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Imprints CELA 2nd Edition2010


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The collection of essays presented in Landscape Imprints trace their origins to an international gathering of landscape architects and educators hosted by Clemson University’s Department of Landscape Architecture and the Council of Educators in Landscape Architecture in the fall of 2003 at CELA’s annual conference in Charleston, South Carolina.

For the reader, the second edition of twenty-two peer-reviewed essays presents a range of significant topical discourse on the landscape in the first decade of the 21st century by leading authors in the field of landscape architecture and landscape studies. Sustainability, globalization, gendered landscape, landscapes of power and race, technologically-mediated landscape, the geography of terrorism, learning environments, and post-ethnic landscapes offer a brief spectrum of the dialogue that runs through the collection’s five topical sections on culture, history, sustainability, technology, learning and the landscape.

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  • 2. LANDSCAPE IMPRINTS Edited by Robert R. Hewitt Select Papers on Culture History Sustainability Te c h n o l o g y Learning and LandscapeCELA Conference 2003 Second Edition © Copyright 2010
  • 3. ContentsIntroductionRobert R Hewitt . . . . . . . . . iiiDisplacements . . . . . . . . 1Marc TreibEnvironmental Art as Sustainable Design: Mill Creek Canyon . . 10Earthworks and Effigy Tumuli SculpturesC. Timothy BairdMultiple Exposures: Reading Landscape Values . . . . 16in Contemporary Mass-media AdvertisingCarla I. CorbinRedefining the Cemetery Landscape: A Multicultural Perspective . . 25Arthi RaoStewarding Nature: A Natural History of Cathedral Pines . . . 37Paul KelshImprint of a Blues Stained Landscape . . . . . 44Michael RobinsonLandscape and Social Relations at Charleston Townhouse Sites (1770-1850) . 50Martha A. ZierdenSlave Landscapes of the Carolina Low Country: What the Documents Reveal 55Elizabeth BrabecPower Dynamics Imprinted by Turn-of-the-Century: Reform Women’s . 61Institutions and Boston’s Public LandscapeSuzanne M. Spencer-WoodPower as Reflected in the Cultural Landscape of Sailors’ Snug Harbor, . 70Staten Island, New York (1845-1900)Sherene BaugherThe Phoenix Indian School Park: Communal Space/Private Meanings . 75Hemalata C. Dandekar, Ph.D.Design with Nature: The South’s Evangel . . . . . 83Sarah Georgia HarrisonA Dialogue for Sustainability: People, Place and Water . . . 91A. Simon, T. Cordova, J. Cooke, P. Aguilera-Harwood, B. MieraExploring Spontaneous Uses in Urban Streams . . . . 98Chia-Ning YangBiomimicry as a Runoff Management Strategy for Multi-Modal Landscapes 104Robert D. Sykes, Lance M. Neckar, Aaron A. MikonowiczSprawl. Nicesprawl or Multi-modal Hydroburbia . . . . 111Lance M. Neckar Landscape Impreints i
  • 4. ContentsAesthetic, Recreational and Ecological Value of Rural Landscape . 120at Town Edge: Public Opinion and 3D-Visualization TechnologySigrid Hehl-Lange, Ph.D., Eckart Lange, Ph.D.Strategic Environmetal Assessment: Change Detection . . . 125and Sustainable DevelopmentStephen L. SperryRemote Havens for Terrorist and Other Illicit Activity: . . . 142A Geospatial Modeling ApproachDouglas S. Way, Ph.D.International Landscape Architecture Programs: CELA . . . 148Schools in the United StatesRobert Hewitt, Hala Nassar, PhD,Structuring Teams for Learning and Performance: Criteria . . 154and Methodology forInstructor- Assigned TeamsKim L. WilsonAssessing the Potential Play Value of Vegetation: Outdoor . . . 161Environments of Preschools in Tuscon, ArizonaBeth W. Darnell, Margaret Livingston, Lauri Macmillan JohnsonLandscape Impreints ii
  • 5. Introduction Robert R. HewittThe collection of essays presented in Landscape Imprints: Culture, History, Sustainability,Technology, Learning trace their origins to an international gathering of landscape architectsand educators hosted by Clemson University’s Department of Landscape Architectureand the Council of Educators in Landscape Architecture in the fall of 2003 at CELA’sannual conference in Charleston, South Carolina. For the reader, the second edition ofthe twenty-two peer-reviewed essays assembled here present a range of significant topicaldiscourse on the landscape in the first decade of the 21st century by leading authors inthe field of landscape architecture and landscape studies. Sustainability, globalization,gendered landscape, landscapes of power and race, technologically-mediated landscape,the geography of terrorism, learning environments, and post-ethnic landscapes offer a briefspectrum of the dialogue that runs through the collection’s five topical sections on culture,history, sustainability, technology, learning and the landscape. CultureThe first selection of essays addresses contemporary culture, and the relationship betweenenvironmental art, material culture, sustainability, multiculturalism and the landscape. Inthe first essay in this series, author Mark Treib examines Michael Heizer’s series of earthsculptures created between the 1960s and 1980s, which describe a range of “displacements”that Treib asserts are essential acts of making landscape. Defining each sculpture as anintervention, in effect a disturbance of a prior order, Treib observes that while landscapearchitects often stress addition when designing, they also shift and remove elements such asliving material, construction, or just earth. Displacements then lie literally at the very heartof landscape architecture, and are the foundation upon which all other operations build. Hissuggestion that we might imagine a lexicon of earthen displacement as a basis of landscapemaking that would modulate climate, provide defense, support ceremony, accommodatepurposeful activity, posits a method for creating landscape, which interweaves utility withintellectual and aesthetic pleasure: intertwining landscape and the realm of art.Envisioning environmental art as a source for landscape experimentation, Timothy Bairdexplores the meaning of Michael Heizer’s Effigy Tumuli Sculptures and Herbert Bayer’sMill Creek Canyon Earthworks. These pieces, Baird suggests, are representative of anemerging sense of sustainability in the environmental art movement of the 1970s and80s, which ushered in a new wave of landscapes, and dramatically affected the way manylandscape architects approached design. Accordingly, Baird advocates an adoption of thisearly sense of sustainability in environmental design through a measuring of human impactson the landscape, suggesting that the making of landscape as art must enhance and reinforcenatural processes over time to encourage the remediation of environmental damage and theimprovement of ecological health. In “Multiple Exposures: Reading Landscape Values in Contemporary Mass-mediaAdvertizing,” author Carla Corbin explores landscape as “material culture,” providingtangible connections between landscape as art, nature as cultural product and culturallandscape as object. Relying on landscape representation as an important source forunderstanding cultural values and the dimensions of power and social practices, she records Landscape Impreints iii
  • 6. the contemporary role of landscape imagery in the pervasive advertizing that links brand-name commodities with social and cultural conceptions of landscape. For Corbin, theubiquity of media messages about social standing, personal relationships, and security thatuse images of nature or the outdoors to communicate health, purity, and lack of artifice,ultimately shape our consumer product preferences, our consumption behavior, and ourlandscape values.In the last of four selections focusing on the cultural landscape, Arthi Rao examinesthe changing relationships between multiculturalism, cosmopolitanism, pluralism anduniversalism in her essay on the creation of cemetery landscapes in post-ethnic America.Defining mourning rituals as both cultural sanction and personal need, Rao explores howfunerary ritual and mourning processes unfold in contemporary cemetery landscapes. Inresponse to what she suggests is an increasing loss of functional meaning in cemeteries, sheproposes the transformation of existing cemetery landscape to reflect the diverse culturalmourning processes of contemporary societies and the landscape’s capacity to heal. HistoryThe second selection of essays presents eight perspectives on landscape history withparticular emphasis on the landscapes of the South and the Eastern Seaboard of theUnited States. The essays suggest multiple interpretations of landscape history fromintersections of “wilderness ideology” and natural history, to the relationship betweenhistoric landscape and the development of historic musical form, to the origins of Americanfeminist landscape, the landscapes of urban and rural slavery, to landscape archaeology andpreservation and contemporary biographyIn “Stewarding Nature,” Paul Kelsch, broadens the scope of Treib’s, Baird’s, Corbin’s andRao’s conceptions of landscape creation from the intersection of art, material culture, andritual to that of natural history. His “constructive history” of Cathedral Pines, an old-growthforest in Cornwall, Connecticut wiped out by a tornado in 1989 interprets the controversythat surrounded the influence of “wilderness ideology” on the reforestation of the historiclandmark. Emphasizing nature as an historical construct rather than abstract ideology,Kelsch proposes that human beings imprint the land through use and modification; and thatthrough those imprints subsequently construct landscape as a product of both landscapeecology and imagination.In “Imprint of a Blues Stained Landscape,” Michael Robinson explores historicalrelationships between the creation of music and landscape form. His essay traces thedevelopment of archaic country blues (the Delta Blues) in the Yazoo Mississippi Delta at theend of the 19th century, focusing on the transformation of the Delta from wildland-swampto flat alluvial cotton plantations, jook joints, railroad depots, steamboat landings, andturpentine camps. In tracing the musical origins of the Blues from West African traditionsof music, agriculture and labor, to freed slave and sharecropper traditions of weaved workhollers, track calls, and ring shouts used to fell forest, drain swamps, clear land for crops,and lay railroad tracks, Robinson exposes the often tenuous connections between culturalnarrative, art form, and the creation of landscape.Martha Zierden examines the landscape as more than a reconstruction of social elite and theenslaved visible in the buried debris exposed through archaeology and research by gardenhistorians, landscape architects, and material culture specialists. According to Zierden,Charleston’s urban landscape was more than an amalgamation of individual landscapesLandscape Impreints iv
  • 7. of the elite, middling, and poor, slave and free, but a unique and definable type of its ownthat is simultaneously collective and contradictory. These landscapes expressed not onlythe elaborate and innovative formal landscapes of the powerful, but the landscapes of filledswamps, refuse dumps, maintenance yards, and livestock pens, reflecting a myriad of socialrelations that were played out in the constricted space of our historic cityscapes.In “Slave Landscapes of the Carolina Low Country,” Elizabeth Brabec, examines thelandscape settings of plantation slave communities and their day-to-day lives. Brabec’sessay is particularly valuable as a companion to Zierden’s in its presentation of formaland informal characteristics of the rural plantation, providing a richer understandingof the range of social landscapes developed in antebellum South Carolina. Brabecconvincingly illustrates that while the myths and realities of slave life have become largelyindistinguishable in period plantation depictions, valuable interpretation of the regional,temporal and cultural aspects of those landscapes are still possible through an examinationof plantation plats, extant plantation sites, archaeological findings, plantation owners’journals, travel accounts; slave narratives, and Civil War era photographs.Suzanne Spencer-Wood explores a very different kind of social landscape in herexamination of urban transformation, gendered landscape and American civic culture. Inher depiction of the Women’s Reform Movement and the American Playground Movementin Boston at the end of the nineteenth century, she describes the creation of playgrounds,parks and other green spaces influenced by the belief that women landscape designer’scontributed to a more moral, natural, and domestic public realm. She suggests that thesetransformations represent a significant form of early feminism that has shaped Boston’spublic landscape, which has in turn shaped Boston’s Women’s Heritage Trails preservingthe important role of women in shaping Boston’s landscape.Sherene Baugher further elaborates the role of gender in shaping the landscapes of theNortheastern United States in her description of New York’s Sailors’ Snug Harbor in 1831as a model charitable institution for retired and injured seamen. Buagher suggests thecreation of two interrelated landscapes at Snug Harbor: one which perpetuated on land themale hierarchy, power dynamics, and strictly ranked society that had existed onboard shipsat sea; and another which reflected the charitable organization’s institutionalization of classroles that were the foundation of nineteenth-century American industrial society.In her essay describing Phoenix, Arizona’s Native American School as an example of“assimilationist education for the Indian problem,” which took place between 1890 and the1930’s, Hemalata Dandekar proposes a process to interpret and interconnect new landscapecreation with historic cultural landscape preservation. She suggests that in creating theseintertwined landscapes, we best employ public democratic processes that respond to theneeds of all users, even those oblivious to the past. Dandekar refers to a typology forthe meanings of gardens based on faith, power, ordering, cultural expression, personalexpression and healing. In recognizing that a park represents the interplay of landscape asidea, physical space, and as action, she proposes that we can raise awareness of the complexhistory of landscape that respects and celebrates Native American meanings and symbols;yet meets the multicultural community needs of current, and future inhabitants.In the last of the essays that address landscape history, Sarah Georgia Harrison pays tributeto regional landscape architect Robert E. Marvin, examining the intimate intersection oflandscape and personality so often revealed in the biographies of those closely tied to nature Landscape Impreints v
  • 8. and the landscape. Her essay describes the evangelical zeal of an early landscape moderniststeeped in the traditional settings of the Southeast that nourished profound physical,emotional, intellectual and spiritual needs. Her reading of Marvin provides importantinsight into conceptions of our regional and national landscape that embodied the creationof landscape in the South during the second half of the twentieth century. SustainabilitySeven essays follow the first two series of essays on the cultural landscape and landscapehistory, addressing two increasingly important dimensions of contemporary landscapediscourse: sustainability and digital technology. Four of these essays explore prevailingstreams of thought on sustainability related to the urban landscape, the rise of “greeninfrastructure,” the psycho-ecological role of urban streams, and the deliberate “mimicry”of natural processes in landscape creation. The last of the seven essays elaborate theincreasing influence of digital technology on landscape creation, representation, andconceptualization at the beginning of the 21st century, examining issues of communityparticipation and landscape visualization, urban sprawl, and global terrorism.In “A Dialogue for Sustainability,” Alf Simon and Teresa Cordova argue for the generationof a new ‘technologically sublime’ landscape similar to those that were admired andcelebrated in the early twentieth century. They suggest that rather than the isolated andarguably unsustainable energy, water, drainage and waste systems of contemporaryAmerica, we should instead create profound social, cultural and ecological infrastructureas part of a psychologically and socially significant interconnected urban network. Assuch, infrastructure and urban sustainability would be joined as balanced multi-dimensionalprocesses that assimilate social, technological, political, environmental and economicdimensions within the contemporary landscape.Chia-Ning Yang explores the social, cultural and environmental ramifications of the kind of “greeninfrastructure” proposed by Simon and Cordova in her essay “Spontaneous Uses in Urban Streams.”In her study of Brentwood California’s urban streams, Yang posits whether “wild and scenic rivers”better serve wilderness purists, waterfront resorts better serve comfort recreationists, andwheter the majority of the urban streams can ever be genuinely wild or completely tamed.Her research suggests the promotion of spontaneous use as a central theme of urban streamrestoration based on the therapeutic effects of nature, on the beneficial effects of play, on thebeneficial social effects of raising environmental literacy, the ecological benefits of habitatpreservation, and on the ecologically dynamic benefits of human interaction with naturalprocesses.In “Biomimicry as a Runoff Management Strategy,” Sykes, Neckar, and Mikonowiczpropose biomimicry as an important component of sustainable landscape developmentbased on two underlying principles: its deliberate replication of natural processes to solvehuman problems, and its incorporation of ecological evaluative standards. Their essayproposes a combination of quantifitative and qualitative approaches to sustainable landscapeevaluation intended to define landscape in a manner capable of influencing political decisionmakers.In the last of the four essays on sustainability and the landscape, Lance Neckar examinesa genetic code for urban sprawl inflected by runoff treated as waste, and settlements assubdivisions. Comparing the effects of conventional development based on Euclidiannotions of zoning, and on Commuter Rail-Oriented Development, Neckar suggestsLandscape Impreints vi
  • 9. derivatives of three landscape types that define modern America: “sprawl,” “nicesprawl,”and “hydroburbia.” His essay stresses the continuing significance of scientific rationale as abasis for understanding and describing sustainable landscape quality. TechnologyIn their essay on the “Aesthetic, Recreational and Ecological Value of a Rural Landscapeon the Edge of Town,” Eckart Lange and Sigrid Hehl-Lange focus on subject matter at theheart of landscape architecture: the perception of aesthetic, recreational, and ecologicallandscape values. Their use of technologically generated images representing a varietyof landscape scenarios illustrates the changing methods of representation offered bytechnology, providing methods of landscape analysis reminiscent of English landscapearchitect Humphrey Repton’s use of analytical “Redbooks” more than two hundred yearsago.In the second of these three essays, Stephen Sperry expands the scope and scale oftechnologically-mediated landscape assessment, addressing the influence of regionalscale landscape on decision-making processes, policy formulation and urban developmentutilizing geospatial data rather than the visual representation, perception and experienceadvocated by Lange & Lange. In this essay, Sperry examines approaches to changingpatterns in land use, large-scale watershed change, ecosystems and biodiversity, as methodsfor change detection in deforestation, changes in vegetation phenology, agriculturalpractices, and water quality. His focus on contemporary change rather than scenariorepresentation, illustrate the extent to which landscape creation and conceptualization hasbecome a subject of both process and time.Douglas Way’s essay contributes to the short but rich history of landscape analysis andexperience at global scale using geographic information systems to explore the terrain ofinsurgents, smugglers, and terrorist bands. Way’s use of technology to define landscapesmediated by “stateless zones,” rugged terrain, distant populations with extended lines ofcommunication and control, and poor governance, suggests a landscape associated withmilitary and intelligence applications at a scale beyond traditional military engineering. Hisinclusion of quasi-legal territories and violently contested landscapes provides pragmaticcounterpoint to the landscapes envisioned by both the Lange’s and Sperry. LearningThe last selection of essays presents recent developments in contemporary landscapediscourse addressing education and learning. Robert Hewitt and Hala Nassar introducethis series of essays on learning and the landscape with their description of internationaleducation in landscape architecture. Hewitt and Nassar suggest that in an increasinglyglobalizing world, landscape architecture educaiton must encourage the realization ofsustainable, culturally and historically sensitive landscape at local, regional and globalscales. Their essay aptly addresses contemporary trends in international education,multiculturalism, and pedagogy, specifically related to landscape architecture in aglobalizing world.Kim Wilson, in her essay on learning and teams, identifies interdisciplinary andmultidisciplinary collaboration as a critical component of sustainable landscape. In herelaboration of criteria and methodology relevant to instructor-assigned teams, Wilsonexamines heterogeneous teams that mix technical skill, student preferences, learning style,interpersonal style, and aptitude to promote greater team learning and performance. She Landscape Impreints vii
  • 10. aptly illustrates how interpersonal understanding of the spoken and unspoken preferences,concerns, and strengths of team members enables effective knowledge sharing andopen communication; and how proactive problem solving reinforces team learning andperformance, leading to more sustainable design.In their essay on the value of vegetation in learning, Beth W. Darnell, Margaret Livingston,and Lauri Johnson, examine the value of work and play integrated with physical, social,emotional, and intellectual development. They remind us that the educator’s role in thesesettings best reflects that of environmental facilitator, with play used as a tool for teachingand extending the play experience They recommend children’s outdoor environments thatare sensory-rich and that facilitate play involving all the domains of development (physical,socio-emotional, cognitive, and sensory). Citing the growing concern that opportunitiesfor outdoor play and direct experiences with nature are shrinking, they note the increasingpotential of attention deficit behaviors, childhood obesity, and a general lack of concern forthe natural environmentThese twenty-two essays in the second edition of Landscape Imprints serving as arepresentative body of contemporary thought on the landscape, reminds us of theextraordinary scope of contemporary landscape architecutre. This edition’s variousthemes related to landscape representation, landscape history, and the cultural landscapehave resonated for centuries, while emerging themes associated with power, gender,sustainability, material culture, ethnicity, and technology clearly reflect the continuingreevaluation of its subject. As such these essays, like the earthen imprints from ourearliest landscape displacements to the digital visual scenarios of our conceptual landscapecreations remind us that landscape reflects not just our thoughts and actions over time, butthe landscape as it was, what it is at the beginning of the 21st century, and what it mightbecome. Acknowledgements Reviewers Daniel Nadenicek Francis Chamberlain Ardi Rao Robert Hewitt Graphic Design Robert Hewitt Staff Assistance Reva KaufmannLandscape Impreints viii
  • 11. Culture Displacements Marc Treib Environmental Art as Sustainable Design:Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks and Effigy Tumuli Sculptures C. Timothy Baird Multiple Exposures: Reading Landscape Values in Contemporary Mass-media Advertising Carla I. Corbin Redefining the Cemetery Landscape: A Multicultural Perspective Arthi Rao Culture 1
  • 12. Displacements calls attention to the remaining dentures, or a gap in a bookshelf that shines new lightMarc Treib on a book long taken for granted, or a mass of building materials huddled on a street and blocking normal access — the void or the pile provoked the contemplation of prior conditions.In 1976 Michael Heizer created a sculpture, In the work of a sculptor like Michael Heizer,Adjacent, Against, Upon, on the Seattle disposition was a basic trait; displacement wasshoreline. [Figure 1]. The work’s title reflected the vehicle for the transformations.three plausible relations between a rough andmassive boulder and a smooth geometric plinth The sculptor’s early inscriptions in the desertof concrete. Heizer’s proposition embraced the surface were termed “drawings,” and thecontrast and affinity between the natural and excavated medium shared much in commonthe constructed, but also between bodies in with the crayon or the pencil. “When I made thespace. “Synthetics are intensifications of the negative sculptures, I realized the possibility of an entire vocabulary,” said Heizer in anorganic sources,” Heizer has stated, suggesting interview. “I felt that if you made sculpturesa continuum rather than a true opposition of like this with basic materials such as earth youmaterial orders.1 Behind many of Heizer’s should also develop the areas of drawing andworks from that period stood a proposition painting so as to expose the whole its instigating force. How were two objects I made the ground drawings and the groundrelated in space? At what angles might planes paintings with this index in mind.”4 Linear inrelate to the ground? How might the shifting aspect, the engraved line traced the route ofof matter transform existing conditions and shovel, using digging in place of graphite andhuman perceptions of them?2 the earth in place of paper. Taken in this respect, Double Negative of 1970, near Overton, Utah, may be read as a drawing at a gigantic scale, as firmly established in mass and space as an ink and wash drawing by Giambattista Tiepolo.5 But here, in the vast spaces of the American Southwest, the size has increased to the point where it enfolds the human being: the drawing becomes a space, and the space a commentary on a larger set of issues, historical, geological, and ecological [Figure 2].Figure 1. Adjacent, Against, Upon. Seattle, Washington,1976. Michael Heizer.Beyond these sculptural explorations was thesimple idea of displacement. One took something from somewhere and deposited it inanother place or situation. As a result of thatoperation both objects were fundamentallychanged. The sculptor’s act was thus essentiallyone of transformation of pre-existingconditions through intervention. Disturbing Figure 2. Double Negative. Near Overton, Nevada, 1970.existing conditions effected a new situation, Michael Heizer. [Photo: 1999]which garnered a change of our perceptions ofit.3 Form and space constituted the language In reading Double Negative one can followby which the intentions emerged. Changing differing tracks. The inclined planes thatexisting conditions changed perception of resulted from its earthmoving operationsthose conditions. Like the missing tooth that comment equally upon bulldozer and human2 Treib
  • 13. effort as they facilitate entrance and exit into framed to lay out the full range of possiblethis canyon created through displacement. The relationships, long before any specific formspath of descent is also a journey back through have been envisioned. In this, the practice istime: as the movement horizontally becomes similar to the anthropologist Claude Levi-transposed into vertical depth, the visitor Strauss’s use of the periodic chart of chemicalencounters geological strata and translates elements as a model for plotting kinshipdepth into eons passed. relations in tribal society.6 To Lévi-Strauss the marvel of the periodic chart was its embraceLike landscapes designed for a broader range of all possible relationships, even those thenof criteria, Double Negative guides movement unknown. Today we might simply term itand perception. We shift from the complete a matrix, and in some ways Heizer’s artisticopenness of the mesa top to the directive project has exploited certain properties of thechannel of the chasm, with our view leaping matrix as a basis for inventing and selectingthe gap between the two cuts. There is relief: the end of each cut, the talus has pouredoutward and taken a more naturalistic form,its static flow encouraging the visitor to lookoutward and downward to the distant river andsurrounding landscapes.As a group, Heizer’s sculptures from this periodoutline the range of earth movements that arepart and parcel of making exterior places. Eachdesign is an incursion into a prior order. Whilewe tend to stress addition when designing, wealso remove and almost always shift, whetheremploying living material, construction, ormerely earth. Displacements lie — literally —at the very base of landscape architecture, andthey provide foundations upon which all otheroperations build, unless the work is superficial Figure 3. 45°/90°/180°. Rice University, Houston, Texas,in a non-pejorative sense of the word. 1984. Michael Heizer.Heizer’s later works, which might be termed As Heizer inventoried the possible associationspropositional, furthered the investigations that of rock, plinth, mass, and void, we might alsofirst propelled his terrestrial incisions. They posit a lexicon of earthen displacement as apose questions about the relationships between basis of making landscapes [Figure 4].things, and between characteristics positiveand negative. Through the 1970s and 1980sthe sculptor executed a series of works thataddressed these permutations of oppositions.Elevated, Surface, Depressed (1969–81), forexample, referenced forms and voids relatedto ground level. Rock remained the ostensiblesubjects of the works, although the extractedor mounded earth could lay equal claim tothat status. The piece 45°, 90°, 180° at RiceUniversity in Houston, dating from 1984,posited the potential angular relationships ofa red granite slab to the plane of the ground,from the vertical to the horizontal; the supportstructure, while necessary, in many ways isextraneous to the instigating idea, althoughnecessary for executing the concept and Figure 4. Peat Bogs, Shetland Islands, United Kingdom.inescapable as part of the sculpture [Figure 3]. Among them we might note displacementIn Heizer’s works — and in designs by others to modulate climate, for defense, to supportso conceived — the proposition is generic and ceremony, to accommodate purposeful activity, Culture 3
