydrophilic part of the emulsifier may consist of glycerol, possibly esterifiedwith acetic acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid or citric acid Hydrophilic part Hydrophobic part 7
  • 8. Functions of Emulsifiers• Emulsion – Stabilisation – Destabilisation• Starch & hydrocolloid interaction• Protein interaction• Crystal modification of fats• Viscosity reducing• Antifog, antistatic and mould release 8
  • 9. Estimation of Function in High Sugar Systems HLB Value?• Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance• Griffins method• Griffins method for non-ionic surfactants as described in 1954 works as follows:• HLB = 20 * Mh / M• where Mh is the molecular mass of the hydrophilic portion of the Molecule, and M is the molecular mass of the whole molecule, giving a result on an arbitrary scale of 0 to 20. An HLB value of 0 corresponds to a completely hydrophobic molecule, and a value of 20 would correspond to a molecule made up completely of hydrophilic components. 9
  • 10. HLB values for Emulsifier Choice?? TYPE W/O O/W HLB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16Monoglycerides 3~4 Acetylated 1monoglycerides Does not help with performance - how Lactylated 3~4monoglycerides much to add? Citrated 9 What’s droplet size?monoglycerides Succinylated 5~7monoglycerides DATEM 8~10 Polyglycerol 1~14 estersSucrose esters 1~16Sorbitan esters 2~9 Lecithin 3~4 10
  • 11. Drop Shape Analyser (DSA) Sugars Solution Pending drop - Shape of drop depends on the density difference between the two phases and the interfacial tension. Vegetable fat From this it is possible to estimate interfacial tension – IFT mN/m 11
  • 12. Complicated by Phase Behaviour In literature a lot of information for emulsifiers and water None on high sugar systems or high salt systems Can we make it easier? Interfacial tension IFT? 12
  • 13. IFT (mN/m) For Range of Emulsifiers Interfacial Tension mN/m 45 40Interfaciaol Tension IFT m/m 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 13
  • 14. Fat Holding Capacity of Emulsifiers Rapeseed Oil in 80% w/w 42 DE Glucose Syrup and Sucrose Solution FAT HOLDING CAPACITY 3.5%w/w Fat Holding Capacity per 0.1% w/w 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 14
  • 15. Interfacial Tension (IFT) and Fat Emulsifying Power INTERFACIAL TENSION VERSUS FAT HOLDING CAPACITY 4 3.5 PGPR% FAT HOLDING CAPACITY per 0.1% w/w 3 2.5 2 Neutralised CITREM 1.5 1 y = -1.43ln(x) + 5.617 R² = 0.631 0.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 IINTERFACIAL TENSION mN/m Good correlation between IFT and emulsfying power and if the PGPR and Neutralised CITREM are removed R2 becomes 0.95 15
  • 16. Droplet Size – Malvern Particle Size Analyser Uses the diffraction pattern made by laser light passing through a suspension of the material to calculate particle ordroplet size distribution TYPICAL RESULTS FORMAT 16
  • 17. Correlation between IFT (mN/m) Value and Droplet Size IFT VALUE VERSUS DROPLET SIZE SPAN 5.000 4.500 4.000 3.500Micron Span X 10E0 3.000 2.500 2.000 1.500 y = -0.051x + 4.191 1.000 R² = 0.301 0.500 0.000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 IFT mN/m No relationship between IFT value and spread in droplet size in the emulsion 17
  • 18. Correlation between IFT Value and Droplet Size IFT VALUE VERSUS MEDIAN DV 50 SIZE 9.000 8.000 7.000 DV 50 size in Microns 6.000 5.000 4.000 y = -0.148x + 9.078 3.000 R² = 0.771 2.000 1.000 0.000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 INTERFACIAL TENSION mN/mThe IFT value gives an indication but in this correlation PGE 20 & PGMS SPV have notbeen included 18
  • 19. Droplet Size DistributionSoya Lecithin – 1.72% w/w fat per 0.1% w/w 19