  • 14. and of course, for intellectual and aesthetic difference between action and residue and thuspleasure: the realm of art. These situations will between verbs and nouns. Perhaps all of this isbe discussed further below. It should be noted, a romantic (and somewhat academic) readinghowever, that the artist, unlike the designer, of a prosaic act, but in any case, there is littlehas an advantage in having to consider only as question that Asphalt Rundown was rooted inmany parameters as he or she might want. For the practice of displacement.example, James Turrell may focus completely(or nearly completely) on light and perception. Grading and drainage, cutting and filling, areHis interior installations use light as a vehicle part and parcel of most landscape operations,for sensing space as well as sensing ourselves and we could say that as the skeleton forsensing. His outdoor works explore either the garden or park or plaza, they are inchanges in lighting conditions over time, or themselves aesthetic operations. But they areother effects such as what is called celestial only one element of a larger constellation ofvaulting.7 Whether in a small work such as the landscape operations, and in many respects1996 Celestial Vaulting at the Kijkduin outside their identity is often lost once the planting hasThe Hague in the Netherlands, or the colossal been completed or the building erected. TheRoden Crater project in Arizona, Turrell’s significance of displacement in these artworks,reconfiguring of earthen contour heightens in contrast, derives from their continuing atthe perceived dome of the sky and reveals the forefront of perception. The question, then,periodic celestial conditions [Figure 5]. Here is whether we can maintain a focus on thesedisplacement serves artistic, and, one might displacements when incorporating them into aadd, philosophical purposes. larger set of issues and operations. The lessons of labor tell us that neither removing soil from, nor bringing soil to, the site constitutes the most efficient handling of earth movement. In an era of bulldozers, and dump trucks, perhaps this dictum is less universally applied, but in former times, when displacement meant shovels and manpower, the dictum was almost absolute. In no other situation was its rigor more desirable than for defensive purposes, in particular, for creating ramparts and moats. It would seem a truism that by complementing digging out with piling up fortification builders could reduce the effort involved in each by exactly one half. By using the earth excavated from the moat to create theFigure 5. Roden Crater. Near Flagstaff, Arizona, 1970s– adjacent bulwark any labor was given double2001+. James Turrell. agency by introducing water into the moat.A more obvious and focused use of displacementwas Robert Smithson’s Asphalt Rundown,executed in Rome in 1969.8 This piece raisesissues about the value of its operation and thedegree to which an aesthetic rather than an anti-aesthetic was involved, but it is a significantgesture nonetheless. Here a dump truck fullof asphalt unloaded its cargo along the bankof an abandoned gravel and dirt quarry. Asimple enough procedure. This could be takenas a mundane maneuver (except that freshasphalt in this particular location is somewhatstrange); in other ways, however, should weso desire, many of its aspects grant the pieceevocative qualities. Informing the work werequestions of gravity; of grain size, friction, and Figure 6. Stone Circle. Avebury, England, c. 2,300ultimately the angle of repose; of color, of the B.C.E.4 Treib
  • 15. At the Avebury site in Wiltshire, England, provides excellent thermal mass for insulation,the displacement of earth served primarily whether used in simple heaps, or in a morereligious or ceremonial purposes (or so it is sophisticated fashion, as adobe bricks. Thebelieved), but the reformation operations were properties of thermal mass retard the passagebasic to those of defense.9 Each shifting of of cold to the interior and heat outwards (orterrain constitutes an essential disturbance to vice versa if so desired), and thickness onlyan existing order as a means for shining light increases the effectiveness of the mounding.on some new condition [Figure 6] In an era where passive solar performance has gained greater acceptance, the popularity ofOne reforms in order to refocus attention the berm has followed suit in short order. Butpsychologically, if not necessarily proscribe long before this recently acquired sustainablemovement physiologically. All mounded consciousness, projects such as Frank Lloydstructures — the Cahokia site in Illinois and Wright’s second Jacobs House in Madison,the Serpent Mound in Ohio are good examples Wisconsin of 1949, demonstrated the positive— require resources from somewhere, and in effects of attaching soil with stone.11 The norththe process, these tons of soil are reformed wall of the hemicycle features only restrainedto create a recognizable feature, either iconic amounts of fenestration and is backfilled withshape or at least massive in aspect. earth for insulation and to blend the stoneThe tenth-century Viking camps in Denmark, walls of the house more completely with thesuch as Trelleborg and Fyrkat, demonstrate surrounding landscape [Figure 8]. In contrast,how extracting and heaping soil for defensive the southern façade, partially sheltered by thepurposes ultimately proffered aesthetic concave geometry of the plan, is extensivelysubjects as well.10 Through their orientation, glazed to admit generous amounts of sunlightshape, and apertures, these earthen ramparts and radiant heat. In this house, Wright niftilyprotected a settlement of wooden structures, paired aesthetics with thermal modulationitself set in symbiotic relation to its earthen to achieve a house design in which a simpleenclosure [Figure 7]. For the most part the shifting of earth achieved considerable successresidential structures have retreated to the state in both arenas.of archeological evidence, but excavations andpartial reconstructions have revealed how thewall of earth and the wall of wood played uponeach other, both poised in a state of perceivedsecurity. Figure 8. Jacobs House II. Madison, Wisconsin, 1949. Frank Lloyd Wright. Turning from architecture, we might also look at the use of simple displacements toFigure 7. Fyrkat Viking Camp, Jutland, Denmark, 10th accommodate or regulate occupancy of thecentury. landscape for dwelling, production, or pleasure. At the root of these examples is the regard forEarthen forms modulate climate as well as the earth as the basic tray upon which lifeeffect defense and enclosure. In Iceland, is played out. Most students and historianswhere wood was so scarce it required study the work of André le Nôtre primarilyimportation, two walls of the house were in plan, which is a quite limited investigationmade in earth, leaving the narrow gable ends of his considerable talent. The French gardenas the sole wooden surfaces. Soil, of course, maker’s use of the section—his modulation of Culture 5
  • 16. the terrain —was, in fact, equally if not more at Dampierre is reformed and leveled, neatlysophisticated than the planning of the axes and shaped and bounded by a series of canals thatbosks which structured most of his gardens.12 embrace a nearly square domain for the chateauThe axis on a slope, for example, was normally garden. To continue the thrust of the gardenstepped to provide increased level surface and across the valley, a counter axis took shape,more gradual ascents and descents. On the rise, excavating from the far hillside sufficienttheir subtlety also supported visual continuity earth to gnaw into the dominate swoop of thefrom level to level, and abrogated any radical landform—and not incidentally offer soil forfractures of perspective on the descent [Figure fill [Figure 10]. Given the almost complete9]. In actuality, the abrupt drop in elevation disappearance of the chateau’s vegetation,around the Latona Fountain at Versailles Dampierre is less visited today by landscapeis almost singular in le Nôtre’s work, for its architects and historians, and yet in its vegetalvertical dimension disrupts the continuity nudity its lessons are perhaps the most evidentfrom the upper parterre to the principal axis, of any of le Nôtre’s works.14creating two distinct zones. More often, theflow of the ground plane, and movement uponit, was invitingly smooth.Le Nôtre’s handling of earthen contour is todaymost evident at the chateau of Dampierre,near Port Royal, outside Paris. Built upon theremnants of a sixteenth-century structure, thenew chateau was designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart and constructed from 1675-1683. Figure 10. Château Dampierre, France, 1683. André le Nôtre (attributed) In the last decade, the most identifiable use of earthworks has peppered schemes by the San Francisco / Cambridge firm of Hargreaves Associates. For sites as geographically dispersed as California, Portugal, and the American Midwest, the earthen form has become a signature element for the office’s work. OfFigure 9. Central Axis, Versailles, France, late 17th course, even today, using earth forms makescentury. André le Nôtre. considerable economic sense, balancing cutting and filling as conditions best allow. But there isThe reformed landscape provided a radical more to it than that. In some instances, the earthbase for the ensemble, with the mansion set forms serve as thermal protection, blockinghugging one bank of the valley. In several unwanted winds and creating still pockets toways, the layout is bizarre and audacious, catch solar rays and their thermal blessings.countering every normal axiom of classical Aesthetically, of course, the meandering cigarsite planning. As a river valley, one would shapes of the earthen landscape have producedhave expected the arrangement of the chateau a visually exciting modeling of the land’sand its gardens to follow the lay of the land surface, especially apparent in two- or three-and the direction of water flow. But le Nôtre dimensional representations. Their order, saidand company established the thrust of the to derive from the forces of hydraulic process,house and gardens as a cross axis to the sweep suggests the flow of liquids through lowlandsof the hollow, damming the river to form a and hillsides, even where the water may, in fact,grand pièce d’eau that suggests the grand be absent. In models and plans, the patterningwater parterres at Studley Royal in Yorkshire of earthen forms promises an exciting andof the following century.13 The river bottom varying field of modeled ground, one in which6 Treib
  • 17. spatial and visual restriction and closure plays Landscape architects who have adopted theagainst release and the open vista. idea of the earthworks have often neglected to master the relation of formal complexityParts of Byxbee Park in East Palo Alto, with the scale of site, creating displacementsCalifornia of 1992, for example, are sufficiently which have been too few and too large, or toostrong to regulate both movement and view many and too weenie. As noted above, artists[Figure 11]. In other applications, however, — are privileged in their option whether or not tofor example, the Louisville Waterfront Park— deal with the full panoply of the factors thatthe gestures ultimately appear too small, too face designers. They can address as few asnumerous, and too similar—as a result, the one parameter should they so choose, perhapsexperience of one mound valley is more less the increasing the power of their work throughsame as any other. One questions, too, the use a concentration on fewer aspects. In someof forms said to be based on natural processes ways, however, we can regard these works asthat follow different orientations, at times more the pure research, while designers are facedor less perpendicular to the river or shore, at with development and application for broadertimes nearly parallel. It would seem that water human utility.doesn’t flow along more than one course inany particular situation, causing the thoughtthat one of them is accurate while the other isonly an affectation. Alas, in a number of theprojects, the promise of the models’ richnessis left unfulfilled in the realized work. At theother extreme — the recent campus landscapework for the University of Cincinnati, forexample — the gestures appear too complex,too stuttering, for the limited available terrain.They tend to fragment the space and furtherdivide rather than unify the spaces andtranscend the network of walkways.Getting this balance of size and complexityright is not an easy job, and one hopes that themeasure of success for the work will improve Figure 12. Broken Circle. Emmen, The Netherlands.with time and rigorous post-construction Robert Smithson. [Photo: 2001, with work thenevaluation. The power of the original submerged]earthworks like Double Negative or RobertSmithson’s 1971 Broken Circle derived in large But from them, and from other historicalmeasure from the singularity of the gesture — examples, we can learn. We can learn aboutessentially just one thought, one concept, one formulating a more conceptual approachform, or one void [Figure 12]. to the site free of specific function, and we can learn how enacting that proposition may accommodate the panoply of factors that determine the making of landscape architecture. While I have tended to present earthen displacement in terms of singular factors or intentions, in fact, each has served— and should serve — more than one purpose at any given time. We have seen how defense might also possess a ceremonial aspect, or that ceremony may also benefit from a thermal dimension. I return your attention here to the sculptures by Michael Heizer that I termed propositional at the opening of this paper. A consideration of the full range of relationships between earth and built form may suggest to us alliances until now unconceived.Figure 11. Byxbee Park. East Palo Alto, California, 1992.Hargreaves Associates. But I would caution against the use of this Culture 7
  • 18. practice uncritically. It would seem that 2 Michael Heizer’s work appears in virtually everythe great landscape designs—and I will study of earthworks or land art, such as Johnoppose them to works which are singularly Beardsley, Earthworks and Beyond, New York:artistic—attack the problem on more than one Abbeville, 1984. On the other hand, monographsbattlefield, and integrate the positive aspects have been somewhat limited; principal among theminto works that, should they not achieve all is Julia Brown, editor, Michael Heizer: Sculpture intheir desired goals, at least achieve as many Reverse, Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporaryof them as is practical. Rather than utilizing Art, 1984, and Douglas McGill and Michael Heizer,the matrix of factors only for displacements Effigy Tumuli, New York: Harry Abrams, 1990.of ground, one needs to expand that matrix 3 The notion of disturbance is central Marc Treib,to include the propositional relationships that “The Presence of Absence: Places by Extraction,”enfold other aspects of design—for example, Places, Volume 4, Number 3, 1987, pp. 8-19.people and their activities, rather than formand aspect alone [Figure 13]. This is the greater 4 Interview with Julia Brown, p. 28.challenge for employing displacements, asit is the challenge for any other approach to 5 See Richard Koshalek et al, Double Negative, Loslandscape, whether social, vegetal, political, or Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art and Newenvironmental. York: Rizzoli, 1991, as well as sources cited in note 2. 6 See Claude Lévi-Strauss, Claire Jacobson and Brooke Schoepf, translators, Structural Anthropology, Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1967; and Claude Lévi-Strauss, John Russell, translator, Tristes Tropiques, New York: Athenaeum, 1971. 7 Writings about James Turrell are extensive. The major publications are Julia Brown, editor, Occluded Front: James Turrell, Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art, 1985; Craig Adcock, James Turrell: The Art of Light and Space, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990; and Peter Noever, editor, James Turrell: The Other Horizon, Vienna: MAK and Cantz Verlag, 1999. No writer I have read conveys the artist’s ideas as well as Turrell himself does and the interviews in many of the articles and catalogs provide extremely valuable insights into his life’s project. For example, see Interview with Richard Andrews and Chris Bruce, in Richard Andrews, editor, James Turrell: Sensing Space, Seattle: Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington, 1992. 8 See Robert Hobbs, editor, Robert Smithson: Sculpture, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981, pp. 174–177. The artist’s writings are collected in Nancy Holt, editor, The Writings of RobertFigure 13. Red Rocks Amphitheater. Morrison, Colorado, Smithson, New York: New York University Press,1941. Burnham Hoyt. 1979. 9 Construction on the Avebury site spanned centuries,Notes starting somewhere in the second millennium1 Interview with Julia Brown, in Julia Brown, editor, B.C.E. The stone circle site was believed “builtMichael Heizer: Sculpture in Reverse, Los Angeles: in the late Neolithic times, roughly between 2500Museum of Contemporary Art, 1984, p.14. Later in and 2200 BC.” Faith de M. Vatcher and Lancethe interview (p. 15), Heizer notes that in regards Vatcher, The Avebury Monuments, London: Englishto Adjacent, Against, Upon, “geometry is organic.” Heritage, 1976, p. 30.8 Treib
  • 19. 10 Basic information on the two sites can be foundin Poul Nørlund, Trelleborg, Copenhagen: NationalMuseum, 1968; and Olaf Olsen, Fyrkat: The VikingCamp near Hobro, Copenhagen: National Museum,1959.11 The second Jacobs House has been widelypublished in the extensive literature on Frank LloydWright’s residential architecture. See, for example,John Sargeant, Frank Lloyd Wright’s UsonianHouses: The Case for Organic Architecture, NewYork: Whitney Library of Design, 1976, 1984,especially pp. 82-83. Herbert Jacobs with KatherineJacobs, Building with Frank Lloyd Wright, SanFrancisco: Chronicle Books, 1978, traces the joysand tribulations of building two houses by themaster.12 Virtually none of the standard sources on leNôtre carefully examine his gardens in section. Thestandard work, Hamilton Hazelhurst, Gardens ofIllusion: The Genius of André le Nostre, Nashville:Vanderbilt University Press, 1980, virtually neglectsall mention of ideas about composition in section,although the shaping of contours appears in chapterson Saint-Germaine-en-Laye and Meudon. On theother hand, the Hazelhurst’s descriptions of viewand procession through the gardens implicitly citele Nôtre’s handling of the terrain. The same authortouches on the subject, however, in “Le Nostre andOptical Illusion,”VIA 6: Architecture and VisualPerception, Philadelphia: Graduate School ofFine Arts, University of Pennsylvania, 1983, pp.117–130. One of the view sources to address the leNôtre’s shaping of contour is Thierry Marriage, TheWorld of André le Nôtre, Philadelphia: Universityof Pennsylvania Press, 1999, pp. 37–40, whichexamines the question of techniques used for bothgarden building and military fortification.13 In the making of Studley Royal in the earlydecades of the eighteen century, a river wasdammed and its water converted to a series of waterparterres patterned on classical models. See TheNational Trust, Fountains Abbey & Studley Royal,North Yorkshire: The national Trust, 1988.14 Le Nôtre’s development for the terrace at Saint-Germaine-en-Laye also demonstrates the landscapearchitect’s effective leveling of a slope for maximumaesthetic effect. It bears certain parallels with alater English project, Rievaulx Terrace in NorthYorkshire created by Thomas Duncombe aroundthe middle of the eighteenth century.IllustrationsCredit All Photos: Marc Treib Culture 9
  • 20. Environmental Art as “with ambitions to articulate, even to shape, the contemporary relationship to nature.”2 ThisSustainable Design: thread of ecological sensitivity continues todayMill Creek Canyon in the work of artists such as Buster SimpsonEarthworks and Effigy and Lorna Jordan.Tumuli Sculptures Long before the terms “sustainable design” and “sustainability” were in common use,C. Timothy Baird some environmental artists were creating landscapes that reclaimed abused land and, as a result, healed scars on the land and promotedIntroduction landscape regeneration. This paper will presentThe environmental art movement of the two examples of environmental art that were1970s and 80s ushered in a new wave of conceived in the context of land reclamation andlandscapes that dramatically affected the were, arguably, early examples of sustainableway many landscape architects approached landscape design. Herbert Bayer’s Mill Creekdesign. This new generation of landscape Canyon Earthworks in Kent, Washington andarchitects was influenced not only by the Michael Heizer’s Effigy Tumuli Sculptures,strong formal gestures on the land, but also by near Ottawa, Illinois, will be examined in termsthe conceptual ideas and writings of some of of their similarities and differences in formalthese environmental artists. The connections strategy, reclamation context, public process,between contemporary landscape design level of sustainability attained, and changeand the works, ideas, and writings of Robert over time. A comparison of these works,Smithson, Michael Heizer, Walter de Maria, through a review of the literature, site visits,Nancy Holt, Robert Morris, and others is well interviews of project participants and a closedocumented. Not so clearly documented, examination of documents such as drawings,however, is the level of sustainable design that models, photographs, and correspondencewas achieved by some of the environmental art reveals similarities in conceptual frameworkof the period. While sustainability was usually and emphasis on the landscape experience asnot typically a primary objective of these works well as sharp contrasts in the approach to theof art, there is much to be learned from careful public process and the time required to actuallystudy of these pieces and it will be argued that regenerate the despoiled or problematicsome have, in fact, achieved a certain level of landscape.sustainability.While environmental artists certainly have hada great impact on the profession of landscapearchitecture – from Robert Morris and NancyHolt to Robert Smithson (who referred toOlmsted as the first earthworks artist) – not all oftheir work could be considered environmentallysensitive.1 In fact, some of the work, such asMichael Heizer’s early pieces in arid areassuch as Complex One and Double Negative,was thought to be ecologically damaging tothe subtle and fragile desert environment.While some environmental artists like MichaelSinger, Alan Sonfist, and Helen and NewtonHarrison worked to reveal natural process andperhaps to remediate problems, for the mostpart the genre was more about moving out of thegallery and into the landscape (environment),in opposition to the commercialization of art,than it was about ecological sensitivity. Thework these artists were doing was originally Figure 1. Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks, M. Heizercalled earth art or land art. It was not untillater that it become known as environmental Both Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks andart, when more and more artists came along Effigy Tumuli Sculptures were conceived as10 Baird
  • 21. abstract geometric compositions of landforms that does not impede the natural and culturalthat served dual purposes. For the former, the processes of a site but, in fact, enhances andpurposes were human enjoyment and storm reinforces these processes as much as possiblewater management; for the latter, human in order for the landscape to be sustained overenjoyment and the reclamation of strip-mined time. In addition, it is design that encouragesland were primary concerns. From these the remediation of environmental damage orcommonalities, the two works are distinctly the improvement of ecological health. Finally,dissimilar relative to their public acceptance, it is design that engages the public through itslevel of sustainability achieved, and physical aesthetic quality.condition since completion. Careful scrutinyof all facets of these two built works will Because of the need to quantify sustainability,provide those interested in reclamation and especially in architecture, the Leadership insustainable landscape design with insight Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)and information that could elevate the quality certification system was created. Theof future design interventions conceptually, problem with LEED is its lack of an aestheticformally, and ecologically. component that might address design quality. As James Wines, architect and author of Green Architecture, is fond of saying, “if a building is not beautiful and does not evoke a positive spatial experience, no amount of sustainability will ensure that it will still be standing in twenty years.”4 A more useful way to determine the degree of sustainability of a particular designed landscape might be to use a checklist such as that developed by Frederick Steiner and David Pijawka5 (Table 1), because it includes subjective categories like beauty, noise, stress, and silence. The obvious drawback of such an evaluation checklist is the inherently difficult and highly subjective nature of evaluating the aesthetic component. At the very least, this evaluation system incorporates the aesthetic qualities of a designed landscape.Figure 2. Effigy Tumuli Sculptures,Ottawa, Illinois If, in fact, a designed landscape is to be sustainedMichael Heizer. over time, it could be argued that there must be public acceptance. The degree to which theSustainable Landscape Design public embraces a landscape depends to someThe definition of sustainable landscape design degree on their inclusion during the designis somewhat elusive. Carol Franklin says and planning process and their appreciation ofthat “we need a broader and more pro-active its aesthetic and experiential qualities. This,definition of sustainable design and this is why of course, is where the designer must rely onit may be preferable to call the new paradigm his or her communication skills to convey‘Ecological Design’.” This is a design approach their conceptual ideas and proposed formalthat should go beyond the modest goal of strategy to the public. These two landscapesminimizing site destruction to facilitating will be assessed according to their sustainablecommunity recovery by reestablishing the design qualities by using the Steiner andprocesses necessary to sustain natural, social, Pijawka method. The works will be evaluatedand cultural systems. Robert Thayer prefers according to such criteria as their ability toJohn Lyle’s term regenerative in lieu of maximize open space, reduce stress, createsustainable because “it more aptly invokes beauty, provide wildlife habitat, and createprocesses that ensure healthy, functioning purer water and air.ecosystems.”3 Mill Creek Canyon EarthworksFor the purpose of this paper, sustainable Herbert Bayer’s Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks,landscape design is considered to be design completed in 1982, is a piece that clearly Culture 11
  • 22. articulates the artist’s goal of unifying art and of the landforms were actually conditioned bylife under technology through its serene beauty, hydrologic principles to facilitate the flow andevocative experiential quality, and usefulness detention of society.6 This work of environmental art isactually a two and one-half acre portion of a The City of Kent, through its Arts Commission96-acre city park in Kent, Washington, near commissioned this project as a solution toSeattle. The Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks increasing urban storm water runoff and itsis a popular and renowned work of art that resultant flooding and soil erosion problems.challenges the status quo regarding ecological The environmental artwork was a means ofdesign and sustainability. It was one of only enlivening the plans for a proposed storm watertwo implemented works out of 8 proposals detention basin and creating a unique entrancethat were the result of Earthworks: Land to an existing public park. The city’s goalsReclamation as Sculpture, a symposium and were: to control flooding, to restore fish runs,watershed event in the field of environmental and to create an aesthetically pleasing facilityart as reclamation in Seattle in 1979. that would contribute to the enhancement of the park.7 One of the indicators of the support for this project was its varied funding sources; grants were received from local, county, state and federal arts agencies as well as the city engineering department and a community development block grant from HUD. The local citizenry, led by their mayor, was staunchly supportive of the effort from the beginning. In their quest to raise additional funds to supplement the acquired grants, the people of Kent sold signed Bayer-designed posters commemorating the earthworks and even held bake sales. This kind of grass roots support led to the implementation and long-term success of the project. The client’s goals were met with the creation of an internationally acclaimed work of art that reduces downstream flooding and its resultant stream sedimentation and erosion by detaining as much as 15 acre-feet of storm water whileFigure 3. Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks, M. Heizer accommodating and enhancing the local Coho Salmon habitat. It has, in fact, functioned asThe compositional strategy used by Bayer at Mill intended over its 20-year life and is in veryCreek Canyon is reminiscent of those he used good condition, given the steepness of itsin his earlier landscapes in Aspen, Colorado. slopes and the nature of its purpose.The conical landforms, circular pools of water,and ring-shaped landforms encircling water Effigy Tumuli Sculptureswere all a part of his formal repertoire evident Edmund Thornton, then CEO of the Ottawain Grass Mound and Anderson Park. Bayer Silica Company, was instrumental in havingintended to create a landscape of continually artist involvement in reclaiming 150 acreschanging spatial interest with varying degrees of his company’s former strip mine, locatedof enclosure and views both into and out of adjacent to the 34-acre Buffalo Rock Statethe spaces. The forms in the landscape were Park on the banks of the Illinois River in northfor the enjoyment of the user; they were to be central Illinois. After a failed attempt to getviewed as objects and experienced by moving Isamu Noguchi to take on the project, Thorntonthrough, around, and over them. The play of settled on Michael Heizer to transform the toxiclight and shadow across the landforms provides site to a more tranquil work of land art.8 Thean ever-changing visual display throughout artist’s penchant for work on a grand scale andthe day. Bayer was, in essence, creating a his love of vast sites seemed to make him theplace of experience and memory that would perfect candidate to work with the expanse ofsimultaneously serve the community as a despoiled land atop a sandstone plateau risingflood control device. The slopes and shapes ninety feet above the Illinois River.12 Baird
  • 23. the Federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 were met, including removal of the standing acid water to prevent it from flowing into the river and adjacent roadway drainage swales, prevention of erosion and resultant sedimentation of the same, re-grading the property to its original contour, and re-vegetating the site. These were accomplished even though it took much longer than anticipated to establish complete vegetative cover on the acidic soils. As a result, severe erosion of the landforms plagued the project for several years. An almost annual re-planting of the site with variations on the original seed mix continues, as a series of experiments to find those species hardy enough to survive the incredibly hash conditions. An unanticipated benefit that illustrates the degreeFigure 4. Effigy Tumuli Sculptures,Ottawa, Illinois to which this site has finally regenerated isMichael Heizer. the abundant wildlife that has returned. Deer, turkey, numerous songbirds, coyote, and baldHeizer departed slightly from his definitive and golden eagles have been observed on theuse of geometric abstraction to create a site recently.landscape of five enormous earthen moundsrepresenting animals indigenous to the riverine Comparisonenvironment: a water strider, a frog, a turtle, a Similaritiescatfish, and a snake. His idea was to create Mill creek Canyon Earthworks and Effigy Tumuliabstractions through a series of planar, faceted Sculptures are both internationally recognizedlandforms rather than rounded figural forms; works of art in very different settings. Bothprismatic planes that, according to one critic, artists wanted very much for their work to beseem to relate to the crystalline structure of the about experience and not about the art object.mineral beneath the surface that was the prize The notion of controlling that experienceso eagerly sought by the mining company.9 through a series of picturesque “views” wasThe artist at once paid homage to the Native also counter to both artists’ intentions. Rather,American mound builders of the past and the they hoped for the freedom of the individualanimal species that had at one time inhabited to discover, explore, and interpret their workthe area. Construction began in spring of 1985 as each person saw fit. The perception andon the first phase of sixty acres that included experience of the user was important while thethe first of the effigies, the fourteen feet high, art as object was less so. Both works of art were80 feet wide, and 685 feet long Water Strider. conceived through similar formal strategies;The remaining 90 acres and four effigies were the two artists created a series of abstractedcompleted by the fall of that same year. landforms that in turn defined the spaces ofThe overburden left by the strip mining process their landscapes. And finally, both artists paiddisrupted the normal pattern of surface storm little attention to the long-term managementwater runoff and pools of this water collected of their work. Effigy Tumuli Sculptures has,within these basins created by the acidic soils. unfortunately, suffered more from this lack ofThe acid water spilled over into the Illinois appreciation of landscape maintenance. WhileRiver and into local roadway drainage swales at Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks has receivedevery rainstorm. At the time of the reclamation, better maintenance, the other parks and openthe pH of the soil on the site was between 1.0 spaces within Kent’s maintenance budget haveand 3.0, much too low for most plant growth. suffered because of the greater cost of caringBy comparison, the pH of vinegar is 2.0 and for this artwork.lemon juice is 1.0. Writer and art critic ErikaDoss claims that the soil was so acidic that it Differencesactually melted the soles of her shoes when she Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks was anwalked the site. exemplar of public participation while Effigy Tumuli Sculptures has been called a public artReclamation requirements set forth by disaster for its utter lack of public input.10 In Culture 13
  • 24. Table 1Sustainable Design Evaluation Checklist (partial list adapted from Steiner and Pijawka et al. 2000) Sustainable Completely Partly Neither Partly Completely Not Sustainable 1 Maximizes open space Minimizes open space 2 Builds on local context Disregards local context 3 Reduces stress (physical and psychological) Increases stress 4 Beautiful Destroys beauty 5 Remediates natural landscape Degrades natural landscape 6 Creates purer air Destroys pure air 7 Creates purer water Destroys pure water 8 Uses rain water Wastes rain water 9 Replenishes groundwater Depletes groundwater 10 Creates richer soil Destroys rich soil 11 Creates silence Destroys silence 12 Provides wildlife habitat Destroys wildlife habitat 13 Moderates climate and weather Intensifies climate 14 Uses local resources Imports resources 15 Encourages walking/biking Encourages automobile usefact, there was considerable public resentment (Table 1) and assigning at least a designation oftoward not only their lack of inclusion in “partly sustainable” for all applicable criteria,the decision making but also toward the art these two pieces achieve sustainability asitself. By discounting the local people’s shown below.previous use of the site and precluding it inthe future, the state, the patron, and the artist Both art works are successful in:created an environment of distrust that surelyplayed a role in the project’s painstakingly -Maximizing open space provisionslow maturation. Heizer was relentless in his -Building on local contextdisavowal of the connection between his art -Reducing stress (physical and psychological)and land reclamation while Bayer was equally -Creating or enhancing Beautyadamant that societal utility in the form of -Creating purer airflood control was as much a part of his art -Creating purer wateras the formal order of his landforms. Other -Creating silencedifferences include the remote location of Effigy -Providing wildlife habitatTumuli Sculptures as compared to Mill Creek -Moderating climate and weatherCanyon Earthworks, the relatively benign -Encouraging walking/bikingcondition of the existing site in Kent in lightof the highly toxic condition of the abandoned Effigy Tumuli Sculptures is successful in:strip mine, and the intimate scale of Mill CreekCanyon Earthworks when seen alongside the -Remediating the natural landscapemonumental scale of Effigy Tumuli Sculptures. -Replenishing groundwaterMill Creek Canyon Earthworks was established -Creating richer soilwithin two years of its construction and EffigyTumuli Sculptures is only now, in its eighteenth Clearly both of these works of environmental artyear, reaching establishment. Perhaps the have achieved a significant level of sustainablemost striking difference between these two design with Effigy Tumuli Sculptures meetingworks is that Heizer failed to sell his critically thirteen criteria and Mill Creek Canyonacclaimed idea to those closest to the artwork, Earthworks meeting ten.while Bayer intentionally worked closely with Conclusionthe public to gain their input and acceptance. Intentional or not, these two works have begun the process of landscape regenerationSustainability on their respective sites. Both of these highlyBy utilizing the Steiner and Pijawka approach acclaimed works of environmental art have14 Baird
  • 25. achieved a significant level of sustainability, 6 Olin, Margaret R., Book Review of Herbert Bayer:even though sustainability was not a primary The Complete Work in Winterthur Portfolio (v. 21,goal of their creators. Summer/Autumn, 1986), 213.While Effigy Tumuli Sculptures scores higher 7 City of Kent, WA, Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks, (publicity brochure by City of Kent, WA, c.1982),than Mill Creek Canyon Earthworks on the 4-5.Steiner and Pijawka sustainability checklist,it does not score well as an artwork that is 8 McGill, Douglas C., Michael Heizer: Effigyembraced by the community. Tumuli, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.,1990), 17.If public understanding of and interaction withart or landscape is as important to the long term 9 Kertiss, Klaus, “Earth Angles” in Artforumsustainability of the built work as its ecological International, Vol. 24 (February 1986), – and I would emphatically suggest thatit is -- Effigy Tumuli Sculptures seems less 1 Doss, Erika, Spirit Poles and Flying Pigs:likely to be sustained over time. These two Public Art and Cultural Democracy in American Communities, (Washington, DC: Smithsonianexamples underscore the importance of the Institution Press, 1995), 117.aesthetic value and design quality of a work ofenvironmental art or designed landscape to itssustainability over time and the significance of Notesthe ability or desire of the artist or designer to Portions of this article appeared in Baird, C.communicate his or her ideas to the public. Timothy, “A Composed Ecology” in LandscapeIf we are to create truly sustainable landscapesin the future it is clear that beauty, sensorypleasure, experience, and public engagementmust have equal footing with habitatenhancement, water quality improvement,increased storm water infiltration, and soilerosion abatement.References1 Nadenicek, Daniel Joseph and Hastings, CatherineM., “Environmental Rhetoric, EnvironmentalSophism”, in Environmentalism in LandscapeArchitecture, Conan, Michael, Editor, (Washington,DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library andCollection, 2000), 158.2 Beardsley, John, Earthworks and Beyond:Contemporary Art in the Landscape, (New York,NY: Abbeville Press, 1989), 7.3 For further examination of the definitionsof sustainable design and sustainability seeBaird, C. Timothy, “Sacred Ground: MustSustainable Landscapes Mimic the Form andSpatial Organization of Nature?,” in CELA 2002Groundwork: Selected Conference Papers,(Syracuse, NY: Faculty of Landscape Architecture,SUNY College of Environmental Science andForestry, 2003), 10.4 Ibid, 11.5 Steiner, Frederick, The Living Landscape: AnEcological Approach to Landscape Planning,(New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., Second Edition,1999), 294. Culture 15
  • 26. Multiple Exposures: investment, and/or tourism–which, logically, shows destinations. Little has been done,Reading Landscape however, on the use of images of place andValues in Contemporary nature to sell other products.Mass-media Advertising Focus and Scope This paper examines the broad culturalCarla I. Corbin meanings and associations attached to place, read through their use in print media advertising. Ads in which pictures of place and nature playIntroduction an important part of the message, work becauseAmericans are exposed to an estimated daily these images have power as ‘commodity signs,’average of 1,500 advertising appeals. Only defined by Goldman and Papson as a “meaningabout 76 ads out of the total catch our attention, system that is summarized in an image”1 (82).but that multiplies to over 27,000 per year, a The prevalence and mechanisms of place-mass-media imprinting that communicates images as commodity signs is studied throughmany messages in addition to the primary a transect taken through one month of high-appeal to buy a product, listen to a radio circulation, general-interest magazines: Time,station, or vote for a candidate (West, 269). The Reader’s Digest, Better Homes and Gardens,mechanism of many visual ads is to link brand- Glamour, and Maxim. The investigation ofname commodities with social and culturally the sample is based on three questions: whatmeaningful images to create ‘commodity proportion of the total advertising in each issuesigns’ (Goldman and Papson, 81). uses images of L, N, and the B-Env, and what is the frequency in each of these three categories;The concern of this investigation is one subset what is the primary meaning system orof images—landscape, nature, and the built landscape association represented in each ad;environment (L, N, and B-Env)—and their uses and what products most often use this imagery–as sales and promotional tools. Which images where is it most effective? To begin, culturalof place and nature have this power, and what theory related to advertising will be examined,ideological stories they transmit and reinforce which supports the validity of advertising as ashould be of interest to landscape architects and source of insight on the cultural power of placeeducators. People – clients, user groups, voters meanings. The body of the paper is the analysison bond issues and legislation having to do of the sample, followed by interpretation of thewith public landscapes and conservation – see findings. The conclusion discusses significancemany landscape images in advertising, possibly for perceptions of landscapes in the physicalmore places than are directly experienced in world, and indicates directions for futurethe physical, sensed world. Further, these are work.powerful images, designed to persuade. The Contextconnection between these images and general Advertising mirrors culture. John Bergerperceptions of landscape has not been studied, writes: “Publicity is the culture of the consumerbut influences of media on behavior have been society. It propagates through images thatsufficiently documented in other contexts to society’s belief in itself” 2 (Berger, 139). Morewarrant investigation into the commodity-sign recently Goldman and Papson, scholars ofroles of L, N, and the B-Env in advertising. advertising media, agree that “advertising has upheld culturally predominant ways of seeingLandscape scholars, notably historians, things” (Goldman and Papson, 95). This mirrorfrequently examine representations as has little interest in truth, and is selective,important sources for understanding cultural purposeful, and informed, a combination ofvalues, patterns of use, and other dimensions art and science. The ‘science’ part may be aof power and social practices regarding flattering characterization of the testing that islandscape. But less interest has been shown in involved with major advertising campaigns,common representations in the contemporary but most are grounded in “a good statisticalmarketplace of media, with some exceptions in foundation” of strategy, design, mediawork by historians and sociologists. Significant planning, and evaluation (Jones, 3). Choiceswork has been done in the last decade on place about which images to use and the subtletiesadvertising—the presentation of towns, cities of their presentation are intentional andand geographic areas to promote settlement, calculated for effective resonance with targeted16 Corbin
  • 27. audiences. A recent volume, How Advertising and clearly–translated for iconic content—asWorks: the Role of Research, describes robust advertising messages have become shorter inand sophisticated tools used by advertisers duration, in the case of television, and “moreand clients at three stages in the process: at visual, less wordy, and more like billboards”the beginning, to determine user preferences; in print media (Joyce, 16).during the development of an ad, to compareeffectiveness of alternative versions; and after, Method, Survey, and Resultsto measure success. Not all advertisers employ The sample shown in Table 1 was selectedthe full extent of predictive and evaluative according to two criteria: first, for largetesting and measurement that is common with circulation, and second, for a broad spectrumlarge-scale campaigns, but the visible success of readership, the latter based on the author’sor failure of national advertising provides perception of the magazines’ audiences. Themodels and sets trends that other advertisers following were excluded from the tally offollow. individual advertisements: ads smaller than one-third page were not counted because the Approaches to evaluation of advertising survey focuses on issues of visual impact,design, and analysis of advertising impact and smaller ads either have insignificanton sales are not without controversy about images or are text-only. Ads in which there ismethods and interpretation. Further, most a predictable contextual relationship betweenresearch about testing is product-oriented. product and setting–meaning that the productSuccess or ‘likeability’ of ads3–the latter a is shown in its intended setting or typical placestrong predictor for sales–is not analyzed on of production–were not counted because ofthe basis of separate contributing factors, but reduced reliance on appropriated meaningsrather on the impact of the whole: the product and values from the setting. This affectedand its marketing and image history, along three subject-areas of ads: food ads showingwith other factors such as media, frequency agricultural settings, or residential kitchens orof encounter, graphic composition and style, dining rooms; travel ads showing destinations;music, text or verbal messages, and other and home-related products and furnishings,elements. While it’s not possible to isolate the along with lawn and garden products, showncontribution to the effectiveness of an ad by in residential settings.a particular landscape setting, these imagesare present in ads in significant frequencies, Table 2 shows the total numbers of ads in eachwhich provides convincing evidence for the magazine, the frequency of L, N, and B-Envstrength of their collective cultural meaning settings or symbols, and the percentage of theand communication of value. Trends over total each represents. Each ad was then reviewedthe last three decades in advertising also in three ways: first, for the predominant place-indicate that certain landscape images are type or symbol; second, for the commodityuseful because they are recognized quickly sign value, or cultural meaning; and third,Table 1Sample group of magazines; annual circulations based on 2001 figures (Advertising Age). PUBLICATION CIRCULATION AUDIENCE Time Magazine 4,189,981 educated readers, both genders, diverse age groups Better Homes 7,601,377 middle-income readers, primarily and Gardens female Reader’s Digest 12,565,779 middle- and lower-income, both genders Maxim 2,553,895 younger males to about age 30 Glamour 2,201,279 younger women to mid 30s Culture 17
  • 28. Table 2Frequency of advertisements, one-third page size or larger: feature L, N or B-Env setting or symbol, and per-centage representation of the total advertising in the sample magazine issues. PUBLICATION TOTAL ADS FREQUENCY OF L, N or PERCENT OF TOTAL B-ENV SETTINGS ADS IN ISSUE WITH OR SYMBOLS L, N or B-ENV Time Magazine 45 12 27% Better Homes 133 27* 20%* and Gardens Reader’s Digest 56 15 27% Maxim 89 36 40% Glamour 83 23 27%(*The smaller percentage shown for Better Homes and Gardens reflects exclusions discussed in the text above.)for the product types that most frequently use by the simple criteria of presence or absenceplace associations. of significant built structures. In settings that combine both, a judgment was made of thePlace-type Frequency predominant source of cultural meaning in theMost ads are distinct about the type and character ad; thus, a yard or garden with a fragment ofof place being depicted, since the setting is residence in the background was categorizedboth context as well as a source of associative as “Landscape.’ ‘Nature’ was a more complexmeanings to be attached or transferred to presence in ads and messages, appearing asthe products. The ‘Landscape’ and ‘Built less than a distinct or complete setting, butEnvironment’ categories were distinguished contributing content to the ‘story’ or messageTable 3Categories of settings under the primary divisions: numbers of instances with highest frequencies in bold face. LANDSCAPE (33) = 30% NATURE (23) = 21% BUILT ENVIRON(54) = 49% Suburban settings = 6 Outdoors/general = 8 Residential interiors = 16 garden Outdoors/general = 8 Urban exteriors = 10 house/yard Sky/Weather = 6 general urban settings, neighborhood park Flowers/Foliage/ streets=social, places, skyline Fruit/Vegetables = 5 Mountains = 5 Animal/insect = 2 Architecture exterior = 7 contemporary Active recreation places = 4 Water = 1 historical ranch/farm Grass/Soil/Rock/Sand = 1 monuments golf course other The West/Desert = 4 Exercise or physical recreation/ interiors = 6 Beach/water settings = 4 Industrial exteriors/interiors = 5 Road/highway = 3 Leisure/social interiors = 4 Forest/woods = 3 [restaurants, clubs, etc.] Exotic place = 2 Workplace interiors = 3 Other = 2 Commercial/shopping interior= 2 Other = 118 Corbin
  • 29. by means of an evocative fragment or symbolic 9% Drama and excitement: outdoorelement. Examples include generalized but settings presented to communicate risk,non-specific outdoor settings, and ads that use drama, and tension, in a mainly positive sense;a part of what would commonly be perceived others that convey majesty or freedom throughas a “natural” context, such as expanse of sky, expansive scalea grassy ground plane, or a single prominentflower (See Figures 1, 2 and 3 for examples of Place-Images as Related to Productseach of the three main categories.). Place and nature images most often were related to products having to do with howThe distribution of place-types along the top the individual self is constructed and itsline of Table 3 shows a clear predominance of external presentation, and with wellness. TheBuilt Environment settings, but if the Landscape highest frequencies occurred in the followingand Nature settings are combined–as may be categories:appropriate in terms of general perceptionof what is ‘natural’–the balance between the 22% Personal care and grooming products‘natural’ and the ‘constructed’ is almost equal,51% to 49%. Each column below lists the 15% Clothing and shoesdifferent sub-types that comprise the full range 14% Cars and related productsof examples found in the 110 ads examined,with the number of instances encountered. The 13% Medications, prescription and non-most prevalent three in each are in boldface. prescriptionCommodity-sign Content of Place ImagesPictorial ads typically communicate more thanone message and may have a number of sub-texts. In ads that use place images or naturereferents, it is often the common culturalassociations with these settings that supply theprimary subtext.4 The ads of the sample wereanalyzed for the contribution of the settingor nature symbol to the message of the ad,and a series of categories was developed totabulate and compare frequencies. The highestpercentage occurs with places that conveymessages about social standing, relationships,and security, followed by those that use imagesof nature and the outdoors to communicatehealth, purity, and lack of artifice (The categoryname and percent of total follows here; themore complete description of the settings typesand messages is included in the Appendix.).37% Social connection or standing: home,relationships, social activity, status31% Connection with nature and theoutdoors: purity, health, safety; the outdoors asa general positive context; farms, ranches, orthe West, as representing honesty, directness,goodness, or ruggedness and durability Figure 1. (L): Example from Better Homes and Gardens, analyzed as:11% Active life: places associated with Setting = Landscape, Suburban, yardhealth and self-improvement, athleticism; Association/message = family/friendsphysical freedom and capability Product = Discovery television channel10% Authenticity: settings that convey Analysis, Interpretation, and Discussiontoughness, capability, or power, or being real, The frequency of place or nature-referencehonest, or unaffected images in advertisements, averaging one-third Culture 19
  • 30. of the sample (shown in Table 2), is significantand demonstrates the cultural power of place-related meanings and values in the creationof commodity-signs. Two of the magazines –Better Homes and Gardens and Maxim -- showsignificant deviation. In the case of the former,the lower percentage results from the designof the study, which excluded ads that pictureproducts in landscape or built environmentsettings of typical use, for example a carpetshown in a living room, where there is lessreliance on the setting as commodity sign. Thehigher percentage of L, N, and B-Env ads inMaxim is interesting, as it is consistent withgeneral societal perceptions that younger menengage in outdoor activities more frequentlythan women or other age groups do, or perhapsdesire to think of themselves in this way.Returning to the study of place types in Table 3,further analysis yields two prevalent clusters: Figure 3. (L): Example from Glamour, analyzed as:nature, and familiar domestic settings. These Setting = Natureemerge by combining related sub-categories Association/message = Natural, connected tofrom the main three headings. the earth, healthy Product = cosmetics The first, nature and naturalness, comes from combining the Nature category as a whole with the places under the Landscape heading that have few or no building elements. These include Mountains (5), the West/desert (4), Beach and water settings (4), and Forest/woods (3), which together are 16 instances, or 15% of the sample. Added to the Nature category--23 examples, or 21%--this means that 36% of the ads have images that project ideas about nature and natural or wild landscapes. Examples include abstracted references to nature through the use of images of skies, foliage backgrounds, or lush arrangements of flowers and avocados – the latter in a skincare advertisement that juxtaposes the natural components of the product and Botox. Many of the ads have the aim of naturalizing the product through the influence of cultural messages of the setting, suggesting that if it’s natural, it must be good/ safe/pure and thus a better choice for purchase. Others ‘naturalize’ the product through placement of the product in an apparently pristine wilderness, a frequent strategy with SUVs and pickup trucks. The images typically exclude roads and other evidence of buildings or typical built infrastructures, rarely show other vehicles, and never include parkingFigure 2. (R): Example from Reader’s Digest, analyzed lots–in daily life, the place where our vehiclesas: spend the most time. The splendid isolation in Setting = B-Env, domestic/residence a spectacular setting aims to heighten contrast Association/message = home and counterpoint between the two aesthetics, Product = Tylenol PM the heightened natural and the heightened20 Corbin
  • 31. technological, but with the simultaneous, safety. Status is represented in ads set in placescontradictory message that the truck is natural that convey messages of wealth or privilege, orand in its habitat, as seen in Figure 4. The imply more leisure opportunities and greateridealization of place in the presentation of the resources to pursue them (Interestingly, themountain serves to ennoble the machine, the only clearly contemporary built environmentsingular setting implying a parallel uniqueness settings in the entire survey sample were in theof the truck, a mass-produced commodity ‘status’ category of associations, two of whichthat has little, in reality, to distinguish it from showed emphatically modern buildings withcompeting brand names. commanding views–one of pristine mountains and the other overlooking a vast grid of cityThe second important cluster of place-types, lights.).representing home and familiar domesticplaces, results from a similar combining Second, nature and the outdoors are almost asof related types from categories in Table 3. powerful an idea – and is more fluid--indicatingTaking the Suburban settings (6 instances, or that many of us that are targeted by advertisers5%) from the Landscape category, and adding believe in nature as good, as an authority forResidential interiors (16 instances, or 15 %) products that address health and well-being,from the Built Environment category, results and as a highly desirable context for many ofin a logical pairing of exteriors and interiors. our activities. Connecting with nature, throughThis combines for a total of 22 instances, or an herbal shampoo, a prescription medication,20% of the sample. Example images include or clothing for spending a day at a ranch, isfront and back yards, driveways, living rooms, more effective as an advertising tool thanand kitchens, most being modest, everyday cultural meanings conveyed by settings whereplaces with only a few shown as being clearly most of us spend most of our time: the suburbsupscale. and cities.Their frequency may result from the sample This analysis has been based on classifyingdesign, to encompass a broad readership across and counting, with less focus on detailedages and generally middle-class incomes, decoding of individual ads, which often tellswhom are believed by advertisers to respond to more about the subtleties of graphic designthe iconic places of family and friends. Another than about how and why a particular imagereason may be the power of showing products or presentation is effective with its situ, in domestic settings that help consumers But there is significance in the typicalenvision their uses and positive impacts on approaches to representing place, which fordaily life. ‘Home’ is a powerful idea, on a par success as a commodity sign must be instantlywith nature in richness and complexity, so it is recognizable. The ads that achieve a measurenot surprising that advertisers depict versions of consumer attention do so because the adof it to sell a wide range of products. as a whole is ‘likeable’–accessible, clear, and appealing. This doesn’t mean that a particularMoving from types of place-images to their place-type must always be used in the samecultural values and meanings, the discussion way, or for the same message. Dependingreturns to the idea of advertising as representative on time and season, color, mood, and otherof “society’s belief in itself” (Berger, 139). In variables, mountains, for example, canthe analysis of the contribution of the setting communicate different messages, includingto the message of the ad, two subject-areas had the triumphant conquering of wild nature,clear dominance: messages about social well- or a risky, threatening environment in whichbeing, at 37%, and messages about nature and the product offers safety. Most importantly,the outdoors, with 31%.5 these are edited gazes, framed views that exclude distracting context with clear cues asFirst, in this culture–or in its media to what the ‘story’ is. Images are manipulatedrepresentations–value is placed on having to heighten color saturation, create dynamicsupportive relationships with family and compositions, and offer engaging placement offriends, and making connections with others the viewer--in intimate proximity or hoveringsocially. Images of places that we associate in godlike aerial views. All of this works towith home and social life resonate with many build a satisfying, apparent reality, minusof today’s consumer products, including those the typical inconveniences of getting to andthat show home or family as vulnerable to risk being in actual places, as well as the frequentand advertise products that provide security and disorder and visual jumble that is the world of Culture 21
  • 32. the everyday landscape. As each generation years ago is indicative both of wider knowledgeis more immersed in advertising, with place- of wetlands, as well as demonstration of theirimages providing a significant component of acceptance.the message, how much less appealing willthe concrete experience of physical places In a recent essay Alan Balfour discussed thebecome? commodification of the landscape, sounding a warning for the future and reminding us thatClosing and Future Directions of Inquiry “the unprecedented power and private purposeThis study represents only five magazines of corporate culture must be recognized.and one month, but as transects are a tool in Landscape has always been shaped by theecological studies of large-scale landscapes, it power elite and, given declining support forgives a detailed view taken through a broad, public programs, corporate dominion willnational readership and national advertising increasingly affect and mold reality in allcampaigns, which, because of their wide forms” (278). Advertising is a primary tool ofdistribution and investment, represent the corporate world, a power elite that holds upthoughtful, intentional design on the part of a mirror to common beliefs and cultural ideas,ad agencies and marketing departments. The and reflects back edited versions shaped asmechanisms of the relationships between tools of commodity markets.the setting in a print or televised ad and theperceptions and actions of consumers–either ‘Nature,’ one place-type from this study, isattitude toward the product, or its purchase– predominantly shown in advertising as pristine,have not been explored, but deserve attention as being of large scale, and as having appealingbecause of the scale of influence advertising aesthetics: beauty, prettiness, or drama. Fromhas in American life. Again, we need to the number of ads using this genre of imagery,consider how much of the exposure of the it appears that such places exist in great extent.general populace to landscape is direct, and As professionals involved in landscape practicehow much is through the vicarious, edited and research we know this is not true, nor areversions of advertising or other media. many natural and ecologically-valuable places so appealingly photogenic, and often exist asFuture work to explore these issues might fragments smaller than the horizon-stretchinginclude examining trends over time, taking the views of ads. Will that mean less recognition,same group of magazines and doing a critical and lesser value accorded to ‘everydayanalysis of the role of place images in five or nature’?ten year increments. Goldman and Papson, andWest, have explored two culturally-important In eighteenth century England the Claude glassand resonant landscapes–rural/agricultural became popular among esthetes and educatedsettings and the West–with strategies of upper classes as part of the enthusiasm for theexamining one type of product advertising in paintings of Claude Lorraine (1604-82). Theone time period, in the case of the former, and smoky haze of a small mirror was used to reflectthe latter looks at the use of one landscape in landscape views, enhancing Romantic andadvertising in different media over time. picturesque qualities in ways that more closely conformed to the quality of his paintings.Using one of these approaches with an The view with the Claude glass–atmospheric,important landscape concept, such as nature, slightly obscured, set off by the frame of thewould be revealing, as would focusing on one mirror–was preferred over the direct gaze andproduct type over time, such as vehicles and unadulterated reality of the landscapes beforehow the use of settings has changed. Another them. Advertising may be the modern Claudeapproach could trace different ways one glass, reflecting the preferred versions of placeparticular landscape is represented, such as and nature, with potential to diminish the valuemountains, as a possible indicator of changing of the physical landscapes encountered in dailyattitudes toward those places, looking for life.parallel indicators in other aspects of culturethat may support or contradict what is shown inadvertising. For example, general awareness ofthe beneficial role of wetlands is fairly recent, Notesand images of such places would probably not 1 Two examples that have been explored are ruralbe found in earlier advertising. Their use to sell and agricultural settings (Goldman and Papson,watches in one Timex campaign from several 1983), and the West (West, 1996).22 Corbin