  • 20. Droplet Size DistributionPGPR – 1.99 % w/w fat per 0.1% w/w 20
  • 21. Droplet Size DistributionCITREM N12 – 3.41 % w/w fat per 0.1% w/w 21
  • 22. Droplet Size DistributionCITREM LR10 - 2.70 % w/w fat per 0.1% w/w 22
  • 23. Droplet Size DistributionDistilled mono-glyceride – 0.20 % w/w fat per 0.1% w/w 23
  • 24. Droplet Size Distribution PGE 20 – 2.55% w/w fat per 0.1% w/w 24
  • 25. Droplet Size DistributionPGMS SPV – 0.26% w/w fat per 0.1% w/w 25
  • 26. Hydrocolloid intercations – stabilising? CITREM LR10 & LBG Creates a uniform Produces uniform size distribution size distribution 26
  • 27. Hydrocolloid intercations – stabilsing? CITREM LR10 & CMC Creates a uniform size distribution 27
  • 28. Interactions – Milk Protiens - Caramels Fat Addition to Sweetened Condensed milk 60 From this we can calculate that thisHeight of Fat Layer - mm 50 y = 38.45ln(x) - 103.3 R² = 0.996 system can stabilise 40 14.7 % added fat 30 mm of Fat Log. (mm of Fat) Plus 8.0% already in milk 20 22.7 % in total 10 To test emulsifiers it was thought that 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 20% addition would be % Fat Addition used to test emulsifier function 28
  • 29. Enhanced effect of Emulsifiers with Milk Proteins• So we are in effect measuring the affect of the emulsifier on 5% fat - below the amount for minimum effective dose to keep stable system with our separation Based on our information for fat holding capacity we should need CITREM LR 10 = 0.185 % Mono & Diglycerides = 0.540 % Distilled Mono-glycerides = 2.500 %• All of these amounts were succesful so a series of dilutions were carried out and it was found• CITREM LR 10 = 0.05 % 3.7 X more effective Mono & Diglycerides = 0.28 % 1.9 X more effective Distilled Mono-glycerides = 0.28 % 8.9 X more effective• Stabilsing effect of milk proteins 29
  • 30. What are the possible advantagesSelecting an emulsifier for?Larger droplet size or broad distribution could reducestickinessFine droplet size give brighter whiter shadingViscosity of syrup & vegetable oil system depends onSugars solids & droplet sizePrevent oiling out / oil separation in systems– like caramels 30
  • 31. Interaction potentials between emulsifiers, solid surfaces and the solvent Solid surfaceWeak between polar surfaces Van der Walls forcesand liquid oil. Hydrogen bondsStrong between non-polar Bridges etc.surfaces and liquid oil. Oil phase Emulsifier Solubility 31
  • 32. Other Interactions – Oil Suspensions Plain Chocolate Model Adsorption 25Surface Load of PGPR 90 Plus mg/m2 20 15 Sugar 10 5 Dried cocoa powder 0 Cocoa powder 0 1 2 3 4 5 FIG 1 Equilibrium concentration of PGPR 90 Plus in the oil phase at 40°C
  • 33. Effect of emulsifiers in chocolate VARIOUS EMULSIFIERS EFFECT ON THE FLOW PROPERTIES OF DARK CHOCOLATE COMPOUND WITH 32% FAT 25 Citric Acid Esters (CITREM)PLASTIC VISCOSITY, CASSON (POISE) Ammonium phosphatides Lecithin 20 15 10 5 0 0.2 0.4 0.7 DOSAGE (%) 33
  • 34. Effect of PGPR Yield value Plastic viscosity 2 8 % Milk 2 8 % Milk 100 90 90 3 2 % Milk 3 2 % Milk 80Yield value (dynes/cm²) Plastic viscosity (Poise) 80 28% Dark 28 % Dark 70 70 32% Dark 32 % Dark 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 0 0,1 0,2 0,4 0 0,1 0,2 0,4 % GRINDST ED® PGPR % GRINDST ED® PGPR 34
  • 35. STS Sorbitan TristearateSTS Sorbitan Tristearate gives more flexible storage conditions and ensures agood, prolonged shelf life in chocolateStabilises the 2 crystal form, delays the transformation to 1 and consequently delaysbloom formation 35
  • 36. Hydrocolloids in Confectionery Applications• 1. Hydrocolloids and moisture control• 2. hydrocolloids texture in high sugars systems• Results from VTi – Moisture desorption kinectics Humectant ingredients - Hygroscopicity• Snack bar model system• Rheology of sugars syrups 36
  • 37. Vapor Sorption Analyzer• Weight loss / gain due to moisture adsorption / desorption. %RH Temp 37
  • 38. VTi Desorption Isotherm 80% Solids Sugar & Glucose syrup Weight (%) Samp Temp (°C) Samp RH (%) 3.000000 120.00 2.000000 100.00 1.000000 Samp Temp (°C) / Samp RH (%) 0.000000 0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0 80.00 1200.0 -1.000000Weight (%) -2.000000 60.00 -3.000000 40.00 -4.000000 -5.000000 20.00 -6.000000 -7.000000 0.00 Elap Time (min) Data Collection Started: 04-19-2010, 12:39 PM Sample Name: IXF029-14296602-2 Sample Lot: AR2010-151 File Name: 10037.Il~ Operator: SBP Instrument: SGA-CX S/N: 2007-232SGACXREFCIECE 38
  • 39. Rate constant for moisture movement 10037-lo-1 Kinetics Fit mo -0.006 Wt% 2,000000 delm -5.509 Wt% 1,000000 k 0.005 1/min SSE 19.938 0,000000 0,0 200,0 400,0 600,0 800,0 -1,000000 Wt%(Kineticsmo+delm*(1-EXP(-k*time)) Fit) Weight (%) -2,000000 Experimental Data ESQ (WKineticsFit%-WExperimental%)^2 Kinetics Fit SSE Sum(ESQ) -3,000000 -4,000000 -5,000000 -6,000000 -7,000000 Elap Time (min)
  • 40. VTi Desorption Isotherm 80% Solids Sugar & Glucose syrup with Carrageenan Weight (%) Samp Temp (°C) Samp RH (%) 8.000000 120.00 7.000000 6.000000 100.00 5.000000 Samp Temp (°C) / Samp RH (%) 80.00 4.000000Weight (%) 3.000000 60.00 2.000000 1.000000 40.00 0.000000 0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0 -1.000000 20.00 -2.000000 -3.000000 0.00 Elap Time (min) Data Collection Started: 05-17-2010, 07:21 AM Sample Name: IXF09-14296602-7 Sample Lot: AR2010-151 File Name: 10048.Il~ Operator: SBP Instrument: SGA-CX S/N: 2007-232SGACXREFCIECE 40
  • 41. Rate constant for moisture movement 10048-lo-1 Kinetics Fit mo 4.262 Wt% delm -6.049 Wt% 7,000000 k 0.069 1/min 6,000000 SSE 29.879 5,000000 4,000000 Wt%(Kineticsmo+delm*(1-EXP(-k*time)) Fit) ESQ (WKineticsFit%-WExperimental%)^2Weight (mg) 3,000000 Experimental Data SSE Sum(ESQ) 2,000000 Kinetics Fit 1,000000 0,000000 0,0 50,0 100,0 150,0 200,0 -1,000000 -2,000000 -3,000000 Elap Time (min) 14 X Faster than pure sugars syrup 41
  • 42. Rice Crispy Moisture Up -Take Weight (%) Samp Temp (°C) Samp RH (%) 12.000000 80.00 10.000000 70.00 60.00 Samp Temp (°C) / Samp RH (%) 8.000000 50.00 6.000000Weight (%) 40.00 4.000000 30.00 2.000000 20.00 0.000000 10.00 0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 -2.000000 0.00 Elap Time (min) Data Collection Started: 06-17-2009, 09:49 Sample Name: Rice Krispies Sample Lot: 44 16:19 MC File Name: 09092.Il~ Operator: SBP Instrument: SGA-CX S/N: 2007-232SGACXREFCIECE 42
  • 43. VTi - ResultsTrial No: System Description Comments Rate Constant K 1/m 1 Polydextrose 80% w/w sugars 0.009 (no adjustment for water content) solids 2 60 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w sugars 0.005 40 parts sucrose solids (based on typical 80% syrup) 3 60 parts glucose syrup to 85% w/w sugars 0.005 40 parts sucrose solids (based on typical 80% syrup) 4 63 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w sugars 0.009 40 parts sucrose 5 parts solids 0.010 sorbitol (based on typical 80% syrup) 5 60 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w total 0.020 40 parts sucrose solids (based on typical 80% syrup) Including With gelatine at 4% w/w hydrocolloids 43
  • 44. VTi - ResultsTrial No: System Description Comments Rate Constant K 1/m 6 60 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w total 0.010 40 parts sucrose solids (based on typical 80% syrup) Including With Pectin at 2% with hydrocolloids 1.0% citric acid soln 7 63 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w total 0.023 40 parts sucrose 5 parts solids 0.069 sorbitol Including (based on typical 80% syrup) hydrocolloids With Carrageenan 2% 8 60 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w total 0.004 40 parts sucrose solids (based on typical 80% syrup) Including With 0.3% Guar hydrocolloids 9 60 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w total 0.003 40 parts sucrose solids (based on typical 80% syrup) Including hydrocolloids LGB 0.5 % 44