  • 33. 2 Berger, writing in the early 1970s, consistently and Douglas B. Holt, 81-98. New York: The Newused ‘publicity’ rather than today’s more common Press.word ‘advertising’. Since all pictorial examples inWays of Seeing (1972) that illustrate ‘publicity’ are Goldman, Robert and David R. Dickens. 1983. Theprint media advertising, this suggests the word was selling of rural America. Rural Sociology 48 (4):particular to Great Britain at that time. 585-606.3 The issue of ‘likeability’ in advertising isdiscussed in pp. 20-21 of Timothy Joyce’s article Jones, John Philip. Introduction to How advertising(see References), and in a subsequent article by works: The role of research, ed. John Philip Jones.Alexander L. Biel in the same volume. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, Inc.4 Most analysis that involves ‘reading’ the subtext Joyce, Timothy. 1998. The advertising process. Inmessages of visual advertising is based on Judith How advertising works: The role of research, ed.Williamson’s 1978 book, Decoding Advertisements: John Philip Jones, 11-25. Thousand Oaks CA: SageIdeology and Meaning in Advertising (London: Publications, Inc.Marion Boyars Publishers, Ltd.). Also useful isJohn Berger’s text, Ways of Seeing, particularly Ward, Stephen V. 1998. Selling places: TheEssay 7. Models are also provided in the articles by marketing and promotion of towns and cities,Goldman and Papson, and by Elliott West, cited in 1850-2000. In Studies in history, planning and thethe References. environment, ed. Anthony Sutcliffe. New York: Routledge.5 The disparity in percentages between Table 3,place types, and Table 4, contribution of the setting West, Elliott. 1996. Selling the myth: Westernto the message of the ad, is accounted for in two images in advertising. In Wanted Dead or Alive:ways. First, through the numbers of categories in The American West in Popular Culture, ed. Richardeach analysis: Table 3 has three main headings, Aquila, 269-291. Urbana IL: University of Illinoisbut 24 different kinds of settings that have been Press.counted, while Table 4 has only six categories oftypes of place-message. Second, in summarizing the Williams, Raymond. 1997. Advertising: The magicdominant place-types from Table 3, the category of system. In Problems in materialism and culture‘home’ excludes other settings that are about social (Orig. pub. New York: Verso, 1980).connections and status, which are included in thesummary analysis of Table 4.ReferencesAd Age. 2002. “Top 300 magazines ranked by totalU.S. gross advertising and circulation revenue in2001”. (accessed October2002).Balfour, Alan. 1999. Afterword to Recoveringlandscape: Essays in contemporary LandscapeArchitecture, ed. James Corner. New York:Princeton Architectural Press.Berger, John. 1977. Ways of seeing. New York:Penguin Books. (Orig. pub. London: PenguinBooks, 1972).Fox, Richard Wightman and T. J. Jackson Lears.1983. Introduction to The culture of consumption:Critical essays in American history, 1880-1980,eds. Richard Wightman Fox and T. J. JacksonLears. New York: Pantheon Books.Goldman, Robert and Stephen Papson. 2000.Advertising in the age of accelerated meaning. InThe consumer society reader, eds. Juliet B. Schor Culture 23
  • 34. APPENDIX: Table 4Commodity-sign content of L, N and B-Env images in the sample advertisementsPERCENT ASSOCIATION/ DESCRIPTION: WHAT THE SETTING CONTRIBUTESOF TOTAL PLACE CATEGORY TO THE MESSAGE OF THE AD37% Social 1. Place-images that communicate ‘ home,’ and are associated with nurturing relationships, or interactions with family or friends, either domestic interiors/exteriors. 2. Other places that are associated with social activity, such as town streets or commercial entertainment settings. 3. Settings that communicate status through luxury in traditional / very modern settings, or that suggest a materially successful or glamorous life.31% Nature and the 1. ‘Nature’ is a very fluid and often-evoked idea in advertising. Most outdoors often it is positive, indicating a connection to the earth; purity or in nocence; cleanliness, health or well-being; or authority, that a product is more beneficial and safe if ‘natural’. Occasionally it is used in a negative sense, as being uncomfortable or inconvenient, or more dra matically, as threatening or dangerous. 2. The ‘outdoors’ is similar to ‘nature’ in ads in that it is positive but is pictured in less specific terms, through general indicators. These typi cally include out-of-focus backgrounds that suggest ground-plane and greenery, a bright sky, and sunlight. 3. ‘Rusticity’ is a third component of this category, including country settings such as farms or ranches or the West. These are outdoor set tings, but more complete and specific that those described above. Images of ranches, farms and western settings communicate messages about being relaxed or informal – honesty without artifice -- in the healthy, open outdoors, sometimes also implying ruggedness or durabil ity.11% The active life Indoor settings include exercise rooms (invariably with natural wood floors and tall windows opening to blue skies) and ice skating arenas, and outdoor settings include residential gardens, golf courses and hiking trails. Messages are about health and self-improvement; athleti cism, performance and expertise; freedom of movement and physical capability.10% Authenticity These settings also include interiors as well as exteriors, and use places like industrial garages and construction sites, and anti-picturesque im ages of gritty, dry open landscapes. Messages tend to be of two types, either about a product being tough, capable or powerful, or about it be ing real, honest and unaffected.9% Drama and excitement All of the settings in this category picture the outdoors. Some are about play, with bright colors and saturated blue skies and green grass, to convey the freedom of child-like silliness or games. Others are dynamic images to communicate risk and thrills, drama and tension. Generally this is adventure in the positive sense, but in some ads is about dan ger – and products that provide safety. An important subset of the group shows settings of great visual sweep and scale, large views that convey freedom without limits or sublime majesty. Typical images are moun tains or beautiful bridges, the latter presented to edit out other, compet ing built elements.2% Ambiguous; undetermined.24 Corbin
  • 35. Redefining the communities. Pluralism respects inherited boundaries and locates individuals within oneCemetery Landscape: A or another of a series of ethno-racial groups toMulticultural Perspective be protected and preserved (Hollinger, 1995). However, the more traditional multiculturalArthi Rao theories such as Universalism are also in use and were also explored in the course of this study.IntroductionThe cemetery as a designed landscape emerged The funeral industry is slowly recognizingin the early nineteenth century. The designed the demands of a culturally diverse society ascemetery as a concept, germinated in nineteenth well as contributing to the healing process thatcentury medical theories of disease and must succeed a loss. Cemeteries and funeralsimultaneously came to represent refreshingly homes are actively providing bereavementnew cultural attitudes to death, mourning counseling and other support services. Evenand religion among other revolutions on the though multiculturalism impacts the landscapesocial front. These attitudes found expression indirectly, multiculturalism as a dominantthrough a new design approach to the cemetery factor in spatial cemetery design is largelylandscape. Mourning and healing from loss ignored.became an important priority in the design ofthese landscapes. Death was transformed from In the United States, urban cemeteries continuesomething grotesque to something beautiful. to be bound by predominantly Anglo-American values. They remain frozen in time due to anHowever, in the United States, this therapeutic adherence to principals of historic preservationideal was embedded in an Anglo-American and outdated stylistic approaches to design,aesthetic. The English Landscape School which seem shallow in contrast to the currentwas adopted as the prevailing design style needs of cemeteries such as a diversity in spatialfor the design of the cemeteries (Sloane, design to satisfy an increasingly multicultural1991; Linden-Ward, 1989). There were strict customer base (Sloane, 1992).regulations regarding the size and designof the monuments, funeral rituals and other Different cultures respond differently to death,death-related traditions. Early immigrants, and there is ineffective accommodation of thesepredominantly from Europe, were expected responses within the spatial structure of theto assimilate and conform to this aesthetic American cemetery landscape. The cause for(Meyer, 1993).1 such ineffectiveness forms an important focus of this study. Thus, this research investigatesThe rhetoric of assimilation has undergone contributing factors that allow/disallow thedrastic changes in the twenty-first century. accommodation of multiculturalism. TheseImmigrants come from extremely diverse include political, historical and perceptualnationalities compounded by religion factors.(Rosenblatt, Paul C. et al, 1993, p.2).Pluralistic existence has replaced assimilation The subjects of multiculturalism and diversityas a practical solution with the recognition and are active areas for research and study inappreciation of different cultures. the United States, especially in the social sciences (Conzen, 1994; Hayden, 1995,As America moves into a post-ethnic era, new Hollinger, 1995; McKee, 2000). However,theories are emerging in order to find a solution multiculturalism in landscape architecture isto this long-standing debate. One among used as a buzzword, often disconnected fromthese is Cosmopolitanism. This philosophy is theoretical discourse in other fields such asbased on recognition, acceptance and eager sociology and anthropology. Therefore, one ofexploration of diversity. It is more oriented to the main objectives of this inquiry is to bridgethe individual and encourages religious and this gap and develop a structured theoreticalcultural affiliations by choice as against understanding of the different ways in which multiculturalism manifests itself in thePluralism which is more community oriented, cemetery landscape.seeks to promote affiliations on the narrowgrounds of shared history and biological legacy The mourning process is a cultural sanctionand is quicker at drawing boundaries between as well as a personal need. This paper focuses Culture 25
  • 36. primarily on the funeral ritual and mourningprocess, and investigates how it unfolds in the Rapid urbanization in Roxbury coupled withcemetery landscape. The rationale for choosing existing theories of disease, prompted themourning is the fact that the freedom to mourn decision to create a new large cemetery designedhas very important therapeutic benefits (Parkes, stylistically similar to other rural cemeteries.1997; Kalish, 1976; Pine, 1976, Raphael, 1983, Henry A.S. Dearborn consecrated Forest HillsRees, 1997; Romanoff and Terenzio, 1998, in the summer of 1848 (Wilson, 1998, p.12).Rosenblatt, 1993). Dearborn, in collaboration with Dr. Jacob Bigelow, was also instrumental in establishingThis research envisions therapy as a significant Mt.Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, MA.potential benefit for a cemetery environmentthat successfully supports diverse mourning The Beginnings of Multiculturalism inprocesses in its spatial design. The link Forest Hills Cemeterybetween designed open spaces and therapeutic The main critique of Mt. Auburn was that itoutcomes has become a very popular area of was very expensive and elitist. Even thoughresearch (Marcus and Barnes, 1995; Marcus, most Roxbury residents were wealthy and1999; Kaufman et al, 1998; Tyson, 1998). lived on fine suburban estates, they complained that Mt. Auburn did not supply the demandBeyond the boundaries of this research is a of all classes. This sentiment coupled withnew landscape typology, where the need for feelings of benevolence towards the immigranttherapy in cemeteries is critical. In summary, poor streaming into mid-nineteenth-centurythis paper ultimately examines the potential America, acted as a catalyst in establishingof accommodating multicultural mourning Forest Hills as a municipally owned cemetery incustoms in urban cemetery design in an attempt the picturesque style. “Forest Hills epitomizedto rejuvenate and enhance its social function the American democratic ideal” (Wilson, 1998,and relevance as a therapeutic environment. p.12).Three case studies and key informant interviews Due to its non-discriminating philosophy,were the primary research tools. The views Forest Hills proved to be a tough competitorexpressed in the interviews are of a limited to Mt.Auburn. Forest Hills was more economirepresentation of the funeral industry and may cal than Mt. Auburn but provided an equallyor may not be indicative of the majority. It fitting site for the burial of Boston’s elitewould be fair to state that this research sees the as well as its less fortunate population, incemetery landscape through its most powerful this case the immigrants. Some interestingmanagers- cemetery management and funeral anecdotes that bring out its non-discriminatingdirectors. and democratic ideal are described in the book Garden of Memories: A Guide to ForestCase Study I: Forest Hills Cemetery, Boston, Hills authored by Susan Wilson (Wilson,MA 1998, p.12). These include the sculpting a six- pointed star on its entrance gate proclaiming its non-denominational nature at a time when the Puritans did not condone the Jewish faith. Another noteworthy incident is the burial of two immigrants steeped in controversy.2 Today, Forest Hills still continues to maintain and actively promote, in image and action, its acceptance and nurturing of diversity. The activities occurring in this cemetery fit into all levels of contemporary multicultural discourse - Universalism, Pluralism and Cosmopolitanism. Art, Sculpture and the Expression of Universalism Today Within a few years after its consecration, ForestFigure 1. Site Plan: Forest Hills Cemetery, Boston, MA Hills became a highly acclaimed outdoor(source: Forest Hills Cemetery) museum of art and architecture, exhibiting a26 Rao
  • 37. comprehensive array of Victorian-era cemetery Pluralism in the Cemeterysculpture. Memorial art and sculpture were Forest Hills has a set of self-guided tours foran important part of the nineteenth century visitors.5 One of the tours that holds specialVictorian cemetery. It was a reflection of significance for this study is the “The Leaguecraftsmanship and symbolized attitudes of Nations” tour. This part of the cemeteryabout death, social status, ethnic preferences. was developed since the beginning of the 20thWith the evolution of the cemetery into the century. It takes visitors on a visual journeymemorial park, and the detachment to death, of an array of ethnically diverse headstonesthe memorial fell victim to standardization and including Chinese, Vietnamese, Albanian,mass production. Muslim, Russian, Ukrainian, Lithuanian, Hispanic, Haitian, Italian, Greek, German,However, Forest Hills is using the universal Irish, Scottish, and other nationalities. Thecultural appeal of art to draw the public formalizing of the existence of multiculturalismback into the cemetery. It invites artists on a into an educational experience reveals theregular basis to exhibit their work on cemetery philosophy of this cemetery. Diversity is notgrounds. Many of these exhibits are sculptural only accepted but celebrated. The brochuresin nature and have become permanent fixtures and other literature used for advertisingon the landscape. A formal sculpture trail called the cemetery, also actively promote thethe ‘sculpture path’ takes visitors along the multicultural image.journey through these sculptural exhibits. Thesculptural exhibits however are based on the Pluralism is one of the schools of thoughtthemes of death and mortality. These sculptures within multicultural discourse where theare meant to encourage visitors to reflect on community into which an individual is borntheir attitudes to death and the ways they chose defines cultural identity (Hollinger, 1995).to be memorialized.3 The sculptures represent Pluralistic thought is exemplified by theuniversal themes of eternity, spirituality Chinese community, which currently formsand peace. The cemetery plans to continue the largest customer base at Forest Hills.developing the sculpture path so that over timeit may continue “exhibiting contemporary Most interview respondents were of thesculpture which expresses the diverse interests opinion that people find solace and comfort inand aesthetics of 21st century Boston”.4 viewing cultural symbols of familiarity. The Chinese section of the cemetery provides a demonstration of this. Due to increasing demand for services, Forest Hills allotted a section of the cemetery exclusively for the Chinese. The location of this section was largely determined by the Chinese need for east-facing graves. Individuals from the community insisted on being buried in the same area even after the section was filled. The need to stay close to other community members, in death as in life, is very strong. After buying up most of the east facing plots, the Chinese started occupying the west-facing plots as well, but simply turned the bodies around by ninety degrees during burial. 6 This physical cohesion to one’s own people reinforces the pluralistic interpretation of multiculturalism. It clearly establishes the theory that people retain their cultural identity and preserve cultural affiliations by maintaining proximity to fellow community members so that they could be “neighbors in life, neighbors in death”.7Figure 2. Spirit Vessels by Susan Ferrari-Rowley- Image The respondent also expressed approvalof a sculpture along the sculpture path. regarding the clustering of similar cultural Culture 27
  • 38. groups. The Chinese have many rituals that Americans is testimony to this. This processinvolve leaving offerings on the grave as seemed to touch all the attendees, irrespectivewell as prayers and chants. The Greeks who of their cultural backgrounds.8are buried in close proximity to the Chinese,often complained about disturbance from the The therapeutic benefit of this tradition isChinese. Hence, confining cultural groups to evident as it offers a structured system ofsections could possibly help control conflicts remembrance and mourning to the peoplebetween those groups. and ultimately ends with a message of hope. This is very similar to the intentions of funeral ceremonies in most cultures, which are meant to act as rites of passage for the living from a state of grief to a phase of new life and renewed hope.Figure 3. Traditional gateway in the Chinese sectionof the cemetery (source: author) - View of the Chinesesection.Cosmopolitanism and the Japanese LanternCeremonyCosmopolitanism, which serves as anactive competitor to pluralism in definingmulticultural existence, focuses on theindividual as the ultimate creator of his ownculture. This interpretation of multiculturalismfinds meaning and justification at Forest Hillsthrough the Japanese Lantern ceremony thathas been conducted for the past three years.Held each July, the annual Lantern Ceremonyis a Buddhist-inspired event of remembrancewith music and dance, ending with visitors Figure 4. Japanese Lantern Ceremony around Lakedecorating and lighting lanterns to float on Hibiscus.the cemetery’s Lake Hibiscus. Japanese artistsand calligraphers help make these lanterns Apart from the above adaptations, Forest Hillsthat have Japanese icons of love, peace, hope plans to increase the planting of “oriental”and other such messages of comfort intended tree species (e.g. The Japanese maple). Thefor the grieving attendees. What started as an landscape, once again, becomes a canvas toexperiment with 300 guests has grown to a express multiculturalism.tradition attracting 3000 people. Forest Hills incorporates the multiculturalThe cosmopolitan nature of this ceremony ideal as an inherent part of its existence andis evident at many levels. This ritual first promotion. Some of their adaptations activelyintended for Japanese culture is now offerd to a advertise multicultural intentions and theyculturally diverse public as a symbolic medium are considered revolutionary by the funeralto express/explore their grief and emotions. industry. Seen in connection with the existingIts apparent popularity and the fact that the literature on the important healing benefits ofactual percentage of Japanese participation is the funeral ritual, the large and small gesturesminuscule compared to the Irish and African- extended by this cemetery to its multicultural28 Rao
  • 39. population directly impacts the healing Point is actively trying to increase its usageprocess. Many of these gestures have spatial by the Muslim community. The cemeteryimplications that could possibly indicate the management consulted a Muslim professornature of cemetery spaces in future design. teaching at the University of Rhode Island.For example, the Lake Hibiscus, which was an During their consultations with him, it wasimportant element in the picturesque style of revealed that Islam advocates the internmentlandscape design, finds another contemporary of the body directly in the soil without theuse in the Japanese Lantern Ceremony. use of a coffin. This, however, is against environmental law in the state of Rhode Island.Case Study II: Swan Point Cemetery, Therefore, despite deliberate attempts toProvidence, RI diversify their customer base, Swan Point wasSwan Point Cemetery located in Providence, unable to achieve its goal. Hence, multiculturalRhode Island was established in 1847. Its accommodation in urban cemeteries is alsoorigins are in the rural cemetery movement. influenced by political factors outside of theThe design was similar to other cemeteries control of the cemetery itself. Environmentalof its genre, “with winding avenues, paths law differs greatly from state to state. As aand groups of burial lots in such a manner result, the Muslim community may have toas to capitalize on the natural contours of the seek burial grounds outside of their statesland”.9 of residence depending on their burial preferences.The non-denominational intent of the cemeteryfinds its probable inspiration from the fact Other examples of adaptations of the cemeterythat the First Unitarian Society was among landscape to multiculturalism become evidentthe earlier purchasers of land in the cemetery. in the funeral customs of the Liberians andThey purchased an oval tract of land, five acres Cambodians. The funeral ceremony of thein area. Swan Point is now a two hundred acre Liberians consists of an elaborate processionlandscape, containing graves and memorials comprising large numbers of people. Justreflecting changes in the social and commercial before cremation, the Cambodians need toattitudes to death. As of today, Swan Point toss coins into a body of water, as part of thehas a customer base comprising Asians funeral rituals. The marble fountain and pool(predominantly Cambodians, Vietnamese, present directly in front of the crematorium areChinese), Armenians, Africans (Nigerians, used for this purpose. This is another culturalLiberians, etc.), Hispanics and various other adaptation of a popular landscape element.culturally and ethnically diverse groups.10 Figure 6. View of fountain outside the crematorium. Universalism in Swan PointFigure 5. Master Plan of Swan Point Cemetery. Universal expression is exhibited by the presence of the Memorial Grove. MemorialSwan Point’s attitude towards multicultural Grove is a woodland park where crematedaccommodation was revealed during an remains can be scattered. It also commemoratesinterview with cemetery management. Swan those who are not physically buried there but Culture 29
  • 40. were lost at sea or in battle. The name and in multicultural accommodation and thedate inscribed on a granite ledger and situated potential therapeutic Memorial Grove (for a small fee) providesthe only lating memorial. Disassociation with Multicultural Adaptationhuman culture is represented in the erection Both funeral homes and cemeteries have beenof “The Megalith” in the center of Memorial witness to a significant increase in diversityGrove. The visitors’ brochure describes the over the last ten years. To a large extentprocess of creating the memorial. It states that multicultural accommodation in the cemetery takes place through a process of adaptation When we considered a central feature for of the landscape to diverse cultural needs.11 this grove of trees, we quickly discounted Cemetery management as well as funeral any style of hand-crafted edifice with the directors determine the degree of adaptation of thought that man’s creations would be funerary practice as well as the landscape. Both somewhat incongruent in this otherwise of these groups can thus be seen as harboring natural setting. Instead, we relied upon the role of facilitators of tradition. The gesture Swan Point’s long association with taken by cemetery management in the nurturing boulders-….. and we have selected a of tradition covers a wide spectrum from natural boulder as our monument. smaller to larger issues. Smaller issues include attempts at truly understanding the needs ofThe megalith is roughly eight feet square different cultural groups and taking affirmativeat the base and about seventeen feet high steps in introducing meaningful traditions thatand is a universal representation of eternity, help the bereaved in the healing process. Anhope comfort to the visitors. It connects at example of this is a direct accommodationa universal level to the natural life-cycle of to allow people to actively participate inbirth and death. An alternative interpretation internment or cremation as prescribed by theirof this stone is its emphasis on non-religious respective cultures. Larger gestures includeconnotations reinforced with a description of the introduction of the traditional Japaneseits representation. The brochure states that Lantern Ceremony (at Forest Hills cemetery)“This megalith is reminiscent of the great pre- as a public ceremony of remembrance.Christian sarsen stones to be found in variousparts of Britain….This all happened about The process of change and adaptation to cultural4,000 years ago, 2000 years before Christ”. demographics is illustrated well through the example of one funeral home. This funeral homeEven though the intent toward multicultural was established in 1899 to conduct servicesadaptation is apparent, Swan Point employs for Scandinavian immigrants. However, witha piecemeal approach to the accommodation the changing social trends in immigration, theof diversity within the landscape. Solutions funeral home is today considered a premierto multicultural diversity are passive and funeral home for conducting Southeast Asiankept secondary to the need for preserving the funerals, predominantly Cambodians, Laotiansoriginal historical beauty of the landscape. and Chinese. An institution that was born inIt does not make multiculturalism one of the European culture and tradition has adapted tomain conceptual elements in its planning embrace the multicultural philosophy.and promotion. One probable reason for thisis the relatively small size of Swan Point in It is important to note that traditional funeralcomparison with cemeteries such as Forest rituals were significant to second andHills. third generation immigrants. This younger generation wanted to be “respectful of theDiscussion older generations” and wanted to makeIn order to supplement the information obtained sure that their final wishes were fulfilled.from interviews with cemetery management, In situations where there was unfamiliarityfuneral directors were also interviewed. The with traditions, the funeral directors (Anglo-directors were affiliated to funeral homes Americans) stepped in as educators and activefrom the case study areas. The interviews of facilitators of these customs and organizedtwo different sets of key informants revealed the entire funeral. The situation demands aseveral related themes. The following deeper examination of issues with regardparagraphs provide a discussion of the themes to the importance of tradition. Second andwith a focus on the role of the key informants third generation immigrants might no longer(cemetery management and funeral directors) associate with cultural traditions inherited30 Rao
  • 41. through birth, indicative of a Cosmopolitan or the Buddhist temple and the cemetery. TheseAssimilative philosophy. However, the respect rituals, which are culturally pre-defined,for older generations is still strong enough are symbolic gestures designed to help theto warrant a re-association with traditional living resolve issues before saying their finalrituals. This could possibly indicate therapeutic farewell to the dead. This not only aids in griefbenefit to the younger generations as they find resolution but also potentially has significantcomfort in facilitating the ‘proper’ transition impact on the spatial design of a culturallyof the elders from the world of the living to sensitive environment.the world of the dead. Traditional rituals alsoprovide a structured grieving process at a time An example of rituals particular to theof chaos. This is suggestive of certain benefits cemetery is exhibited in the Cambodianthat Pluralism can provide. funeral. Before the body is surrendered to the fires of the crematorium, the relatives throwThe Cemetery as a Stage for the Enactment coins into a body of water. This is supposed toof Funeral Rituals symbolize the paying of debts to the deceased.Culture as a key determinant in the funeral Such cemetery-specific rituals, which areprocess acts in both passive and active ways. common to many Southeast Asian cultures,The active component of the funeral process have significant implications on the design ofconstitutes the various traditional rituals the exterior spaces around the crematorium.involved. These are both the immediate Landscape elements such as water bodiesrituals following the death and the long-term have a second layer of meaning attributed toperiodical rituals. The passive component of them. Placing of these landscape elements thusthese rituals includes the cultural/ religious becomes a product of cultural dictates as wellsymbolism and other such factors that make as aesthetic ones.their appearance over the physical landscape.These cultural signifiers serve a wide variety In addition to these culturally pre-defined rituals,of functions ranging from the formation of the bereaved also develop personal rituals thatimplicit territorial boundaries to psychological help them in dealing with their grief. Personalbenefits to the healing process. rituals can range anywhere form the simple act of visiting the graveside intermittentlyIn western cultures, the process of burial and to incorporating the dead into the world ofcremation is often carried out by the cemetery the living through inclusion in social activityor funeral home with minimal involvement and functioning. Visits to the graveside tookof the family. There is also no culturally pre- place on special occasions such as birthdays,defined system of extended mourning and anniversaries and religious occasions. Peopleremembrance. Visits to the cemetery are more who had lost someone integral to their life, stilla voluntary action, depending on convenience liked to carry on a continuing relationship withand other functional factors. However, this is the dead by talking to them and spending timecompletely the opposite for many other cultural at the graveside.13groups (Francis, 2000,) 12 Thus, the cemetery and graveside serve asIn most cultures, there are important rituals stages for the enactment of rituals in both thethat have to be performed at the graveside. In personal as well as the cultural realms. Ritualsthe Hispanic and Islamic communities, it is serve as means to the continued remembrancenot uncommon to have the families personally of the dead sometimes out of genuine affectiondig the graves and intern the caskets. This is and sometimes out of feelings of obligation.also part of the culturally determined rituals The graveside becomes a very important spacethat have symbolic meaning in the mourning for design considerations. In addition to theand healing process. These cultures desire a memorial that serves as a physical memory ofpersonal involvement in the internment process the deceased, the space around the grave servesand a physical involvement in the cemetery as the medium for the unfolding of the post-landscape. death rituals that enable the living to redefine themselves socially and effectively heal fromRituals that are particular to the cemetery the loss.14environment are typical of funerals in SoutheastAsian cultures (Cambodians, Laotians and BereavementHmong). Buddhist funeral services are Through the facilitation of traditional funeraldivided between the home of the deceased, rituals, the cemetery management contributes Culture 31