  • 45. VTi - ResultsTrial No: System Description Comments Rate Constant K 1/m 10 60 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w total 0.006 40 parts sucrose solids (based on typical 80% syrup) Including Xanthan 0.5 % hydrocolloids 11 60 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w total 0.008 40 parts sucrose solids (based on typical 80% syrup) Including LGB 0.3 & Xanthan 0.3 % hydrocolloids 12 60 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w total 0.008 40 parts sucrose solids (based on typical 80% syrup) Including Alginate BC110 0.5% hydrocolloids 13 60 parts glucose syrup to 80% w/w total 0.007 40 parts sucrose solids (based on typical 80% syrup) Including CMC 0.25 % hydrocolloids 45
  • 46. Hygroscopicity - Humectants• Glycerol• Polydextrose• Sugar 46
  • 47. Glycerol Weight (%) Samp Temp (°C) Samp RH (%) 200.000000 100.00 90.00 150.000000 80.00 Samp Temp (°C) / Samp RH (%) 70.00 100.000000 60.00Weight (%) 50.00 50.000000 40.00 30.00 0.000000 20.00 0.0 2000.0 4000.0 6000.0 8000.0 10000.0 12000.0 14000.0 16000.0 18000.0 20000.0 10.00 -50.000000 0.00 Elap Time (min) Data Collection Started: 08-10-2010, 09:09 Sample Name: Glycerol Anhydrous-NA Sample Lot: 085915; lot. T-640-0 File Name: 10067.Il~ Operator: SBP Instrument: SGA-CX S/N: 2007-232SGACXREFCIECE
  • 48. Glycerol Adsorption/Desorption Isotherm 250.000000 200.000000 150.000000Weight change % Adsorption1 100.000000 Desorption1 50.000000 0.000000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -50.000000 RH (%) Data Collection Started: 08-10-2010, 09:09 Sample Name: Glycerol Anhydrous-NA Sample Lot: 085915; lot. T-640-0 File Name: 10067.Is~ Operator: SBP Instrument: SGA-CX S/N: 2007-232SGACXREFCIECE 48
  • 49. Polydextrose Adsorption/Desorption Isotherm 60.000000 50.000000 40.000000Weight change % Adsorption1 30.000000 Desorption1 20.000000 10.000000 0.000000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 RH (%) Data Collection Started: 07-06-2010, 09:49 Sample Name: Litesse Ultra Sample Lot: Global code: 8130397 File Name: 10063.Is~ Operator: SBP Instrument: SGA-CX S/N: 2007-232SGACXREFCIECE
  • 50. Sugar Adsorption/Desorption Isotherm 80.000000 70.000000 60.000000 50.000000Weight change % 40.000000 Adsorption1 Desorption1 30.000000 20.000000 10.000000 0.000000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -10.000000 RH (%) Data Collection Started: 08-02-2010, 07:30 Sample Name: Dansk sukker (milled) Sample Lot: LP9288 File Name: 10066.Is~ Operator: SBP Instrument: SGA-CX S/N: 2007-232SGACXREFCIECE
  • 51. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing TrialsHydrocolloid system % w/w Hydrocolloid system % w/wGelatine 4% (1) Pectin 2%Guar 0.3% Pectin & LGB 0.25%Carrageenan 0.7% Pectin & LGB 0.50%Locust Bean Gum (LBG) 0.5% Pectin & CMC BAK 130 0.25%Gelatine 4% (2) Pectin & CMC BAK 130 0.125%Xanthan 0.5% Pectin 2% & 0.3% CITREM LR10Xanthan 0.25% & LBG 0.25% Sugars only system (1)CMC BAK 130 0.25% Sugars only system (2)Alginate 0.5% 51
  • 52. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing Evaluation Trials Stabliser phase Trials 1 to 18For survey of Danisco HydrcolloidFunctionality in bar binder System 52
  • 53. Cereals Mixture and binder syrups GELATINE 4% PECTIN 2% Layers were sheeted to a depth of 20 mm and cut in to 7 x 7 mm squares for further evaluation GUAR 0.3% SUGARS ONLY BINDER LOCUST BEAN GUM (LBG) 0.5%It can easily be seen that the addition of sufficient amount of hydrocolloid improves cohesive nature of the bar that in turn gives improved uniformity and appearance