  • 42. to successful grief resolution. Recollecting aesthetic, program and other essentials of thethe example of the annual Japanese Lantern design process that was then communicated toCeremony at Forest Hills cemetery, the the landscape architect. 17adaptation of a traditional funeral ritual is These historic landscapes were designedgiving the diverse public, a systematized based on the paradigm of the Englishopportunity to partake of a traditional funeral Landscape School. The aesthetics associatedritual. Almost all participants found meaning with this design style have become thein it and were emotionally touched. It also ideal models of “beauty”, as recognized bygave them a consistent opportunity to re- cemetery management. The winding roadsconnect and remember those who have passed and associated rolling landform associatedon by finding personal meaning in cultural with this also represent a historical heritagesymbolism. of ideals passed down from generations of cemetery management. Adjectives such asIn addition to therapeutic acts that unfold “calmness”, “serenity”, “repose”, “beauty”on the landscape, the cemetery and funeral were associated with the existing historicalhome have formalized the process of working landscape and it was considered essential tothrough grief. Both of these institutions carry these emotive qualities through all thehave professionals, trained as bereavement other design additions and changes. Often,counselors. In many cases, grief-counseling cemetery management picked appealingsessions are held where groups of people talk design solutions from other cemeteries andand share their feelings. With time, people recommended them to the landscape architectsinvariably return to the cemetery on a regular as potential design models.basis after they have built a schema to dealwith the loss. A key informant mentioned that Even though the newer parts of the cemeteryvisiting the grave was highly recommended to were based more on the grid layout, Forestcontinue the “remembrance factor.”15 Hills cemetery tries to continue the curvilinear pattern of roads through them as a link. ThisA common view shared by both cemetery brings us to the question of the depth ofmanagement and funeral directors was that the understanding that the cemetery managementcemetery was important in the healing process has about the spatial qualities and historicbecause it served as the ultimate resting-place background of the English Landscape School.and memorial. An interviewee states, “ They If the connections to the English Landscapealways go back to the cemetery. They do School are purely aesthetic, can a new spatialnot come back to the funeral home”. 16 The design vocabulary easily incorporate itscemetery management pride themselves in the stylistic elements?long-term relationships with the people theyhave made with loved ones buried in their Inadequacies of Cemetery Landscapecemeteries. It was important to investigate shortcomings in the cemetery landscape as perceived byCemetery as a Therapeutic Landscape the key informants. At a more general level,The visual qualities of the landscape emerged as the key informants expressed the wish foran influential factor in the role of the cemetery cemeteries to “create more spaces for theas a source of comfort to the bereaved. This living” in order to make them feel welcome.18section provides a discussion of the cemetery Specific reference was made for the need toaesthetic as promoted by the cemetery create more seating space. In the opinion of themanagement as well as an assessment of informant, creating more spaces for the livingcemetery aesthetic by a diverse group of users would help them connect to death and help(as perceived/reported by the key informants). them in acknowledging their loss. This in turnThe analysis followed distinct categories as was seen as a benefit to the healing process.described below: Some members of the Chinese communityDesign Style in a part of Providence, Rhode Island wereChoice of cemetery aesthetic had a strong role dissatisfied with the design and managementto play in the future design decisions made in practices of several of the non-sectarianthe cemetery. The cemetery management had cemeteries. They had disagreements with thedirect control over any new design projects way the plots were allocated, and the designor renovations that were taking place in the of the memorials. In their perception, thecemetery. They determined the choice of cemeteries destroyed the feeling of community32 Rao
  • 43. and other important family values. The management is truly “opening up” the gates toallowance to purchase single grave plots only society. However, it becomes essential to askmeant that there was no control with regard deeper questions about the events unfoldingto where one was buried with respect to other in the cemetery. What really is multiculturalfamily members. To the Chinese, staying close accommodation and how can its effectivenessto members of the family and community in be evaluated? Is adaptation to diversity merelylife and in death is considered to be of utmost an allowance for different cultures to use theimportance. Thus, this was a major point of cemetery or does there need to be a drasticfriction between cemetery management and re-evaluation of the cemetery design traditiontheir potential Chinese customers. This dissent to express this cultural diversity? What is theled to the purchase of a separate piece of land design style of a truly multicultural landscape?to create an exclusive cemetery for the Chinese There is no one answer to these where their sentiments would berespected.19 The changes incorporated by the cemetery management can be viewed with a lot ofIn another instance, there was a comment skepticism. The funeral industry is notoriousabout how the cemetery structures were for its mercenary business sense. Still, theconsidered too elaborate by the Hmong. A active involvement in the bereavement processspecific reference was made to the walls where possibly indicates a more sensitive side tocremated remains were stored. Apparently, this profession. Despite business intentions,the existing designs of columbaria were too a mulitcultural perspective will promote aelaborate for the Hmong. The design of simpler positive outcome. The approach introduced thewall niches could potentially increase the concept of active and passive healing within theinvolvement of the Hmong with the cemetery cemetery landscape. Designers need to realizeenvironment. This is an indicator of a clash that there is a great potential to initiate changebetween different culturally determined senses in the cemetery and bring about its revival.of aesthetics. The first roadblock in the process of change, namely the cemetery management, is alreadySeveral aspects of the cemetery landscape accepting of the necessity for change. Thus thecan contribute to the healing process of the design community needs to aggressively tapbereaved. A spatial design vocabulary that into this opportunity to re-configure this socialsupports personal (for example, seating/ institution.interaction/ contemplation spaces around thegrave) as well as cultural rituals (for example, By understanding the different manifestationsspaces that support ritual gatherings, landscape of multiculturalism, designers can incorporateelements that become meaningful parts of the therapy through multiculturalism in a variety ofritual, etc.) can be therapeutic. On the other site conditions. Even though Cosmopolitanismhand, certain aesthetic preferences in the might be the most relevant rationale forlandscape can promote passive healing. American society in the future, Universalism and Pluralism have their own benefits and willConclusion never completely disappear. The pressing needThrough the example of two urban cemeteries for change is imminent and the possibilitiesand strategic interviews, an attempt has been are endless. This paper has been an attemptmade to understand how urban cemeteries are to tap into those possibilities and expand theresponding to change. An analysis of spatial horizons of traditional cemetery design. Thestructures and activities occurring in the time has come to infuse the valuable socialcemeteries has been made to connect them to spaces of the cemetery with new meaningthe larger social theories of multiculturalism. and new purpose through reformed spatialThis is especially valuable as it demonstrates design principles. Healing, through theto designers the different approaches that can accommodation of multicultural funeral ritualsbe adopted while designing a multicultural in the cemetery landscape is a real possibility.landscape. In essence, this inquiry serves to open up the discussion ‘Can the cemetery of the future be aThe funeral industry is taking aggressive steps realm of the living?’to rejuvenate the importance of this great socialinstitution. By actively striving to accommodatemulticultural diversity and freeing it from Referencesthe pressure to assimilate, the cemetery Berger, Arthur et al (ed.), Perspectives on Death Culture 33
  • 44. and Dying: Cross-Cultural and Multidisciplinary Cemetery, Ohio State University Press, Columbus,Views, The Charles Press, Philadelphia, PA, 1989. 1989.Conzen, Michael P. (ed.), The Making of the Lippy, Charles, Pluralism Comes of Age: AmericanAmerican Landscape, Routledge, New York, NY, Religious Culture in the Twentieth Century, M.E.1994. Sharpe, Armon, New York, 2000.Creswell, John W., Qualitative Inquiry and Research Llewellyn, John F., A Cemetery Should be Forever:Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions, Sage The Challenge to Managers and Directors, TropicoPublications, Thousand Oaks, California, 1998. Press, Glendale, California, 1998.Dannenmaier, “Healing gardens”, Landscape Marcus, Clare Cooper and Barnes, Marni, GardensArchitecture, 1995 Jan., v.85, n.1, p.56-59. in Healthcare Facilities: Uses, Therapeutic Benefits, and Design Recommendations, The Center forDick Sutro, “Mending wall: a new wing sets the Health Design, Inc., Martinez, California, 1995.standard for health-care landscapes”, LandscapeArchitecture, 1995 Jan., v.85, n.1, p.72-75. Marcus, Clare Cooper, Healing gardens : therapeutic benefits and design recommendations,Fisher, Martha, “Cemeteries becoming critical 1999.factor in land-use planning as urban areas grow”,Journal of Housing, Nov.1970, v.27, n.10, p.527- McKee, Jesse O.(ed.), Ethnicity in Contemporary529. America: A Geographical Appraisal, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., Lanham, Maryland,Francis, Doris et al, “Sustaining cemeteries: the 2000.user perspective”, Mortality, v.5 (1), March 2000,p.34-52. Meyer, Richard, Ethnicity and the American Cemetery, Bowling Green State University PopularHayden, Dolores, The Power of Place: Urban Press, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1993.Landscapes as Public History, The MIT Press,Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1995. Nugent, Tom, “A Cemetery for the Living”, Landscape Architecture, February 1991Hollinger, David A., Postethnic America: BeyondMulticulturalism, Basic Books, New York, New Parkes, Colin Murray, et al (ed.), Death andYork, 1995. Bereavement Across Cultures, Routledge, New York, New York, 1997.Jackson, Kenneth T. and Vergara, Camilo Jose,Silent Cities: The Evolution of the American Kalish, Richard A. et al, Death, Dying, Transcending,Cemetery, Princeton Architectural Press, New Perspectives on Death and Dying Series, BaywoodYork, 1989/ Publishing Company, Inc., Farmingdale, New York, 1980.Japanese National Commission for Unesco, Japan:Its Land, People and Culture, Printing Bureau, Pine, Vanderlyn R. et al (ed.), Acute Grief and theMinistry of Finance,Tokyo, Japan, 1964. Funeral, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1976.Kalish, Richard and Reynolds, David K., Death andEtnicity: A Psychocultural Study, The University of Rees, Dewi, Death and Bereavement: TheSouthern California Press, Los Angeles, California, psychological, religious and cultural interfaces,1976. Whurr Publishers Ltd., London, England, 1997.Kaplan, Rachel and Kaplan, Stephen, “The Romanoff, Bronna D. and Terenzio, Marion,Restorative Environment”, The Experience of “Rituals and the grieving process”, Death Studies,Nature, Cambridge, New York. v.22, 1998..Kaufman, Richard Enoch et al, Restorative Rosenblatt, Paul C. et al, Ethnic Variations inGardens: The Healing Landscape, Yale University Dying, Death and Grief: Diversity in Universality,Press, 1998. Series in Death Education, Aging, and Health Care, Taylor and Francis Press, Washington DC, 1993.Linden-Ward, Blanche, Silent City on a Hill:Landscapes of Memory and Boston’s Mount Auburn Rosenblatt, Paul C. et al., Grief and Mourning in34 Rao
  • 45. Cross-Cultural Perspective, HRAF Press, 1976.Rubin, Herbert J. and Rubin, Irene S., Qualitative 4 The Sculpture Path: Contemporary Art at historicInterviewing: The Art of Hearing Data, Sage Forest Hills Cemetery, brochure created by thePublications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California, Forest Hills Educational Trust.1995. 5 These tours are theme based. For example,Sloane, David Charles, The Last Great Necessity: the ‘united we fall tour’ links graves of soldiers,Cemeteries in American History, The Johns firemen and other civilians who gave up their livesHopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1991 to protect ‘the lives, liberties or souls of fellow Americans’. Wilson, p.40 - 137.Stevens, Margaret, “Life in fast-forward reverse:three remembrance gardens keep Alzheimer’s 6 Key informant interview, Forest Hills Cemetery,patients on track”, Landscape Architecture, 1995 November 2001.Jan., v.85, n.1, p.[76]-79. 7 Key informant interview, Forest Hills Cemetery,Tyson, Martha M., The Healing Landscape: November 2001.Therapeutic Outdoor Environments, Mc-Graw HillCompanies, Inc., New York, New York, 1998. 8 Key informant interview, Forest Hills Cemetery, November 2001.Ulrich, Roger S., and Parsons, Russ, Influencesof Passive Experiences with Plants on Individual Key informant interview, Swan Point Cemetery, 10Well-Being and Health. August 2001.Ulrich, Roger S., Effects of Healthcare Interior 11 Key informant interview- Forest Hills, ADesign on Wellness: Theory and Recent Scientific Cemetery is Forever.Research, Third symposium on Healthcare Design,San Francisco, CA, 1990. 12 Key informant interview, March 2002. 13 Key informant interview, February 2002.Notes1 The Italians are a good example of immigrants 14 Key informant interview, February 2002.that were subject to this assimilative philosophydue to the misinterpretation of their cultural 15 Key informant interview, March 2002.beliefs. Religious reform transformed thecemetery into a beautifully designed landscape 16 Key informant interview, March 2002.that facilitated emotional reconciliation. However,this reconciliation was achieved by subduing the 17 Key informant interview, August 2001.memory of the individual and the grief associtaedwith their loss. (Meyer, 1993, p.15-17). 18 Key informant interview, Feb 2002.2 The cremation of ‘Red Scare’ martyrs Nicola Sacco 19 Key informant interview, March 2002.(1891-1927) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (1888-1927)who were unfairly convicted of murder Wilson,1998, p.16).3 Forest Hills is trying to revive the 19th centuryperspective of seeing a funeral monument as apiece of art. This perspective has changed due tosocial, economic and other factors that have alsohad a considerable impact on attitudes to death.The gravestone has become a mass produced,standardized commodity lacking individuality andcreativity. Getting the public to re-think the waythey would like to be memorialized, also aims atreviving the cemetery as a place of reflection andcontemplation. Key informant interview, ForestHills Cemetery, November 2001. Culture 35
  • 46. History Stewarding Nature: A Natural History of Cathedral Pines Paul Kelsh Imprint of a Blues Stained Landscape Michael Robinson Landscape and Social Relations: Charleston Townhouse Sites (1770-1850) Martha A. Zierden Slave Landscapes of the Carolina Low Country: What the Documents Reveal Elizabeth Brabec Power Dynamics Imprinted at Turn-of-the-Century: Reform Women’s Institutions and Boston’s Public Landscape Suzanne M. Spencer-Wood Power as Reflected in the Cultural Landscape: Sailors’ Snug Harbor, Staten Island, New York (1845-1900) Sherene Baugher The Phoenix Indian School Park: Communal Space/Private Meanings Hemalata C. Dandekar, Ph.D. Design with Nature: The South’s Evangel Sarah Georgia Harrison36 Kelsh
  • 47. Stewarding Nature: thereby clearing the mess and protecting against fire. Some even wished to replant pinesA Natural History of so that future generations could experience aCathedral Pines similarly beautiful forest. In his essay “The Idea of a Garden,” Michael Pollan brought thePaul Kelsh controversy to a national audience, illustrating what he sees as the failings of wilderness ideology as the model for our understandingIntroduction of nature.1 Wilderness, he argues, with itsOn a hot July afternoon in 1989, two tornadoes emphasis on a nature free of human impact,converged on the small town of Cornwall, is an artificial construct, and serves to alienateConnecticut, turning the charming New people from nature more than connect us to it.England village into a mess of downed treesand limbs. The most significant casualty ofthe storm was Cathedral Pines, a much-lovedstand of old growth white pines and hemlocksgrowing on a hillside immediately southeast oftown, which for many years was thought to bea remnant of the pre-colonial forest. By mostaccounts the stand was strikingly beautiful,with 150-foot high trees soaring above a thick,sound dampening bed of pine needles. Manypeople were devastated by its demise (Figs. 1and 2). Figure 2. After the Storm In this paper I build on the idea that nature is culturally constructed, showing that it is defined largely in historical and geographical contexts. I tell a “natural history” of Cathedral Pines, weaving together changes in the physical forest, changes in how people thought about nature, and changes in how the stand was used, imagined, and stewarded into the iconic Cathedral Pines. In telling a history of such a “natural” landscape, I argue that humanFigure 1. Cathedral Pines, 1911 imprint is not only inevitable, but often makes a positive contribution to the environment.Great controversy followed in the wake of the It is through such imprints that a stand ofstorm. The Nature Conservancy, which owns pine trees established, grew, and becamethe property, wanted to leave it untouched meaningfully experienced as Cathedral Pines.and allow nature to take its course, but many Indeed such imprints are a way of leaving atownspeople wanted to salvage the timber, mark on the physical world, making it our History 37
  • 48. own, and cultivating greater concern for the particularly mysterious, nor for that matter, evenenvironment. As geographer David Lowenthal very interesting to most people. As Thoreau’sputs it: observation suggests, it was a very common event, especially in New England in the mid- To be properly cared for, the environment 1800s. But Cathedral Pines established more must feel truly our own, not as a disposable than half a century before other fields were commodity but as a locale integral to abandoned, and thus was at the forefront of the everyday life. As did our forebears, we transformation of the New England landscape make it our own by adding to it our own from agriculture to forest. That transformation stamp, now creative, now corrosive. The is depicted in a series of remarkably detailed environment is never merely conserved dioramas at Harvard Forest. In the diorama or protected; to use Marsh’s word, it is “Height of Agriculture,” a couple of remnant, modified—both enhanced and degraded— older pines are left standing next to a field in by each generation in turn. We should the mostly cleared landscape (Fig. 3). They form the habit of lauding, not lamenting, suggest that the oldest trees at Cathedral Pines our own creative contributions to milieus were also remnants from the pre-colonial we inhabit. By striving to praise, we are forest and were left standing when the rest of more apt to make changes that we and the site was cleared. They probably were the our heirs feel worthy of praise.2 seed source for the next generation of trees (Fig. 4).With this intent I tell this natural history ofCathedral Pines. The Origins of the Pines How suddenly, after all, pines seem to shoot up and fill the pastures! I wonder that the farmers do not earlier encourage their growth. To-day, perchance, as I go through some run-out pasture, I observe many young white pines dotting the field, where last year I had noticed only blackberry vines; but I see that many are already destroyed or injured by the cows which have dived into them to scratch their heads or for sport…. A year or two later, as I pass through the same field, I am surprised to find myself in a Figure 3. “Height of Agriculture” flourishing young wood-lot, from which the cows are now carefully fenced out, though there are many open spaces, and I perceive how much further advanced it would have been if the farmer had been more provident and had begun to abet nature a few years earlier. – Henry David Thoreau, May 19, 1857.3Although the origins of the pines had beena mystery for many years, since the storm itis generally agreed that the trees had seededinto a pasture cleared sometime after Cornwallwas settled in 1739. The trees themselvesveiled their past. Although of similar sizeand appearance, they were not all the sameage. Most had established in a period between Figure 4. “Farm Abandonment”about 1770 and 1800, but others establishedfifty to seventy years later, and a few were The First One Hundred Years of Growthsignificantly older than the rest of the stand.4 Minott tells me that his and his sister’sA field being colonized by pines is not wood-lot together contains about38 Kelsh
  • 49. ten acres and has, with a very slight Pierce and Kellogg may not have seen their exception at one time, supplied all their own use of the pines in Thoreau’s poetic terms, fuel for thirty years, and he thinks would but their sparing use may have included some constantly continue to do so…. He knows significant cutting, enough at least to allow his wood-lot and what grows in it as well the next generation of pines to establish as a as an ordinary farmer does his corn- sustainable, future supply of wood. field, … knows the history of every stump on it and the age of every sapling; … Cathedral Pines It is more economical, as well as more The [Mariposa] sequoias seemed to poetical, to have a wood-lot and cut and vindicate the American national intuition get out your own wood from year to year that colossal grandeur spoke to the soul. than to buy it at your door…. How many It was precisely because the red columns sweet passages there must have been in of this sublimely American temple had his life there, chopping all alone in the not been constructed that they seemed short winter days! How many rabbits, providentially sited, growing inexorably partridges, foxes he saw! A rill runs ever more awesome until God’s new through the lot, where he quenched his Chosen People would discover them in thirst, and several times he has laid it the heart of the Promised West. Simon bare. – Henry David Thoreau, December Schama, Landscape and Memory.7 11, 18565 Though exploited as freaks of nature when theyFew people today would consider laying a rill were first discovered in 1852, the Mariposabare several times to be good stewardship of sequoias quickly were sanctified as a naturala forest, yet Thoreau sees it not only as good, temple dating back to the time of Christ.8sustainable management, but as poetry! His Sydney Andrews, a correspondent of thejournal entry shows just how much the idea of Boston Daily Advertiser, for example, waxedstewardship is related to the time and situation theological in his description of one old giant:of the forest. “What lengths of days are here! His years areVery little is known about the growth and use the years of the Christian era; perhaps in theof the pines in their early years. Local tradition hour when the angels saw the Star of Bethlehemrelates that two early owners, Seth Pierce and standing in the East, this germ broke throughFred Kellogg “cut trees very sparingly, using the tender sod and came out into the air of thethe woodlot as an occasional source of home- Upper World.”9needed lumber and fuel with some surplus forlocal sales.”6 I suspect that they, like Thoreau’s’ As Simon Schama describes it, the consecrationneighbor, Minott, cut the trees more heavily of the Mariposa Grove was not an isolatedthan was later assumed. The trees themselves instance but another chapter in a long traditionpaint a somewhat different picture. linking forests and cathedrals. It takes quite a leap of imagination, though, to see a forest as aThe pines, quite slender for their great height, cathedral. Not only is Christianity not rootedapparently grew dense and tall, competing for in forests10, but forests themselves do not looksunlight and probably supporting very little very much like churches. The association hadunderstory. Surprisingly, however, two other to be cultivated.generations of trees established amidst theolder ones in the 1920s and 1940s, just as the The most obvious link is gothic architecture,older trees were large enough to be useful. I with its groves of columns rising and branchingsuspect that Pierce and Kellogg cut more of the into a vaulted canopy. Caspar David Friedrichforest than local tradition conveyed, and that, made some of the most graphic connectionsin doing so, they created large enough openings a few decades before the discovery of thefor new pines to establish. Although this seems Mariposa grove. In his paintings, Friedrichlike a minor issue, it points to differences in often paired trees with crosses and churches,what people considered “sparing” use of a not just to give the architecture vegetal roots,forest or woodlot. In the early 1800s, when but to draw upon pagan, religious traditions thatmost land was cleared for agriculture and the had been incorporated into Christian beliefs.remaining woodlots were used for fuel wood He was explicit in his use of symbols, usingand lumber, sparing use may have implied evergreens, for example, to signify the hope ofheavier cutting than we might imagine today, Christian resurrection, even in the bleaknessalthough with greater care for long-term yield. of winter.11 But spruces and firs present a History 39
  • 50. particular problem when compared with gothic that Calhoun compared his pines to thearchitecture. Unlike deciduous trees, they do Mariposa sequoias when he purchased them,not branch out into an overarching canopy at least not in a direct way. As Schama makesreminiscent of gothic vaults. To overcome very plain, such associations are not usually onthis, Friedrich poses them with the exteriors of the surface; they operate on a deeper level.gothic churches and draws parallels between If Calhoun had a direct source of inspiration,the spires of the churches and the spire- it is more likely to have been George Perkinslike forms of the spruces and firs in order to Marsh’s Man and Nature.12 Based onconstruct a forest cathedral (Fig. 5) observation and evidence from wide-ranging. sources, Marsh convincingly argued thatFriedrich and other Europeans rooted Gothic deforestation led to rapid run-off, downstreamarchitecture in nature in order to give it flooding, and other hydrologic problems. Marshgreater authority in architectural debates. did not depict human agency as inherentlyAmerican painters, however, turned their malicious, nor, for that matter, nature aseyes to the forests themselves, drawing out inherently good. Nature was mute in his eyes;their architectural qualities and elevating their it possessed neither conscious will nor moralstatus to that of ancient architecture. In Albert purpose. Humans, however, did have both willBierstadt’s, The Great Trees, Mariposa Grove, and moral purpose and could work to improvefor example, a clearly defined nave is marked nature, stewarding it toward constructiveby a giant sequoia in the foreground, acting change. Although much of human impact hadboth as spire and cross, echoed in the distance been destructive, the devastating effects ofby a similar giant to unite the foreground deforestation were not willful in his eyes, butand background into one architectural whole merely neglectful. He remained optimistic,(Fig.6). therefore, that much of the devastation could be reversed through a concerted program of conservation and preservation.13 The optimism in his message and the call to stewardship resulted in widespread acceptance of his argument, even if many of his proposals were not actually adopted.Figure 5. Caspar David Friedrich “Cross and Cathedralin the Mountains”In 1883, three decades after the discovery ofthe sequoias, Cathedral Pines were about ahundred years old and approaching their finalheight, when John Calhoun purchased the Figure 6. Albert Bierstadt “The Great Trees, Mariposaforest to protect it from logging. It is unlikely Grove”40 Kelsh
  • 51. As a fellow Yankee witnessing the gradual on shrub and ground vegetation (Fig. 7).reforestation of the New England landscape, Pines and hemlocks dominated each of theseCalhoun may have felt kinship with Marsh communities, along with scattered hardwoods,as well as a desire to steward the landscape depending on the amount of availableback to a forested condition. Protecting the moisture.16 For the first time, the successionpines from any future logging would have of the forest was quantified. Hemlocks andbeen a small but important part of that overall hardwoods were poised to succeed the pines,process. Whatever the reason, his small act but since a few pines were still establishingof stewardship was remarkable in a national on drier sites, the students concluded that thecontext of forest preservation. In 1883, forest would eventually succeed to a hemlock-Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa sequoias hardwood stand with some conspicuous whitehad been protected as a park for nearly twenty pines.17years, and Yellowstone for just over ten. ButCalhoun’s act preceded the creation of the Since most succession theory is hypothesizedAdirondack Forest Preserve by two years and by observing different forests at differentall subsequent preservation efforts. successional stages and then extrapolating from them to predict a single temporal sequence The Scientific Forest at a given location, Cathedral Pines afforded scientists a rare opportunity to observe and In many respects the attitude of the quantify the succession of an old pine stand to forester toward a forest is radically a climax hemlock/hardwood forest. Though opposed to that of the ecologist. To the it probably would have taken well over a former it represents merely the means to hundred more years to complete the process, an end, to the latter it is the end in itself. the long-term records of the stand provided a The fundamental idea—the keynote, as it special opportunity to document it. From this were—in the forester’s treatment of the standpoint it is easy to understand the scientific forest is utility. He estimates the value interest in the forest. of a tract of woodland in board feet. His chief ambition is to secure a maximum yield per acre of the most desirable lumber. … The ecologist, on the other hand, sees in such a group of trees the glorious consummation of long centuries of slow upbuilding on the part of Mother Nature. They represent the survivors of that keen competition and relentless struggle for existence to which their less fit comrades of earlier years have long since succumbed. To precipitate their downfall with the axe seems little short of desecration. Although forced to admit the economic necessity for the objective point of the forester, the viewpoint of the ecologist is mainly subjective. [Italics added] – George Nichols, “The Vegetation of Connecticut”14As Cathedral Pines matured, the evidence of its Figure 7. “Forest Profile of Cathedral Pines”, Ecologicalhistory must have become so faint that it came Inventory of Cathedral Pines Preserveto be seen as a virgin stand. Scientific interestin the forest grew along with it, especially as Although George Nichols had admitted thatan example of long-term succession. In 1967 his interest in the successional processes of theJohn Calhoun’s heirs deeded Cathedral Pines forest was a subjective aesthetic, by the 1970sto the Nature Conservancy, which sponsored that aesthetic had become the norm in scientifica thorough, scientific study of the stand as interpretation of the forest. But now it camethe basis for its management.15 Surveying all with its own cultural baggage in the form oftypical and unique habitats, student ecologists disdain for human agency, evidenced in Theidentified four major plant communities based Nature Conservancy’s “Stewardship Plan for History 41
  • 52. Cathedral Pines,” which opposed any efforts to stewardship of the forest. This is a significantmaintain the pines or salvage storm damaged shift in the aesthetic values placed on it. Itstrees.18 “Planting of white pine in combination impact can be seen in two photos taken bywith cutting hardwoods would maintain the George Bellerose in the early 1980s (Figs. 8pine stand,” the report read, “but would require and 9). Whereas Calhoun’s salvaging of fallenconsiderable expense and effort. The result trees had maintained the open understory andwould be nothing more than a pine plantation, contributed to its cathedral-like imagery, thefar different from the unique natural forest new management cultivated a different typethat exists today.”19 This analogy to a pine of forest, one where human intervention wasplantation seems particularly inappropriate. considered detrimental to its natural qualities.Pines in plantations are planted all at the sametime in a grid, whereas creating openings in the Conclusioncanopy large enough for pines to regenerate is This brief natural history leaves out many smallsimilar to what Pierce and Kellogg did back but significant events and traditions—a 1945in the early 1800s (though for very different experimental thinning to rejuvenate the pines,reasons). Seemingly the mere fact of human the careful felling of select trees for use in theagency provoked the analogy to a plantation. construction of the Tappan Zee Bridge, the wedding of Cara Perkins and Mike Jacubouis captured in a National Geographic book about the Appalachian Trail, local school children who monitored its use, and decades of study by Yale forestry students. All of this history points to the level of attachment that people had to the forest. These various attachments surfaced in the controversy over what to do with the site in the wake of the storm. As an outsider viewing the controversy from a distance of some ten to fifteen years, it seems to me that the controversy stemmed from the fact that The Nature Conservancy’s management, with its application of a scientific aesthetic, failed to account for these other attachments built up through the forest’s long history.21Figure 8. Clear understoryMore pressing than maintaining the pines wasthe issue of salvaging fallen trees. AlthoughCalhoun had salvaged trees for decades,The Nature Conservancy had no intention of Figure 9. Fallen trees left in an openingcontinuing that practice: “Because CathedralPines is a living laboratory in which vegetational Like the other acts of stewardship before it,development can be observed and studied, the The Nature Conservancy’s management wasremoval of fallen trees will not be permitted.”20 founded on a set of historically situated beliefsThe scientific aesthetic that George Nichols about nature as well as on the actual conditionshad described was now the basis for the official of the forest at the time. The scientific interest42 Kelsh
  • 53. in the stand was genuine, however the disdain the Blowdown of July 1989,” unpublished studentfor human agency that came with it was, in my paper (Petersham, MA: Harvard Forest, Harvardopinion, misplaced. Changes in the forest may University, 1990).have been inevitable as the giant pines agedand died, but it was not inevitable that human 5 Foster, Thoreau’s Country, had to be hidden or denied. 6 George Cromie, “A Longer Life for CathedralMy point in telling this natural history is to Pines,” Connecticut Woodlands 10 (May 1945),show just how much Cathedral Pines bore the 11-12.imprints of its various owners and users, andto show that these imprints were integral to its 7 Simon Schama, Landscape and Memory, (NY:biology and to its status as nature. Indeed, as Alfred A. Knopf, 1995), 191.David Lowenthal argues, it is those imprintsthat made the forest meaningful to people as 8 Schama, Landscape and Memory, 188-201.the natural icon Cathedral Pines. Not onlywere those imprints evidence of stewardship, 9 Schama, Landscape and Memory, 190. Originalbut they also encouraged further care, because citation: Sydney Andrews, Boston Dailythey continued the development of the forest Advertiser,and its associations to people. My point is not November 3, 1869.merely to make an argument for cultivatingsuch imprints, but to give credibility to previous 10 Schama, Landscape and Memory, 226.acts of stewardship and beliefs about nature. 11 Schama, Landscape and Memory, 238.Earlier this year a student challenged me to 12 George Perkins Marsh, Man and Nature: Thename one good thing that we humans had done Earth as Modified by Human Action (NY: Scribner,to the planet. I wish in hindsight that I had Armstrong & Co., 1874).responded with the cultivation, preservation,and imagination of Cathedral Pines. Such 13 Lowenthal, George Perkins Marsh, 425-8.misanthropic sentiments sadden me, regardlessof whether or not they are correctly attributed to 14 George E. Nichols, “The Vegetation ofwilderness ideology, as Michael Pollan argues. Connecticut, II, Virgin Forests,” Torreya 13 (1913),Not only is it inevitable that we have an impact 199.on the world, but the ways that we leave animprint are precisely what give it meaning and 15 B. Kershner, M. Barrett, W.Silver, ed. A Weissman,value to us. Though it would be just as naïve “An Ecological Inventory of Cathedral Pinesto suggest that all human imprints are good, Preserve, Cornwall, Connecticut,” unpublishedit is important to recognize the relationship report, (Middletown, CT: The Nature Conservancy,between the physical world, our imagination Connecticut Chapter, 1976).of nature, and our actions upon it. Only thencan we evaluate our actions in an attempt to 16 Kershner, et al, “Ecological Inventory,” 11-15.determine which are better than others. 17 Kershner, et al, “Ecological Inventory,” 15-17.References 18 Frank Calhoun and Susan Cooley, “Stewardship1 Michael Pollan, “The Idea of a Garden.” In Plan for Cathedral Pines,” unpublished report,Second Nature: A Gardener’s Education (NY: Dell (Middletown, CT: The Nature Conservancy,Publishing, 1991). Connecticut Chapter, 1978).2 David Lowenthal, George Perkins Marsh: Prophet 19 Kershner, et al, “Ecological Inventory,” 20.of Conservation, (Seattle: Univ. of WashingtonPress, 2000), 427. 20 Calhoun and Cooley, “Stewardship Plan,” 11.3 David Foster, Thoreau’s Country: Journey 21 To be fair The Nature Conservancy didthrough a Transformed Landscape (Cambridge, compromise. They allowed a local cabinet makerMA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 141. to make commemorative tables from some of the downed trees, Mystic Seaport Museum acquired4 Scott Navitsky, “Pines in a Pasture: The History masts for use in restoration of historical sailingof Cathedral Pines, Northwestern Connecticut and vessels, and a fire buffer was created along the History 43
  • 54. Imprint of a Blues Stainedroadside. the bluffs of Mississippi Hill Country on the east, the Delta comprises almost 7000 squareLandscape miles of alluvial plain, bayous, and backwater swamps.Michael Robinson Until just after the Civil War, the Delta was a formidable and forbidding region withIntroduction a primeval quality. As a cypress/tupeloThe Mississippi River is a remarkable hardwood, bottomland swamp, the Delta wasgeographic feature on the North American considered to have been one of the world’scontinent. Its watershed drains approximately most diverse and productive ecosystems. Its41 percent of the continental United States, vegetative cover was so dense that it was almostcrossing more than thirty states. Mark Twain impossible to penetrate, leaving the Delta asdescribes the Mississippi as the longest river the “last wilderness east of the Mississippiin the world, and, by measuring the Missouri River.”as its main branch, he approximates that itis “four thousand three hundred miles long”(Twain 1). He also speculates that “it is thecrookedest river in the world, since in one partof its journey it uses up one thousand threehundred miles to cover the same ground thatthe crow would fly over in six hundred seventyfive miles” (Twain, 1). Figure 2. The Yazoo Mississippi Delta Alluvial Plain With its dense cane breaks and thick canopy of vines, in 1865 the Delta was still, in fact, a howling wilderness - a landscape defined more by its water than by its land. The few inhabitants of the Delta clung to the banks of its streams, bayous, and rivers. These precariousFigure 1. The Mississippi River circa 2500 BC perches, however, provided claims of rich soils and abundant wildlife that attracted so many toThe lower basin of the Mississippi, below the Delta during the Reconstruction era.Cairo, Illinois, has three distinct deltas:the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta, the Arkansas Reclaiming the DeltaDelta, and the Louisiana Delta. The Yazoo- During Reconstruction, a virtual army of ex-Mississippi Delta (Delta) is an elongated, slaves and immigrants cleared the bottomlandlanceolate, leaf-shaped area formed by the forest and dredged and drained the swamps toshifting channels of the Mississippi and Ohio make way for cultivation of the most productiveRivers over the last ten thousand years. The agricultural land in the nation. Hundreds ofDelta begins just south of the Memphis Bluff thousands of African Americans turned outand runs southward approximately 200 miles of slavery and off plantations, sought a freshto just north of the Vicksburg Plateau. It is start and access to work in the Delta. Theybounded by the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. transformed this dense forested ecosystem intoAt the half-way point in its length, the Delta cotton plantations, using only the crudest ofis at its widest, just over 70 miles across, tools and techniques. Muleskinners, axe gangs,spanning from Greenville to Greenwood sharecroppers, and railroad crews utilizedthrough Leland, Indianola, Moorhead, and centuries old work traditions, transplantedIta Bena. Bounded by levees on the west and from African agricultural traditions, to harness44 Robinson
  • 55. their collective strengths and overcome the developed after the Civil War as the onlystifling heat and torrential rains, creating a possible means of solving the dilemma insynchronized and energized work force. which the South found itself during these lean years. The farmers had the land butThe Delta evolved from a hardwood swamp to no labor to cultivate it, and the formera fertile plain, over almost a century of back- slaves had nothing but the strength tobreaking toil. The large trees, approximately work. A partnership was effected wherebythree to six feet in diameter, were taken out the landowner used his land, paid thefirst by lumber companies. The land then had taxes, furnished the mules, tools, andto be drained through ditching, dredging, and the seed, and provided the laborer andchannelization. Farmers were then left to clear his family with a house space to raisethe land for agriculture. In addition, roads had vegetables, hogs, and chickens, and ato be laid, levees constructed, railroads built, “furnish” for store-bought necessities,towns founded, plantations assembled, and and medical services. At the end of thepenitentiaries raised. Most of this work took crop year (Settlement Day) the profit wasplace in the sixty years between 1870 and divided equally, and from his share the1930. tenant repaid the owner for the “furnish” that had been issued to him through theThis work was produced under a system of year.servitude that was only slightly more humanethan slavery. Sharecropping, forced labor This gentile white southerner’s descriptioncamps, and itinerate labor jobs were difficult of the system of sharecropping almost madeand dangerous, particularly under the Black the planter class out to be the model ofCode and on the wrong side of the Jim Crow southern generosity. Many today, however,line. In the Delta, a mule was more valuable would characterize the “partnership” thatthan a man, and gun law prevailed. Freedom Ms. Hemphill describes, struck between theoffered ex-slaves few securities when they sharecropper and planter, as a surrogate formserved under the boot heel of “Mister Cholly of slavery, for this system of tenant farming(Charley),” the ubiquitous field boss of every was more virulent than gang or crew. Figure 4. Settlement DayFigure 3. Mississippi Delta Sharecroppers The tenet farmer was usually providedThe system of sharecropping provides the most between forty and seventy acres of land tovivid picture of the morally bankrupt labor farm, depending upon the size of family andsystem employed between 1865 and 1930 in their work capacity. A house, mule, seed, andthe Delta. Since less than ten percent of all “furnishings” were also provided. However, onfarmers in the Delta owned their own land, most Settlement Day (the annual day of accountingfarmers worked their farms as sharecroppers. for the crops and expenses), the planter paidMary Hemphill, in her recounting of the history the sharecropper whatever he wanted to payof Sunflower County Mississippi, recalls that him. Theoretically the tenant farmer was paid half the value of the crops produced, less The sharecropping system of farming had the costs of the “furnishings.” However, the History 45
  • 56. planter never told the sharecropper what the to think about the bad housing, the poorcost of the seed or “furnishings” for the year schools, the exclusion from restaurants,was, nor did he disclose the amount or value the Jim Crow rules about bathrooms andof the crop that was delivered by the tenant drinking fountains, the beatings, thefarmer. The planter’s books were completely police brutality, even the lynching. We hadclosed to the sharecropper and no questions all gotten use to the convenience ofwere ever asked. a black under caste that would do all the hot, dirty jobs for whatever we paidAt the end of the year, many, and in actual them and thank us for giving them afact most, sharecroppers found that their net chance We were used to the smiling andearnings were actually net losses, adding subservient black, because the southerneach year to an accumulated debt owed to the police customarily arrested any blacklandlord. To protest the planter’s accounting who even wore a sullen look (61).or request a presentation of the books wastantamount to requesting a death sentence or, This highly policed form of subjugationat the very least, immediate banishment from created that “low down dirty feeling” that wasthe plantation. often referred to as the blues. Many members of the African American community felt theAnd while all farmers are certain that next “aching chill” of this stifling, oppressiveyear’s crop will be better than the current year, system of control on a daily basis. Sincethe sharecropper was constantly and hopelessly African Americans were highly scrutinizeddrowning in a flood of red ink that was beyond in public, it was only indirectly in theirhis control. Since the sharecropper had no communal work songs and more directly invoice in the plantation system, the only escape their church meetings on Sunday that theyfrom this form of indentured servitude was for could express their true feelings and profoundthe male head of the household to run away, sense of indignation. Lomax derides the pre-leaving his family on the farm to start anew Civil Rights period by saying:with the landlord. This fracturing of the socialcohesion of the African American communityprovided the planter with greater control andauthority, and added greatly to the generaldespair of the black community.Alan Lomax, an ethnomusicologist andarcheologist sent in 1930 by the Library ofCongress to record indigenous music of theSouth, describes the plantation system in thisway: [Landlords] have squads that go around at night and beat up on the ones they call “impudent.” The function of shooting such as these is to intimidate all colored farm workers in the area to the point Figure 5 Hoe Culture where they will not object, either as an individual or as a group, to the economic The experience of the Southern working- and caste domination of the white class blacks, who created the blues in landlords (97). the post slavery period, was in some ways more bitter than slavery itself.Lomax, an east Texan by birth, lived all of his Promised equal rights and opportunities,childhood and most of his early adult life in the blacks were, by and large, denied both.South. He provides this first person account They put their hands to the plow, to theof the white southerner’s view of the African railroad hammer, to the lines of the muleAmerican situation: team and, in effect, built the South – for subsistence wages, Faulkner’s decadent Like every southerner, I had been raised planter class knew how to exploit them to believe that blacks were contented and, when they felt it necessary, resorted with their lot. We had been taught not to the most savage exemplary violence to46 Robinson
  • 57. keep these vigorous and ambitious people around the world to the modern psychological in line (xv). syndrome of uncanny inhabitation:Work, however, whether on a steamboat All of us are beginning to experience thelanding or in the levee construction, provided melancholy dissatisfaction that weighedthe daily possibility of the release of tensions so heavily upon the hearts of the blackthrough the symbolic and circumlocutious people of the [Yazoo] Mississippi Delta,lyrics of communal work song. Each general the land where blues began. Feelingsvocation had specialized jobs, and each job had of anomie and alienation, of orphaninga set of work songs that set forth an appropriate and rootlessness – the sense of being aworking rhythm and lyrical calls that made the commodity rather than a person, the lossday go easily in spite of the heat. As examples, of love and of family and of place – thislevee construction camps had rooster callers, modern syndrome was the norm of theborrowmen, hoppers, mule skinners, working cotton [tenant] farmers and transientslips, and wheelers; railroad construction laborers of the deep south one hundredcamps had hammermen, spikers, tampers, steel years ago (Lomax, ix).gangs, gandy dancers, tie totters, and trackcallers; and cotton plantations had plowmen, The Blues sprang out of the Yazoo-Mississippihoe gangs, picking crews, and wagon drivers. Delta somewhere around 1890. They echoed across the flat alluvial fields of cottonNot only did this river of communal singing plantations, gathering at dusty crossroads inseem to improve the spirits of the workers, it jook joints, railroad depots, and steamboatalso synchronized the work and the workers landings; rifling through the barrelhouses andinto efficient machines. Each crew or gang bulk breaks; rolling through levee, railroad,had a song leader who set the pace of the work and turpentine camps; and stopping, if ever sothrough the rhythm of the songs he sang. By briefly, at plantation house parties.coordinating the energies and activities of eachwork force, incredible tasks were accomplished The Blues evolved out of a number of Westquickly, often competitively with other crews, African and West Central Sudanic Beltand usually in good humor. Lomax saw traditions, both traditions of music, agriculture,communal singing as and work. One of these traditions was embodied in the “griots,” or tribal historians, a flood tide of supportive African who recounted the history of their culture in the sociability, eroticism, and life-giving free verse of poetic songs. These chantefables laughter, welling up in the black were sung in solo by the griot and responded to family and community life, [which] by the audience. Another African tradition was endowed black life with a certain that of communal work songs, where “the dash invulnerability in the face of sharp and rhythms … of black Africa, turned the adversity. It could be argued that the new heavy, hot work of the tropics into community song styles of the Delta symbolized the jollifications” (Lomax, 69). dynamic continuation of African social and creative process as a technique of These sons and daughters of slaves and adaptation in the New World (Lomax sharecroppers weaved work hollers, gandy xiv). dancing, field arhoolies, prison chants, shack rooster’s calls, spirituals, yodels, moans, jail-Evolution of the Blues house groans, track calls, chanted prayers,There is little debate about the claim that the lullabies, children’s game songs, gospels,Delta is the home of archaic country blues, ring shouts, and church jubilatings intoalso known as the Delta blues. The blues is the a spontaneous bending, blueing, sliding,progenitor of other 19th and early 20th Century thumping, pounding, and beating sound thatmusical forms such as archaic jazz; jug, tub, meanders around the simple musical form ofand washboard bands; street and marching twelve bars and a vocal pattern of a double callbands; and country brass bands. Other genres and a single spring from this form of folk blues wereboogie-woogie, ragtime, gospel blues, rock Folk Blues Formand roll, soul, funk, and rap (Highlights of the A typical Delta blues song has some stylisticJazz Story). Lomax attributes the longevity traits from African musical cultures. They areand widespread distribution of the Blues usually “stringed-instrumental-accompanied History 47
  • 58. vocal music” sung in the first person (Kubik, Brown.99). However, the musical grammar of the Lord, that I’m standin’ at the cross road,AAB stanza pattern (a textual statement (A), babe – I believe I’m sinkin’ downfollowed by a repetition of the first textualstatement (A), and concluded by a different text (Ainslie,52)line (B), often followed by a musical response)seems to have no precedent in African orEuropean musical traditions. Robert Kubik, acultural anthropologist and ethnomusicologist,in Africa and the Blues, traces the musical traitsthat came from Africa and transmuted into theblues. He suggests, however, that this poeticform is an African American development(Kubik, 33). An example of this grammar canbe seen in Robert Johnson’s famous CrossroadsBlues: Figure 3. Mississippi Delta Sharecroppers The Blues Begins The first notation of Delta blues music was made by an archeologist from Harvard University, Charles Peabody, in 1903. Professor Peabody (Peabody Museum) hired a digging crew to assist him with an archeological excavation near Stovall, Mississippi. These workmen sang field chants as they worked and Peabody put them into a classical musical signature orFigure 6. Notations of Robert Johnson Blues Songs notational system. In that same year, W. C. Handy, an African American from Florence, I went down to the cross roads – fell down Alabama, came upon a musician sitting at the on my knee. Tutwiler depot, a Delta town near Clarksdale. I went down to the crossroads – fell down The man sang and played a guitar using a knife on my knee. to slide along the strings. Handy recorded the I asked the Lord above, “Have mercy – lyric “Where the Southern crosses the Dog,” Save poor Bob, if you please.” which the itinerate musician sang. Handy moved to Clarksdale and then Memphis to Standin’ at the cross road – I tried to flag commercially promote this style of music. He a ride. later incorporated the lyric into a song he made Standin’ at the cross road – I tried to flag popular called the Memphis Blues. a ride. Didn’t no one seem to know me – The first blues sheet music was published in everybody pass me by. 1912, and the first gramophone recording of the blues was distributed in 1920. This indigenous The sun goin’ down boy – dark gon’ catch art form has now not only spread to all corners me here. of the earth, it is still influencing popular music The sun goin’ down boy – dark gon’ catch across the globe. me here. I haven’t got no lovin’ sweet woman that In their compelling book, Mississippi Floods, – love and feel my care. Anaratha Mathur and Dilip da Cunha describe the Delta Blues: You can run – you can run – tell my friend-boy, Willie Brown. The blues give the twisted, turns, You can run – tell my friend-boy,Willie and quavers, swooping dips and sudden48 Robinson
  • 59. climbs, the attack and release of notes, improvisation, and melismas; and all of its and spontaneous embellishment that jumpin’, rattlin’, swoopin’, dippin’, and make the music so elusive, they also give shakin’. An acoustic geography was created it an emergent, ordinary everydayness. in the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta out of the There are high-water blues, boll-weevil admixture of ecology, economy, and cultural blues, cotton field blues, dirt-road blues, conflicts that imprinted American musical penal-farm blues, turtle-dove blues, and traditions. The Delta is truly a blues stained today, despite pressure from tourists to landscape, stained with the sweat and blood of the Yazoo Delta who want to hear the a dynamic, resilient, creative, and ambitious blues of a past era of cotton picking, under caste of people, whose creative impulses there are drug blues, talking-back blues, and vivacious gregariousness made them cyberspace blues (Mathur, 34). seemingly invulnerable to the unspeakable cruelties of an inhumane system of forcedBlues songs were pure expressions of the soul labor.that were intended to uplift and reinvigoratethe spirit, usually in the face of endless toil forlittle pay or forced labor at the butt of a gun, the Referenceswrong end of a club, or the lash of a bull-whip. Ainslie, Scott and Dave Whitehall, Transcribers.The subjects of the blues were the emergent 1992. Robert Johnson: At the crossroads – theand everyday events of love and loss, work authoritative guitar transcriptions. Milwaukee:and play, life and death, floods and droughts, Hal Leonard PC.that punctuated the dawn ‘til dusk work andplay patterns of sharecroppers, loggers, flood Hemphill, Mary M. Fevers, floods, and faith: Afighters, roustabouts, and a multitude of history of Sunflower county, Mississippi, 1844-other laborers doing menial jobs given over 1976. Indianola, MS.predominately to African Americans in thepost Civil War era. Kubik, Gerhard. 1999. Africa and the Blues. Jackson: UP of Mississippi.ConclusionThe distinct geographical formation of the Lomax, Alan. 1993. The Land where the BluesYazoo-Mississippi Delta has given rise to an began. New York: The New Press.acoustic geography born of the rhymes andrhythms of the great Mississippi River and Mathur, Anuradha and Dilip da Cunha. 2001.the African traditions of the workforce that Mississippi floods: Designing a shifting landscape.converted the Delta wilderness into a garden. New Haven: Yale UP.These African American farmers and laborers Twain, Mark. Life on the Mississippi, 1981 edition.used many of the tools, techniques, and art New York: Bantam Books.forms that were employed in agriculture intheir homelands in Africa. Highlights of the Jazz Story in the USA, the New Millennium Edition.. 1989. Hamburg: Peter vonThe Delta has always been characterized by land and poor people. Life was oftenrough and the people had to be tough. Floods,droughts, hurricanes, tornados, and evenearthquakes set the pattern of alluvial timethat influenced daily existence in the Delta.These powerful conflicting forces created aburning, churning cauldron of despair andhope, disenfranchisement and empowerment,poverty and richness, and enslavement andfreedom that forged the blues. These competingforces set forth a highly charged brew ofcreative alchemy that was ripe for invention.Add the oral and musical traditions of pan-African culture as a catalyst and what emergedwas a distinct musical form known as theDelta Blues, with all of its whoopin’, hollerin’,wailin’and cryin’; all of its circumlocution, History 49
  • 60. Landscape and Social from the formal garden and the domain of the servants. The site adjoins the Miles BrewtonRelations: Charleston property at 27 King Street, subject of intensiveTownhouse Sites (1770- archaeological research a decade earlier, and described by Spencer-Wood (2002) and1850) Baugher and De Cunzo (2002) previously in this journal. Archaeological research on theMartha A. Zierden garden was conducted in consultation with garden historian C. Allan Brown, restoration architect Glenn Keyes, restoration specialistArchaeological research in Charleston, South Richard Marks, and historical architects WillieCarolina has, for the past decade, focused on the Graham and Orlando Ridout. Allan Brownevolution of the urban landscape as expressed is responsible for interpretation of the formalin the townhouses of wealthy planters and garden (Brown 2001).merchants, built during the late 18th and 19thcenturies and still prominent features of theurban landscape. Visible elements of the elitelandscape include large townhouses and formalgardens (Cothran 1995; McInnis 1999). Theseproperties were also occupied by a sizablepopulation of enslaved African Americanswho lived and worked in the service buildingsand work yards. The interdependence of thesediverse occupants, their daily affairs, and thelandscape elements under their purview havebeen revealed in the research of scholars froma host of disciplines, including archaeology(Cothran 1995; Herman 1999; McInnis 1999;Zierden 1999).The urban landscape is more than just anamalgamation of individual landscapes of the Figure 1. Miles Brewton property, 27 King Streetelite, middling, and poor, slave and free. Italso possesses a unique and definable character At the time of excavation, no documentaryof its own, simultaneously collective and data concerning gardens or gardening at 14contradictory; as such, it requires a broader Legare Street had been discovered. In fact,level of study, beyond that of individual there was no documentation whatsoever forsites, for an urban center was, as Dell Upton the existence of an associated garden. Thehas suggested, “a product of large social and placement and maintenance of a formal gardeneconomic forces, a pattern reflecting collective by the antebellum owners was presumed fromaction” (1992, 51). A material culture study the construction and style of the front walls andof the city moves beyond individual sites gates, and the internal wall running the lengthand individual actions to an investigation of of the driveway. That the front gates and wallreciprocal relationships among selves and were the product of George Edwards is clearlyhuman alterations of the physical world. demonstrated by his initials in the wrought iron entryway. Historical architects presumedThe issues of landscape and social relations that the fence would have surrounded somewere recently examined in detail through landscape element of equal extensive archaeological project atthe Simmons Edwards house, number 14 The property currently known as 14 LegareLegare Street. This townhouse was built Street fronts this late 18th century thoroughfareby planter Francis Simmons, in 1800, and on a double lot 100’ wide and 270’ deep. Arenovated by George Edwards in 1818. The significant neoclassical townhouse in theinterdisciplinary research was generated by single house style occupies the northern halfthe current owners, involved in an extensive, of the property. The three-storey, brick mainmuseum-quality restoration of the house and house is followed by two substantial, originalgrounds. Exploration and mitigation also outbuildings, a kitchen/slave quarter, and atouched on the work yard, an area segregated carriage house. A small brick building to50 Zierden