  • 54. Cereals Mixture and binder syrups PECTIN 2% PECTIN 2%SUGARS ONLY BINDER & LBG 0.5% & LBG 0.25% PECTIN 2% PECTIN 2% PECTIN 2% & CMC 0.25% & CMC 0.125%
  • 55. 3 Point Bend Test Record the maximum force in Kgs to bend and finally break the bar Break Force Kgs Force kgs Distance mm 55
  • 56. HYDROCOLLOIDS IN SNACK BARS – 35% RH & 25°C RELATIVE FIRMING POWER OF HYDROCOLLOIDS 35.00 BREAK FORCE Kgs PER PERCENT HYDROCOLLOID 30.00 25.00 20.00 This line 15.00 indicates maximum 10.00 viscosity 5.00 0.00 -5.00 This shows the amount of firmness given to a bar by 1% of hydrocolloidbut other factors are important in the choice and amount to use, such as solubility 56
  • 57. HYDROCOLLOIDS IN SNACK BARS – 35% RH & 25°C RELATIVE FIRMING POWER OF HYDROCOLLOIDS 25.00 Firmness kgs Force per % of MixtureBREAK FORCE kgs PER PERCENT HYDROCOLLOID 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 Pectin 2.0 % Pectin 2.0 % & 0.25% Pectin 2.0 % & 0.50 % Pectin 2.0 % & 0.125 Pectin 2.0 % & 0.25 % Pectin 2.0 % & Citrem LBG LBG % CMC BAK CMC BAK 0.3% Here we see synergy effect of both LBG & CMC with pectin and surprising affect of CITREM 57
  • 58. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing Moisture Management – Water Activity All WATER ACTIVITY FOR HYDROCOLLOID Hydrocolloids IN BINDER SYSTEM have higher Water activity 0.7 Than sugars 0.6 only system 0.5Water Activity 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 58
  • 59. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing Moisture Management – Water Activity INCREASE IN WATER ACTIVITY PER % HYDROCOLLOID IN BINDER SYSTEM 0.25 0.2Increase in Water Activity 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 59
  • 60. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing Moisture Management – Moisture loss TOTAL WEIGHT LOSS 10 Days @ 35% RH All 4.00 hydroccolloid s speed 3.50 water loss 3.00% Total Weight Loss 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00This method does not give clear or accurate way to compare the hydrocolloids We determine a rate constant for each system 60
  • 61. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing Rate constant for moisture loss SUGARS ONLY BINDER SYSTEM 3.000 2.500 Rate constant is % w/w Loss in Weight 2.000 gradient of 1.500 equation 1.000 y = 0.743ln(x) - 1.474 R² = 0.992 0.500 0.000 0 50 100 150 200 250 HOURS @ 25 DEG C 35% Relative HumidityFrom plotting % weight loss against time we get the rate constant that is independant of weight or shape of snack bar 61
  • 62. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing Rate constant for moisture loss PECTIN BINDER SYSTEM % W/W WEIGHT LOSS VERSUS TIME 4.000 3.500 3.000 % W/W Loss in Weight 2.500 2.000 Pectin rate constant 1.500 1.000 y = 0.942ln(x) - 1.824 0.500 R² = 0.994 0.000 0 50 100 150 200 250 HOURS @ DEG C 35% Relative Humidity This shows pectin to have rate constant of 0.943 compared to 0.743 for sugarsSolution. Taking into account differences in density of the bars we have means to compare all hydrocolloids 62
  • 63. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing Rate constant for moisture loss RATE CONSTANT FOR WATER LOSS PER % HYDROCOLLOID 1.4000 1.2000Rate Constant Per % Hydrocolloid 1.0000 0.8000 0.6000 0.4000 0.2000 0.0000 All hydrocolloids increase the rate of drying but pectin is almost nuetral followed by carrageenan and meyprodur gaur gum 63
  • 64. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing Texture after drying (equilibrium) INCREASE IN BREAK FORCE After 10 Days Storage at 35% RH+ The line represents no affect on break force- Pectin is quite neutral on break force – other hydrocolloids lose or gain firmness 64