  • 61. the rear was determined to be a privy. The loamy sand that contained far more artifacts,buildings and adjacent work yard and driveway including a range of distinct Victorian items.were surrounded to the south and rear by an This is associated with an 1880s renovationL-shaped garden and lawn area. of the landscape. Zone 3, distinguished by its lighter brown color, contains artifacts fromWhen Simmons acquired the property in 1800 the first half of the 19th century. Further, thehe purchased two adjoining lots, each with its zones and their associated features exhibitedown ownership history. The lot to the south, a remarkable degree of horizontal variability12 Legare, contained a modest single house, across the various site areas, making it possiblepresumably with appropriate outbuildings, to accurately interpret a range of site activitywhich Simmons rented out. It evidently sat and use areas, based on artifact and ecofactback from the street, for, after his house was content, density, and stratigraphic complexity.built, he instructed his tenants not to build A series of features in zone 3, particularlyanything in front of the house, lest it block areas of crushed shell, appeared to be evidencehis view and his breezes. When Beaufort of an antebellum garden. An area of shell in aplanter George Edwards acquired the property definable curve with regular bottom and sidesin 1818, he either demolished or, according indicated an unexpected style, with curvedto unconfirmed local legend, moved the paths rather than rectangular beds. Two phaseshouse and made 12 Legare Street his garden. of block excavation surrounding this oneEdwards then constructed elaborate gates with revealed the complete pattern of the formalhis initials and, according to our data, a garden. garden.The garden remained intact until the 1880s,when the landscape was altered (Stockton The front 90’ of the lawn was the formal1990). garden, in a bold pattern defined by the shell paths. The center, or highlight, of the pattern is a curving diamond, or bowed lozenge, turning to 8 (four double) circles, each of the double lobes terminating in a rounded node, which Allan Brown suggests were locations of statuary or ornaments. The resulting garden style is know as a “rosary,” designed to look like a flower when viewed from above, and to be filled with roses. From the central axis of the rosary, diagonal paths diverge to the east and west, terminating near the front wall and the E60 line, respectively. Here, more ephemeral deposits suggest the placement, and later removal, of a hexagonal summer house. Beyond this was the area known as the middleFigure 2. 12 Legare Street Garden garden. This contained only the border walks. The zone 3 deposits were homogenous withWork began with an 8-unit testing project and sparse shell flecking, no individual plantconcluded with the excavation of 154 5-foot features, and relatively little evidence ofunits, including a 40’ by 90’ block in the front ongoing disturbance. This area has beenof the garden area. The project was conducted tentatively interpreted as an orchard area, onein five phases from July 1998 through June with small trees and little turnover in the soil.2000. The units were placed to retrieve datadeemed important, but also to mitigate areas to The rear garden, or foot of the ell, occupiedbe destroyed by the restoration project. by a 1950s formal garden, was again different. The zone 3 soil here was relatively deep andThe initial testing revealed a site of remarkable full of debris, particularly brick and mortarclarity and integrity. Each unit across the site rubble. The artifacts span the first half of theexhibited a basic stratigraphy of zones 1-3, 19th century, again suggesting regular additionsdatable to the 20th century, late 19th century, to the soil. The depth has been interpreted asand early 19th century, respectively. Zone 1 evidence for use of this area as a vegetablewas a modern (last fifty years) layer of topsoil, garden, containing large beds that wereand was virtually sterile. Zone 2 was dark, plowed or deeply hoed on a regular basis. One History 51
  • 62. unit contained a deep lense of finely crushed Another appears to have been bone meal. Theshell, evidently intended for special plantings; bone was relatively dense in the front garden, inasparagus has been suggested. contrast to the cultural materials. In addition,The archaeology revealed that the front third the front garden assemblage was dominated byof the lawn area was, by 1820, the formal fragmentary mammal bone. It is possible thatgarden. The pattern of this rather bold design the animal remains were composted with thewas defined by the series of shell paths. plant remains, or the two were added to theAnother element of the formal garden was the garden separately.consistent presence of fragments of red andyellow clay roof tiles in the garden deposits. Maintenance of townhouse and garden fell toThe suggestion that they might have served Edwards’ slaves. They lived and worked in theas edging for the beds was supported by the small work yard adjoining the outbuildings,discovery of these in situ, along the edge of shielded from the view of garden guests byshell paths, in two locations. the Tuscan-columned fence. The “servants” occupied the small rooms in the second storyThe surrounding medium brown soil proved of the kitchen building. While the main houseto be the beds of the antebellum garden. The showed a formal facade, the work yard housedzone initially appeared to be homogenous in the facilities for the affairs of daily life, incolor, but closer inspection under the right a range of decreasing order and increasinglight conditions revealed a dappled, swirled dirtiness (Zierden and Herman 1996; Herman,soil, reflecting a series of planting episodes. forthcoming). These included kitchen andWhile a few of these were excavated, most wash house, slave quarters, stables, carriagewere left intact. house, livestock sheds, privy, well, cistern, and drainage system. The work yard area alsoEvidence for content of the garden was much contained stratigraphic evidence for extensivemore ephemeral. Pollen analysis by John reorganization of the soil deposits, and theJones provided a partial list of possible plants, addition of refuse. Artifact and bone densityincluding samples of Liliaceae (lily family), increased in the work yard, compared to theRosacea (rose family), and Cornus florida (or garden, again supporting the idea of a dirty,the flowering dogwood). The most reliable noisy came from two lead plant tags recoveredfrom the zone 3 deposits. Each of these tiny The well, drain, and drive features discoveredtags features a hand-inscribed common name here contributed to the efficiency of theon the front of the tag and a latin name on work yard and ultimately to the health ofthe back. The more common is Dianthus site residents. The deliberate placement ofchinensis, or India Pink. The other, more specialized service buildings, separation ofobscure plant, read “Common Eternal Flower,” work yards and gardens, and specific locationsor Xeranthemum annum. Garden scholar Ann for refuse disposal were conscious attempts toLeighton (1987) lists this species as “purple mold an urban landscape suitable to the socialeverlasting.” These tags appear to be one-of- values, as well as physical needs, of urbana-kind archaeological discoveries. residents. The needs and values of Charleston’s citizens changed as the 19th century progressed.We also retrieved data on fertilization from a Archaeology has not only outlined the basicvariety of sources. First was soil chemistry features of an 18th century compound, it hasanalysis, which revealed significant amounts also documented changes in these features forof potassium and phosphorous in the front the next, moderate amounts in the rear garden,and relatively little in the paths themselves. Many of the visible changes to the compoundThe pollen, phytolith, chemistry, and were attempts to improve sanitation andzooarchaological studies also informed on the prevent the spread of disease in an increasinglymaintenance and attention paid to the garden in crowded city (Rosengarten et al. 1987). A largethe form of fertilizing. The phytolith analysis, part of maintaining a healthy and sanitary siteconducted by Lisa Kealhofer, revealed decayed was managing the animals that lived on thatplant and wood material, while Karl Reinhard’s site. Zooarchaeologist Elizabeth Reitz hasparasite analysis revealed a host of fungal recently summarized the animals that wouldspores, indicating a rich aerobic decomposer have lived alongside the human residents ofcommunity. These data suggest that composted a townhouse property such as Legare Streetplant material was one source of fertilizer. (Lucas and Reitz 2001). The archaeological52 Zierden
  • 63. record, and to a lesser extent the documentary research the appearance of the rear garden, andrecord, suggests that the work yard was filled our evidence for that portion of the site is stillwith cows, pigs, and assorted fowl, maintained spotty. The most dramatic change to the visualfor milk and eggs and ultimately destined arrangement of the site was the reconstructionfor the dinner table. Also present were work of the garden wall, complete with the Tuscananimals and pets. The maintenance of these columns and relatively transparent picket. Theanimals, their feed, other food stocks, and the summer house again divides the front gardenresulting refuse, attracted unwanted animals. visually from the middle garden, completingThese practices were common in the 18th and the bold and elaborate design first installed byearly 19th centuries, and they persisted in some George Edwards. The work yard area, though,form into the 20th century (Reitz 2000). Further, is simply lawn. It is no longer needed for thethe character of this animal maintenance maintenance and butchering of livestock, thechanged through time, as urban sanitation and removal of refuse and wastewater, and thepublic health became an increasing problem, storage of carriages and horses.and an increasing concern, as the 19th centuryproceeded. Reitz further suggests a large partof garden maintenance, as well as overall site Referencesmaintenance, involved “keeping chickens and Baugher, Sherene and Lu Ann De Cunzo. 2002.pigs out of the garden, cats out of the well, and Archaeological perspectives on and contributions torats out of the larder” (Reitz 2000). the study of colonial American gardens. Landscape Journal 21 (1): 68-85.Most of these tasks were the responsibility ofthe enslaved residents of the work yard. In Brown, C. Allan. 2001. Research report on theaddition, they were likely responsible for the history of the grounds of No. 14 Legare. On file,installation and maintenance of the formal Glenn Keyes Architects, Charleston,, which occupied the majority of theavailable yard space. This included filling of Cothran, James R. 1995. Gardens of historicthe low-lying, swampy area to the rear of the Charleston. Columbia: University of Southproperty that, in the 18th century, adjoined the Carolina Press.Miles Brewton lot (see Zierden 2001b). Whilethe work of the African residents is preserved Herman, Bernard L. 1999. Slave and servantin the ground, evidence of their own affairs housing in Charleston, 1770-1820. Historicalis less tangible. On crowded urban lots, the Archaeology 33 (3): 88-101.refuse of owner and slave are mixed in the soildeposits. While the work yard was the domain Herman, Bernard L. Forthcoming. The poetics ofof the servants, the refuse there is the product comportment in early America. In The materialof the entire household. Physically separating world of Tidewater, the Lowcountry, and thethe lives of these people in archaeological Caribbean, ed. David Shields. Columbia: Universitydeposits has not yet been possible. of South Carolina Press.Charleston is, after all, a living archaeological Leighton, Anne. 1987. American gardens of thesite, an urban landscape still evolving to nineteenth century: “For comfort and affluence.”suit the needs of its occupants. Restoration Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.of the 14 Legare lot reflects the needs ofcurrent occupants, as well as the historical McInnis, Maurie. 1999. An idea of grandeur:features of the property. The garden revealed Furnishing the classical interior in Charleston,by archaeology has been restored under the 1815-1840. Historical Archaeology 33 (3): 32-47.direction of Allan Brown. Beds were filledwith topsoil. The new tile edging was installed Reitz, Elizabeth. 2000. A sense of place andby Jack Ackerman. The paths were then filled community character: The zooarchaeologicalwith crushed oyster shell, and the remainder evidence. Paper presented at the Southern Gardenof the yard mulched or sodded. The middle Heritage Conference, Athens, contains orange trees, and espaliered figalong the walls. The rosary in front has been Reitz, Elizabeth and Gregory Lucas. 2001.planted in period box. Trellises support roses Vertebrate fauna from 14 Legare Street, Charleston.and other espaliered bushes. The beds have In Excavations at 14 Legare Street, by Marthabeen planted in bulbs, and annual and perennial Zierden. Archaeological Contributions will follow. Allan Brown continues to Charleston: The Charleston Museum. History 53
  • 64. Rosengarten, Dale, Martha Zierden, KimberlyGrimes, Ziyadah Owusu, Elizabeth Alston, andWill Williams III. 1987. Between the tracks:Charleston’s east side during the nineteenth century.Archaeological Contributions 17. Charleston: TheCharleston Museum.Spencer-Wood, Suzanne. 2002. The historicalarchaeology of nineteenth century Americancultural landscapes: A review. Landscape Journal21 (1): 173-182.Stockton, Robert. 1990. The Simmons-EdwardsHouse, 14 Legare Street: A history. On file, GlennKeyes Architects, Charleston, SC.Upton, Dell. 1992. The city as material culture.In The art and mystery of historical archaeology,eds. Mary Beaudry and Anne Yentsch, 51-74. BocaRaton: CRC Press.In The art and mystery of historical archaeology,eds.Mary Beaudry and Anne Yentsch, 51-74. BocaRaton: CRC Press.Zierden, Martha. 2001a. Excavations at 14 LegareStreet, Charleston, South Carolina. ArchaeologicalContributions 28. Charleston: The CharlestonMuseum.----2001b. Object lessons: The journey of MilesBrewton’s bottle. Common-Place 1 (4). Zierden
  • 65. Slave Landscapes of the settlers—white or African—and the practices they incorporated in the emerging society. ToCarolina Low Country: examine the physical landscape of the slaveWhat the Documents community without the muddying effects of regional differences, this paper will focus onReveal a specific region that can provide a common base of comparison - the rice plantationsElizabeth Brabec of the low country of South Carolina. The discussion focuses on the development of the methodological approach to analyzing theIntroduction documentary evidence as a way of clearlyAlthough much has been written about slave identifying the common trends of landscapelife in the antebellum south, comparatively settings. Using this approach, a representativelittle is understood about the physical settings sample of the results is presented and appliedof slave communities and the structures to the development of a broader view of theand spaces that alternately constrained and landscape of slavery.supported day-to-day life. This is due to twoprimary factors: first, until relatively recently, Approachthe focus of southern history and historical Historical analysis is generally concernedlandscapes remained on the plantation house, with making sense of an array of historicaland second, the documentation of the physical documentation, fashioning a narrative fromsetting of slave life is much more difficult documents describing the aspect of historyto compile than that of plantation owners or under concern and placing it in the larger contexteven indentured servants. Common historical of the period. Landscape history is part ofdocuments such as diaries, letters, sketches, that tradition. However, the identification anddrawings and paintings that focused on the understanding of spatial form and landscapeslave community are relatively rare. Those organization is more closely aligned with theexisting documents that do provide written and history of material culture since it deals withvisual descriptions were produced primarily by the physical dimensions and features thatthe planter class or white visitors to the region, support and constrain people’s everyday livesand must be interpreted through the lens of (Leone 1988). As a type of material culture, thethe cultural and social biases of the observer goal in historical analysis of landscape form israther than the participant. As Vlach (2002) to identify the character defining features ofhas noted in his recent book on the meaning a landscape, comparing it with others in theand documentary value of southern paintings, same genre to clarify regional, temporal orslaves and the settings of their lives were almost cultural trends.entirely ignored in the sketches and paintingsof both visitors and the planter class. Where In many studies of landscapes, including slavethey do appear, slaves are often marginalized landscapes of the plantation south, the mostin the depiction of plantation life. pervasive problem in identifying these trends has been the lack of a focus on the importanceMany discussions of plantation landscapes of sample size and its impact on the validity ofhave identified a pan-Southern tradition, and conclusions. While valid conclusions can bealthough there are commonalities between drawn from a single case or a small numberplantation landscapes of the South in general, of comparative cases (Rueschemeyer 2003),regional differences in landscape form and statements of societal and temporal trendsspatial organization are significant. The must also be supported by systematic analysesexistence of these regional differences have of larger sample sizes to minimize the potentialhad only preliminarily exploration in a number for bias produced by atypical cases.of writings, including Conzen (1990), Morgan(1998), Joyner (1985) and Vlach (1993, This historical analysis was designed to test the2002). In fact Brown (1996) cites the lack of impact of a larger sample size on the validitycomprehensive regional analyses as a major of existing hypotheses in the literature, drawnflaw in southern plantation research. Regional from a single or small number of cases. Indifferences result largely from the type of crop order to assess the impact of a wide range ofgrown and the production system designed traditional sources, several types of historicto manage it, but also from the topography, resources and documentation were consulted:climate, and cultural background of the original plantation plats; extant plantation sites, their History 55
  • 66. historic fabric and archaeological findings; sub-regional and temporal variation.writings by plantation owners, including diariesand plantation record books; travel accounts; Extant Sites and Archaeological Findingsslave narratives; census records; and visual Several sites with extant historic fabricrepresentations including paintings, sketches, (Boone Hall, Drayton Hall, Friendfield,and Civil War era photographs. Each resource Middleton Place, Middleburg, McLeodpresented both strengths and weaknesses in Plantation) and 22 archaeological reportscreating a clear image of the physical reality of were reviewed. Many existing sites have notthe slave community. However, an overriding retained their slave quarters, and those thatreality affecting the available documentation have (e.g. Boone Hall) have retained onlyin the Carolina low country was the substantial those quarters in close proximity to the mainloss of documents and extant historic fabric house. Eight of the archaeological reportsincurred during the Civil War. did some level of archaeological analysis on the slave settlements of the site. ArchaeologyPlantation plats was helpful in confirming locations of slaveLand records form the basis of the historical communities, and some features of theirdocumentation available for the purposes landscapes, particularly middens and cellarof this study. Land records can typically be pits. Archaeological finds were most importantfound for all land holdings in a region, and in identifying architectural practices, types ofas such provide the opportunity to, at least food eaten and crops theory, select an unbiased sample. Theplantation plats that form the basis for this Plantation Writings and Travel Accountsstudy were obtained from an exhaustive review Although 306 plantations were identifiedof extant records in the Charleston Historical and included in the research, it is rare to findSociety, Charleston County Register of Mesne corroborating writings or accounts for anyConveyance (McCrady Collection), the South given plantation, particularly writings whichCarolina Department of Archives and History, describe the slave settlements. This lackthe Caroliniana Library at the University of of congruence makes it difficult to confirmSouth Carolina, and several plats from private features identified on plats. In this study,collections. While there are undoubtedly historical writings were used to expand theadditional records that were not included in results obtained from the broad analysis of thethis analysis, the largest public collections of plats, providing a level of detail unavailableplats were thoroughly reviewed. Over 10,000 on drawings with a typical scale of 10 chainsland records were observed, yielding a total of per inch (660 feet per inch). Writings were343 records that included information beyond broken down into their component features,the typical boundary lines of land plats, to and correlated with features identified in slaveshow details of the structures, field patterns, narratives and photographs.vegetation, and spatial development of theplantation lands. Slave NarrativesThe 343 records documented 306 individual There are a large number of slave narrativesplantation sites (the remaining 37 provided and 1930’s era Works Process Administrationmultiple dates for several sites) spanning the interviews (Rawick 1972) recorded forperiod between 1764 and 1860. These 306 South Carolina. However, few indicated anyplantation sites were analyzed and categorized landscape forms or features. Slave narratives,according to a series of 42 characteristics written by freed or escaped slaves, wereincluding date; ownership; regional location; often edited by abolitionist editors, leadingsize; type of crops; characteristics of the main some researchers to call into question theirhouse, if present; characteristics of the slave authenticity (Blassingame 1975). Althoughcommunities; existence and size of features these are narratives of first hand experiences insuch as gardens, orchards and cemeteries; slavery, as a group they contain few descriptionsdistances between the main house and slave of life on the plantations. On the other hand,communities; and landscape relationships. the weakness of the WPA interviews are thatOriginal plats were scaled in order to derive they were recorded approximately 60 yearsthe distance and areal results. The data was after slavery was abolished: the individualsanalyzed to identify spatial patterns and giving accounts were children during the timecorrelated by date (decade beginning in 1760) of slavery (Woodward 1974). In addition, theand sub-region (parish and district) to detect interviews were biased by the intent, reactions,56 Brabec
  • 67. and questions (none of which focused on it was a form that explicitly communicatedphysical setting) of the interviewers, and the mastery and dominance of the plantationthe answers they solicited. As a group, they owner. While dominance was key, there wasalso record few physical features of slave also a subtle dance of power that was enactedcommunities and the spaces of plantation life. in the landscape, between frequently absent owners and the slave populations that vastlyVisual Representation outnumbered them.Collections of paintings - watercolors and oils- principally by Thomas Coram and Charles During the period of this analysis, 1770Fraser, provide the most comprehensive to 1860, slaves were housed in two ways:images of plantation landscapes in the Carolina either in outbuildings or main houselow country circa 1800. These depictions, in flankers (characteristic of house slaves) or inaddition to Civil War era photographs archived groupings of cabins termed slave settlementsat the Library of Congress and the New York or communities. One of the most pervasiveHistorical Society, among others, provide the theories of the location of slave communitieslargest collections of visual representations in the literature, is the hypothesis that slaveof two eras of plantation form. Paintings and quarters were kept within sight of the mainphotographs were also systematically analyzed house to provide control over the slaves (Adamsaccording to visible features and correlated 1987 in Affleck 1983, 12; Prunty 1955). Slavewith findings from the other documentary narratives recorded during the 1930’s Writer’ssources. Project cited this perception: “...Our house had one window jest big enough to stick youFindings head out of, and one door, and this one doorA wealth of information is available from faced the Big House which was your master’splantation plats in the low country, particularly house. This was so you couldn’t git out ‘lessthose completed by the surveyors Joseph somebody seen you” (Joyner 1991, 87).Purcell and Goddard and Sturgess. Althoughlandscape features are identified, particularly While some slave quarters were located closeon plats of more detailed scales, their enough to the main house for surveillance,greatest contribution is in defining the spatial the average distance of 429 feet to the closestorganization of the plantation and the distances slave community indicated by the plats wasbetween features. Features commonly too distant for the type of close monitoringidentified on plats include the size and location indicated by the former slave’s description. Inof slave communities, and the existence and addition, intervening vegetation, outbuildingslocation of graveyards, gardens, fencing and and topography created effective barriers tooverseer’s quarters. While some researchers surveillance. In 60% of the plats that exhibitedhave commented that the slave quarters may sufficient detail to identify landscape features,have been identified using symbols, and do physical barriers were located in the viewnot represent actual placement or dimensions between the quarters and the main house.(Lesser 2001), the notations and level of detail These included stands of trees, gardens, fences,and accuracy exhibited by both the in-office and topography. Of the remaining 40% ofsketch plats and the final display plats argue the plats, the fields and roads that intervenedagainst this. between the main house and the quarters could also provide visual barriers with tall crops orThe spatial organization and dimensions gleaned trees located along the field and road edges.from the plantation plats are augmented by theground level details available in narratives While placement of the quarters in closeand images of slave life. Selected highlights proximity to the plantation house would tendof the findings follow, with an emphasis on to suggest a watchful presence on the part ofdivergence in results from other published the plantation owner, this potential for overtresearch. control was tempered by the fact that the owner was not in residence for long periods of time.Spatial Organization Health reasons dictated that white plantationLow country plantations were designed owners vacate their plantations betweenprimarily on the English model of early Georgian March and November to escape the mosquito-architecture and landscape. This plantation borne diseases. While slave laws requiredform endured, even through the changing at least the presence of a white overseer, anfashions of the 19th century, primarily because analysis of census records between 1790 and History 57
  • 68. 1850 indicates that between 15 and 25% of inhabitants to engage in social interaction wasplantations were left without a white presence curtailed.(owner or overseer). Landscape DetailsWhile some researchers have suggested that Plantation plats can provide informationboth owner absence and distance from the about the volumes and spatial relationshipsplantation house led to a more “African” the slave lived within - the physical settingexpression of community form (Vlach 1993; of slave life - however, they contain fewBabson 1987; Twining and Baird 1991), details about the view at eye level. Thesethis is not strongly supported by the existing details can be gleaned from various sourcesplantation plats. Slave communities exhibiting such as traveler’s accounts, slave narratives,an irregular form were extremely rare in the the infrequent visual representations of slaveplantation plats of the low country, even on quarters in paintings and sketches, and viewsthose plantations without a main house or of slave quarters taken at the beginning of theoverseers house. This finding indicates that civil war by photographers in the northernplantation owners maintained strict control army. Olmsted (1854) provides the clearestover plantation layout and community design, word picture of the slave quarters available inrarely allowing the slave communities a level travel narratives:of expression in the physical layout of theircommunity. After a ride of several miles through the woods, in the rear of the plantations weLocation of the plantation quarters took a came to his largest negro-settlement.number of forms that can be grouped and There was a street, or common, tworanked into four general approaches, from the hundred feet wide, on which the cabinsmost to least common: of the negroes fronted. Each cabin was a framed building, the walls boarded1. located at a distance from the plantation and whitewashed on the outside, lathedhouse and plastered within, the roof shingled; forty-two feet long, twenty-one feet2. located in close proximity to the main house wide, divided into two family tenements,.creating the form of a community centered on ....Each tenement is occupied, on anthe plantation main house; average, by five persons.... Each cabin a. in a row situated on either side of the stood two hundred feet from the next, avenue to showcase the quarters; and the street in front of them being two b. in a few cases at the center of an active hundred feet wide, they were just that village,with the plantation house dominating distance apart each way.....Between each the physical center. tenement and the next house, is a small piece of ground, inclosed with palings,These various approaches to physical design in which are coops of fowl with chickens,had significant effects on the hierarchy of hovels for nests, and for sows with available to the slave communities. There were a great many fowl in theIn most cases, the slave communities, the street. The negroes’ swine are allowed tomajority of which were in a street or grid run in the woods, each owner having hispattern, did not have a plantation road leading own distinguished by a particular mark.through them. Thus the settlement could In the rear of the yards were gardens - afunction as a community with defensible space half-acre to each family. (49-50)and a hierarchy of private, semi-private andcommunity space in the “streets” between the Private and semi-private space was in somerows of houses. It is in this space that most of instances reinforced by the use of fencingthe photographic records of the quarters reflect between and behind the quarters. Whilean active community life. Conversely, the result this reference appears commonly in writtenof the placement of the slave quarters on either accounts (Bremer 1853; Olmsted 1856) andside of the avenue was a loss of community Civil War era images (for example thosespace. Instead of creating defensible space, made by Timothy O’Sullivan and housed inwith a perceptual community boundary, the the Library of Congress), it is not commonlystreet became public space, frequented by depicted in the plantation plats, appearing invisitors to the plantation. Thus the sense of only 15 of the reviewed documents. However,community, coherence and the freedom of the the insubstantial paling fences visible in the58 Brabec