  • 65. Humidity - Australia 65
  • 66. Humidity – New Zealand 66
  • 67. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing Hydrocolloid Affect on Gain in Water 80% Relative Humidity @ 25°C Most TOTAL WEIGHT GAIN hydrocolloids 7 DAYS @ 80% RH Reducing water 20.00 gain 18.00 16.00 14.00% Total Weight Gain 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 67
  • 68. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar ManufacturingHydrocolloid Affect on Gain in Water 80% Relative Humidity @ 25°C SUGARS BINDER SYRUP % w/w WEIGHT GAIN VERSUS TIME 18.000 16.000 Rate 14.000 constant for gain in % w/W Gain in Weight 12.000 10.000 water 8.000 y = 4.940ln(x) - 9.099 6.000 R² = 0.982 4.000 2.000 0.000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 HOURS @ 25 DEG C 80% Relative Humidity Rate gain for syrups is 4.9405/0.7433 = 6.7 times faster than drying 68
  • 69. Hydrocolloids in Snack Bar Manufacturing Hydrocolloid Affect on Gain in Water 80% Relative Humidity @ 25°C CARRAGEENAN BINDER SYSTEM % W/W WEIGHT GAIN VERSUS TIME 12.000 10.000 Rate constant for% w/w Gain in Weight 8.000 gain in 6.000 water y = 3.026ln(x) - 4.663 R² = 0.991 4.000 2.000 0.000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 HOURS @ 25 DEG C 80% Relative Humidity Rate gain for carrageenan syrup is 3.026/0.9428 = 3.2 times faster than drying About 50% less than syrup only 69
  • 70. RheologyCharacterization of flow and visco Technical specifications: elasticity• Texture changes as a function of – Flow curves temperature e. g. setting of pectin – Stress/ Strain sweeps• Texture changes as a function of – Dynamic viscosity time e.g. enzyme activity – Stress relaxation• Texture changes simulated for process conditions e.g. fermentation processes• Yield point ex. stabilisation of emulsions and suspensions• Flow properties e.g. mouthfeel
  • 71. Texture Comparision – Rheology 2% pectin 130b syrup tan(Ì ) = f (f) 10,0 4% Gelatine syrup tan(Ì ) = f (f) 05088 0.7% Carrageenan CSI 181 & 186 tan(Ì ) = f (f) 05093 0.5% CMC BAK 130B tan(Ì ) = f (f) 05097 dk 1776 0.5% xanthan tan(Ì ) = f (f) Above 1 - Elastic ta n ( Ì ) in behaviour 1,0 Below 1 Solid behaviour This region This region relates to relates to bar structure eating texture 0,1 0,01 0,10 1,00 10,00 100,00 f in HzHAAKE RheoWin 4.30.0001
  • 72. Texture Comparision – Rheology 2% pectin 130b syrup tan(Ì ) = f (f) 10,0 4% Gelatine syrup tan(Ì ) = f (f) 05060 2% Pectin + 0.25% CMC 130b tan(Ì ) = f (f) 05061 2% pectin + 0.25% LBG tan(Ì ) = f (f) 05063 pectin 2% Alginate 0.5% tan(Ì ) = f (f) 05098 2% Pectin + Citrem LR 10 tan(Ì ) = f (f) Above 1 - Elasticbehaviour in ta n ( Ì ) 1,0 Below 1 Solidbehaviour This region This region relates to relates to bar structure eating texture 0,1 0,01 0,10 1,00 10,00 100,00 f in Hz
  • 73. Gelling agents for soft gums and jelliesTraditional• Pectin 1 – 3%• Agar Agar 1 – 3%• Gelatine 4 – 8%• Starch 8 – 16% &• Wheat Flour 20 – 30% Combinations• Gum Arabic 40 – 60%New• Carrageenan 1 – 3% Are there more? 73
  • 74. Texture Pectin & Pectin with CMC2 % w/w Pectin 78% w/w solids 2% w/w Pectin & 0.025% w/w CMC 78% w/w solidsFo rce (g ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fo rce (g ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 0 0 12 0 0 10 0 0 10 0 0 800 800 600 600 3f 400 400 2f 3f 2f 1f 200 200 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 10 0 12 0 14 0 0 20 40 60 80 10 0 12 0 14 0 1f Time (sec.) Time (sec.) -2 00 -2 00 Break Force grams = 250 Break Force Grams = 458 New combinations possible – NOT all work! 74
  • 75. Discussion & Questions – 5 minutes? 75