  • 69. photographs were likely deemed a marginal slave land allocations were institutionalized inasset for the plantation and too ephemeral to the low country task system of agriculture, therecord on plantation plats. general lack of plat recording emphasizes the ultimate control of the plantation owner overJudging from the available Civil War era the use and allocation of the land.photographs and written accounts, theimmediate landscape around the slave quarters Conclusionwas largely functional and austere to white Although rather limited, the availablesensibilities (figure 4). The yards surrounding documentation of the landscape of slaverythe quarters were swept, hard packed soil, a does provide an intimate view into the lifecontinuing contemporary practice documented of the low country slave community. Byby Westmacott (1998) in many rural comparing attributes of the landscapes acrosscommunities in Georgia. As stated previously, documentary sources in a structured, analyticalslave narratives reveal very few details of method, both commonalities and unusualthe landscape, and when they do, focus on organization and features can be identified.descriptions of field and crop practices. The This type of quantitative analysis of landscapeornamental use of plants appears to have been variables provides a sound basis for proving orrare: they do not appear in any of the visual disproving hypotheses of the development andimages, while a single WPA interviewee functioning of slave communities, and allowsmentioned a recollection of morning glory for the testing of hypotheses regarding theirvines climbing up porch posts social and cultural development. Us live in a log house wid a little porch As the plantation plats demonstrate, much in front and de mornin’ glory vines use to of slave community life took place far climb ‘bout it. When they bloom, de bees from the plantation house. This has been a would come a hummin’ ‘round and suck drawback in the adequate interpretation of de honey out de blue blees on de vines. archaeological reports, which have focused (Rawick 1972, 173-174) largely on the main house complex and slave quarters in close proximity. In addition, dueIn many ways the slave communities took to the ephemeral nature of much of the slaveownership of the larger plantation landscape. landscape, and the inferior building materialsAlthough illegal and subject to severe used in their constructions, most of the abovepenalties, it is well documented in the literature ground physical landscape features have beenthat slaves ranged far and wide even off their lost. By delving into the existing documentaryhome plantations (Vlach 1993; Morgan 1998; and archaeological evidence, a more completeJoyner 1985). The few archaeological reports image of these communities as active livingthat contain faunal analyses support the spaces can be formed.hypothesis that the slaves gleaned food andmedicine from the natural landscape, foragingin the rivers, swamps, and forests (Trinkley References1993; Joyner, 1985; Blassingame 1972). Affleck, R. M. 1983. Power and space: SettlementThe most significant claim to ownership of pattern change at Middleburg Plantation, Berkleythe plantation landscape on the part of the County, South Carolina. MS Thesis, Departmentslaves were the plots of land allocated to each of Anthropology. Columbia: University of Southfamily for their own cultivation. Identified other researchers through plantationaccounts and other writings (Morgan 1983), Babson, David. 1987. Plantation ideology and thetheir location, form, and to some extent size archaeology of racism: Evidence from the Tannerare largely undocumented. This study found Road Site (38BK416), Berkeley County, Southone plantation plat that identified the size and Carolina. South Carolina Antiquities. 19: 35-47.location of slave fields. These plots were nota part of the larger landscape of rectangular Blassingame, J. W. 1975. Using the testimony offields, but were located on marginal sites, on ex-slaves: Approaches and problems. The Journalthe edges of larger fields and swamps. The of Southern History 41(4): 473-492.produce from these plots were widely sold inlocal markets, and led to an accumulation of Blassingame, J. W. 1972. The slave community:physical property and wealth by some slaves. Plantation life in the Antebellum South. New York:Although written documents indicate that Oxford University Press. History 59
  • 70. roots: African presence in the Carolinas andBremer, F. 1853. The homes of the New World: Georgia. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press,Impressions of America. London: Arthur Hall, Inc.Virtue, & Co. Vlach, John Michael. 2003. The planter’s prospect:Brown, C. A. 1996. Introduction: Beyond the Privilege and slavery in plantation paintings.plantation in southern garden history. Journal of Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Garden History. 16(2): 67-69. Vlach, John Michael. 1993. Back of the big house.Conzen, M. P., Ed. 1990. The making of the Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.American landscape. Boston: Unwin Hyman. Woodward, C. V. 1974. History from slave sources.Joyner, C. W. 1985. Down by the riverside: A The American Historical Review 79(2): 470-481.South Carolina slave community. Urbana, Illinois:University of Illinois Press.Leone, M. P. and P. B. Potter, Jr., eds. 1988. Therecovery of meaning. Washington, DC: SmithsonianInstitution Press.Lesser, Dr. Charles. 2001. Personal communication.South Carolina Department of Archives andHistory.Morgan, Philip D. 1998. Slave counterpoint: Blackculture in the eighteenth-century Chesapeake andLowcountry. Chapel Hill: University of NorthCarolina Press.Morgan, P. D. 1983. The ownership of property byslaves in the mid-nineteenth-century low country.The Journal of Southern History. 49(3): 399-420.Olmsted, F. L. 1904. A journey in the seabord slavestates in the years 1853-1854 with remarks on theireconomy. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.Prunty, M., Jr. 1955. The renaissance of the southernplantation. The Geographical Review 45(4): 459-491.Rawick, G. L., Ed. 1972. The American slave: Acomposite autobiography South Carolina narrativespart 1. Westport, Connecticut: GreenwoodPublishing Company.Rueschemeyer, D. 2003. Can one or a few casesyield theoretical gains? Comparative historicalanalysis in the social sciences. J. Mahoney andD. Rueschemeyer eds. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.Trinkley, M. E. 1993. Archaeological and historicalexaminations of three eighteenth and nineteenth-century rice plantations on the Waccamaw Neck.Columbia: Chicora Foundation.Twining, Mary and Keith Baird , eds., Sea island60 Brabec
  • 71. Power Dynamics Men’s high status scientific technology was applied to cooking in classes and schools ofImprinted at Turn-of- domestic science both for middle-class andthe-Century: Reform working-class women (Spencer-Wood 1987, 1994b, 1999).Women’s Institutionsand Boston’s PublicLandscapeSuzanne M. Spencer-WoodIntroductionTraditional urban histories that focus onlandscapes created by men (e.g. Warner1978) can be corrected with evidence ofreform women’s significant impacts on urbancultural landscapes. In 1915 Beard’s Historyof Women in Municipalities described howwomen’s organizations created urban greenspaces, including roadside plantings, parks,children’s playgrounds and gardens (Spencer-Wood 1994a). Women’s organizations werealso leaders in the city beautiful movementand instigated some cities to hire malelandscape architects for urban planning(Isenberg 1999). Feminists have shown thatwomen’s organizations founded a wide varietyof institutions in public, urban landscapes thathad been identified as male domains (Spencer-Wood 1987, 1991, 1994b). Figure 1. Map of domestic reform sites in Boston.Since 1981 my research has identified and Playgrounds are circled. Working women’s cooperativemapped 120 women’s institutions that homes, predominantly in South Boston, including siteschallenged male dominance in Boston’s public numbered: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 45,urban landscape ca.1875-1925. Middle-class 58, 59, 62, 64, 65. Cooperative hotels where reformersreform women manipulated the dominant lived include sites numbered: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Schoolsgender ideology to make it acceptable for and classes for women’s higher education include siteswomen to have public professions and numbered: 22, 23, 28, 33, 35, 36. Women’s schools forinstitutions. They conflated and combined domestic professions include sites numbered: 24, 25, 27,woman’s domestic sphere with man’s public 34, 46, 60. Social settlements include sites numbered:sphere by transforming household chores into 37, 42, 43, 44, 50, 52, 55, 56, 61, 63. Day nurseries andwomen’s public professions and institutions. kindergartens include sites numbered: 38, 39, 41, 49, 51. Public kitchens include sites numbered: 29, 30, 31, 32Reformers drew on women’s religious (Spencer-Wood 1994b, pp. 184-5).communitarian values to create cooperativehousekeeping enterprises where domestic Most cooperatives were founded by middle-chores were removed from individual class reformers to assist working women andprivate households and performed by women their families. Childcare was socialized incooperatively working together in public charitable day nurseries and kindergartens. Ininstitutions. Some of the most popular types of public kitchens reformers offered inexpensive,cooperatives were founded by and for middle- scientifically cooked food to the workingclass women, such as dining clubs and cooked- classes. Ellen S. Richards, the first femalefood delivery services that cooperatively cooked student and faculty member at MIT (1873),meals for a number of families. American founded American public kitchens, where thekindergartens were initially founded in the scientific fields of dietetics and nutrition were1850s and 60s for middle-class white children. developed. Women’s home health care roles History 61
  • 72. were transformed into the fields of nursing Educational and Industrial Union (foundedand public health. Some reformers lived 1877 and in the same building since 1892),cooperatively together in social settlements, the North Bennet Street Industrial Schoolwhere they offered childcare and educational (built for girls in 1880), Ellis and Ellsworthprograms to people in surrounding poor Memorial (settlement founded 1881), and thecommunities, many of whom were immigrants. Gray Nun’s Home for Working Girls (nowMany social settlements created children’s for aged women) (Spencer-Wood 1987, 1991,playgrounds or gardens in their backyards, 1994b).roofs, or in nearby vacant lots donated bymale landowners (Spencer-Wood 1987, 1991, The survey showed how locations of reform1994a, b). women’s institutions on the Boston’s public landscape were related to the locations of people that the institutions were meant to serve. Cooperative homes for working women—the most numerous type of institution—were founded in Boston’s working-class South End neighborhood, where many boarding houses were located to be close to places of employment in downtown Boston. Cooperative homes for working women were established to prevent the exploitation of women in mixed-gender boardinghouses that were viewed as immoral. Classes founded by middle-class reformers for working-class women were located between the South End and the Back Bay, where many reformers lived in cooperative hotels (where servants cooperatively performed housework so that women had time for reform activities). Most reform institutions, including day nurseries, public kitchens, and social settlements, were located in neighborhoods where they served the poor the immigrant working classes (Spencer-Wood 1994b). The locations of reform women’s institutionsFigure 2. Site 42c Lithograph of Elizabeth Peabody could also be related to ethnic communities onHouse purpose-built social settlement building1912 Boston’s landscape. Many institutions founded(destroyed), showing it was by far the tallest building in by Anglo-American middle-class reformersa neighborhood of tenements (EPH 1913, p. 10). remained in the same buildings for extended periods as the ethnic composition of theMy research involved identifying reform surrounding community changed with massivewomen’s institutions from feminist histories immigration (1880-1920). Parallel institutions(e.g. Hayden 1981), institution records, or founded by African-American women and byBoston historic guidebooks and business Jewish women were found to move over thedirectories. Historic addresses were obtained landscape with the African-American andfrom these sources and located on historic maps Jewish communities, respectively (Spencer-because many street numbers have changed Wood 1994b).since the 19th century. The location and shapeof women’s institutions were transferred from Historic map data and field survey revealedhistoric maps to modern ones. The building that many women’s institutions were andoutlines on historic maps were compared still are the largest or tallest buildings in thein a field survey with building outlines and neighborhood. Women’s institutions visuallyarchitectural styles to determine whether dominated many areas of the supposedlyhistoric buildings housing women’s institutions male-dominated public urban landscape. Thehad been destroyed or not. Most of the buildings large number and size of women’s institutionshad been destroyed. In a few instances surviving increased the public visibility of womenbuildings housed organizations descended from and challenged male dominance in publicwomen’s institutions, including the Women’s landscapes (Spencer-Wood 1994b).64 Spencer-Wood
  • 73. Women’s institutions in many cases of leaders of the playground movement anddemonstrated that women could contribute as claimed that early “sand gardens” created bycitizens to the public good long before women women’s organizations were “irrelevant” towere granted suffrage. In the municipal the later development of boys’ sports. Cavallohousekeeping movement women argued that privileged the accounts of Henry S. Curtis,they were the cleaners and beautifiers of the Luther H. Gulick, and Joseph Lee, who werepublic household of the community and the early leaders in the playground movement.wider world. In the city beautiful movement However, women who were leaders in thewomen’s civic organizations planted trees movement were not included in his account,and flowerbeds in public spaces and held which was uncritically perpetuated by Macleodcompetitions for the most beautiful houses, (1998).lawns, and gardens (Spencer-Wood 1994a,1994b). Feminist historians have researched how 19th century women raised their socialAs part of municipal housekeeping in large status by elaborating their family roles,cities, reformers in social settlements and other particularly women’s childrearing roles asinstitutions organized children to clean up the mothers of tomorrow’s leaders, in what wasdebris that collected on poor neighborhood called the Cult of Republican Motherhoodlandscapes that did not have municipal trash (Spencer-Wood 1999). Reform womenor garbage collection. Further, reform women transformed childrearing from an innategained appointments by male government task into a learned complex behavior thatofficials to positions as street inspectors, required training. Playgrounds were culturalgarbage inspectors, and factory inspectors. landscapes expressing a major shift in culturalReform women created women’s trade conceptions of childhood—from a view ofunions and lobbied for passage of the Pure children as miniature workers apprenticed atFood and Drug Act of 1906, as well as laws the age of 6 or 7, to a developmental view offor a minimum wage and against child labor childhood as progressing through set stages of(Spencer-Wood 1994a, 2001). growth. The idea that children required play to develop properly into adults was revolutionaryThe rest of this paper focuses on children’s (Spencer-Wood 2003).playgrounds, gardens and parks created byreform women in Boston and other Americancities. The reformers who created theseurban green landscapes connected women’sreligiously sanctioned, supposedly innate,piety with the closeness of women’s domesticsphere to God’s nature. Domestic women wereconsidered morally superior because theywere separated from men’s public, capitalisticpractices of usury or price gouging, whichwere sins in the Bible and had been consideredcriminal behavior in the theocratic colonialstate of Massachusetts. Reformers thoughtthat contact with God’s nature would reformmen’s “sinful cities of stone” that temptedchildren into gambling and delinquency. Thephysical dirt in poor neighborhood streets Figure 3. Early Boston sand garden (Rainwater 1922,and tenements was viewed as immoral and pp. 22-3).corrupting, especially for children (Spencer-Wood 2003). Contrary to Cavallo(1981), Beard (1915) and Rainwater (1922) provided evidenceHistorical information about American that women’s organizations created the firstwomen’s organizations that created supervised playgrounds both for young childrenplaygrounds corrects the neglect of women’s and for older boys, leading to the developmentroles in the American playground movement by of the American playground movement. Themodern histories of the playground movement first American supervised playground was a(e.g. Cavallo 1981, Macleod 1998, p. 66). sand garden (large sandbox) founded in 1885Cavallo created an exclusively male lineage and operated in Boston’s Parmenter Street History 63
  • 74. chapel yard by women of the Massachusetts playground committee, the Boston ParkEmergency and Hygiene Association. Dr. Department hired the Olmsted BrothersMaria Zakrzewska inspired the creation of a to design the prototype “small park” ofnumber of Association sand gardens in Boston Charlesbank Outdoor Gymnasium, whichmissions following a trip to Berlin where she was opened to boys and men in 1889. Thisobserved covered sand gardens (Spencer- was the first American park board facility toWood 1994a, 2003). be designed primarily for play. Charlesbank was also the first American playground to beFollowing this first success the number of professionally landscaped. Areas for womenplaygrounds grew, and in 1899 the Association and girls, supervised by the Association, wereconducted 21 playgrounds that included sand opened in 1891. The women’s area included agardens, games, and “occupation work.” green lawn surrounded by a small track, sandTotal attendance and the days of operation gardens for small children, swings, seesaws,had increased. The locations of playgrounds and wading, rowing, and bathing facilities.had shifted from predominantly mission, The men’s larger area included not only thesesettlement, and tenement yards, to school features, but also a metal exercise apparatus.yards, public parks, and a few indoor facilities. Trees, shrubbery, and a lawn separated playA photo of a Boston schoolyard “model spaces for women and men. This park wasplayground” includes a patriotic march with a copied in a number of other cities (RainwaterUS flag on the left, fences to keep out so-called 1922, pp. 19-29, 72-3; Spencer-Wood 2003).“disorderly elements,” some of who stood atopthe fence to the rear of the building (Rainwater Other outgrowths of the Massachusetts1922, Spencer-Wood 1994a). Emergency and Hygiene Association playgrounds included the 1893 plan ofDonations of playground materials and Boston’s Metropolitan Park Commission toequipment were replaced with a budget that provide numerous small squares, playgrounds,grew to over $4,300 by 1899, $3,000 of and parks in densely populated areas ofwhich was appropriated to the Massachusetts 11 cities and 25 towns. This plan includedEmergency and Hygiene Association by buying Franklin Field in 1894, and land forBoston’s School Committee. Volunteer the Brighton playground in 1895 (Rainwaterwomen play supervisors were replaced 1922, Spencer-Wood 1994a).with 66 paid women kindergartners under afemale superintendent of all playgrounds. The The Massachusetts Emergency and HygieneAssociation also worked with the Boston City Association’s playgrounds and methods werePark Department, which, in 1889, appropriated so successful that in the summer of 1898$1000 to grade and grass a playground to be the Mayor of Boston opened 20 schoolyardmanaged by the Association (Rainwater 1922, playgrounds. However, they discontinuedSpencer-Wood 1994a). the playground supervision by kindergarten teachers, which resulted in the desertion ofIn response to an appeal by the Association’s the playgrounds “within a fortnight.” AsFigure 5. Charlesbank park playground map, showing extensive area and equipment for men and boys at the right end ofthe park and smaller facilities for women and girls at the left end, separated by so many trees that they were invisible toeach other (CBDP 1893, Courtesy of the Bostonian Society Library).66 Spencer-Wood
  • 75. one boy complained, “there was nothin’ to 35). This was not the first playground for olderdo and no discipline.” So, in the summer of boys as claimed by Cavallo.1899, the city returned to providing funding Contrary to claims by authors such as Cavalloto the Massachusetts Emergency and Hygiene (1981) and Curtis (cited in Rainwater 1922:19)Association to run the playgrounds by hiring that the latter individual man started thekindergarten teachers (Rainwater 1922, pp. American playground movement, historic31-2, Spencer-Wood 2003). documents record that the pioneering women of the Massachusetts Emergency and HygieneIn 1901, Boston’s School Committee Association not only initiated the playgroundsuccessfully made schoolyard playgrounds movement in Boston, but they also werea part of the municipal education program, consulted and used as a model by people startingbecause they adopted the Association’s playgrounds in the largest cities throughoutmethods of supervision by kindergarten the Eastern U.S. and in Manchester, Englandteachers (Rainwater 1922, pp. 31-35). This (Rainwater 1922, pp. 29-44). In the 1890’s,evidence shows how male governmental women’s clubs opened the first playgroundsofficials initially held views on operating from South Carolina to California (Beardplaygrounds that were opposed to the views 1915).of women reformers. Further, this case showshow these male officials had to change their By 1895 sand gardens were common in schoolviews and adopt the reformers’ methods of yards and women’s settlement houses acrosssupervision in order to provide children with the country, usually supervised by femaleplaygrounds that met their need for supervised kindergarten teachers (Cavallo 1981: 23).play (Spencer-Wood 2003). In Boston and Cambridge playgrounds were established and equipped by most settlementHistorical evidence shows that Cavallo (1981, houses (Spencer-Wood, 2003). Women’sp. 23) was inaccurate in dismissing women’s organizations, particularly settlements,sand gardens as predecessors “irrelevant” to physically shaped the urban landscape bythe subsequent development of team sports for creating children’s playgrounds and gardensboys. In fact, aside from the Charlesbank men’s on vacant lots and schoolyards in cities acrossplayground instigated by the Association, the the U.S. (Woods and Kennedy 1911, Beardearliest “model playground” to admit older 1915, pp. 23-4, 133-9).boys was created in 1894, in Chicago, by JaneAddams’ Hull House settlement. And in 1897the women of the Providence Free KindergartenAssociation opened two playgrounds for olderboys. In Boston in 1899, the women of theMassachusetts Emergency and HygieneAssociation created the first three playgroundsfor boys aged 12-15, and hired young malephysical education instructors to supervisethe boys’ games. On these playgrounds menworked for women, inverting normativegender relations in the public landscape.And according to Cavallo, team gameswere intended to teach children to integrate“feminine” values of cooperation, intuition,and public morality with “masculine” valuesof rationalism and individual competition Figure 6. Elizabeth Peabody House children’s garden of(Cavallo 1981, pp.110-14). 1908, showing children’s plots (EPH 1911, pp. 16-17).The success of this experiment was apparent Women’s organizations persuaded men tofrom its repetition the following year and donate land, materials and landscaping forsubsequent adoption by the Boston school their children’s gardens and playgrounds. Forcommittee (Rainwater 1922, pp. 36, 56, 59, instance, in Boston, vacant land was donated194). In addition, the private Massachusetts and fenced by Edwin Ginn in 1908 so that theCivic League founded by Joseph Lee established Elizabeth Peabody House settlement coulda playground in 1901 modeled on the example create a large garden with 220 individualof the Association (Rainwater 1922, pp.31- children’s plots. The children raised vegetables History 65
  • 76. for their families and sold the surplus. (EPH white dominance and racism in the society at1911, pp.11, 16-17). large (Spencer-Wood 2003).The Hawthorne Club of Boston, which wasfounded in 1900 for girls aged 5-10, but alsoincluded boys by 1910, gained permissionfrom the owners of a block-length propertyto the rear of the club, to clear it of trash andgarbage and equip it with swings, sand boxes,tilts (seesaws), and other equipment for achildren’s playground, until the land was sold.The street commissioner reinforced the groundwith gravel, and the park commissioner hadshrubs planted around the border. In her bookabout the Hawthorne Club, Robinson (1937,pp. 11-13) noted that “As to the ethics of thiscooperation I’m not quite sure as I look backon it, but my conscience does not trouble megreatly. Both city departments were movedby a sincere desire to help the children...” TheHawthorne Club and its playground closed in Figure 8. Segregated free play showing white children1937 monopolizing the see-saws at Pine Street Playground, founded 1903 in Cambridge, Massachusetts (Brooks n.d.b. courtesy of the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library of the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.Figure 7. Integrated organized game at Pine StreetPlayground, founded 1903 in Cambridge, Massachusetts(Brooks n.d.b. courtesy of the Arthur and ElizabethSchlesinger Library of the History of Women in America,Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.Although it is not mentioned in any primary Figure 9. Segregated free play showing African-Americanwritten documents that I found, photographs children at the periphery of the Pine Street Playground,show that playgrounds and gardens were often founded 1903 in Cambridge, Massachusetts (Brooksintegrated, reflecting the ethnic composition n.d.b. courtesy of the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesingerof the neighborhood. Some photos show Library of the History of Women in America, Radcliffesupervised games in which the children were Institute, Harvard University.integrated in a circle or in rows representingteams jumping over a high rope. Other photos Women also sometimes created citywideof children playing on swings and seesaws show playground plans. For instance, in Hartford,that white children dominated and controlled the Mary Graham Jones, renowned for her sixteendesirable playground equipment. Other photos years of settlement work to improve the qualityshow unsupervised play by African-Americans of life for city children and neighborhoods,without equipment. Taken as a whole the submitted a citywide playground plan in 1914.playground photos suggest that reform women The juvenile commission implemented the planorganized and supervised integrated games by by leasing a dozen or more vacant lots fromchildren whose unsupervised play reflected the city at nominal rent and preparing them66 Spencer-Wood
  • 77. as playgrounds under the supervision of the for TB. In the front of the yard is a piece ofsuperintendent of parks (Beard 1915, p. 133). exercise equipment. Against the back wall is aIn Chicago, women’s clubs created a string of raised sand garden with a number of childrenplaygrounds across the city (Tuason 1999). playing in it. This is one of the photos that showed that playgrounds founded by women’s organizations were integrated. An African- American girl is sitting in the chair on the left and an African-American boy is to her right just in front of the swing set. A few other African-Americans stood on the other side of the swings (Spencer-Wood 1994a) Conclusion Contrary to the claims of some historians, this research has revealed that the American playground movement originated in early Boston playgrounds, created by women’s organizations starting in 1885. Further, women’s organizations created and supervised the first organized playgrounds for older boys and girls in the 1890’s. Women who createdFigure 10. Very small playground in the backyard of the playgrounds not only physically altered urbanHenry Street Settlement, New York City, showing whites landscapes, they also subverted normativefilling the central space, including the swings occupied by social geography, as women held positions ofwhite girls who are thus pedestalled in conformity o the public authority over both men and women whodominant gender ideology, while African-Americans are were paid playground supervisors. In Bostonon the periphery at both sides. (Wald 1915, pp. 82-3). and Cambridge a woman was superintendent of all playgrounds. In this way women brokeBeard stated that “Women have everywhere into the male-dominated school administrationbeen largely instrumental in initiating the hierarchy.playground work, they have followed it in manycases by service on appointed commissions Through playgrounds women’s reformand as paid city playground employees, and in organizations empowered themselves both byother cases they have held positions on state creating new professional positions for women,recreation commissions” (Beard 1915: 134). and by increasing the number of femaleFor instance, Lillian Wald created a playground controlled public landscapes. Playgrounds andin the yard of her Henry Street settlement in programs created by women’s organizationsNew York, became secretary of the Parks and were so popular that older children often askedPlayground Association of New York, and was to be admitted to playgrounds considered tooone of the settlement leaders who founded the small to accommodate themPlayground Association of America. In creating playgrounds, parks and otherWald’s small playground behind Henry Street green spaces, women’s organizations used thesettlement was enclosed with a high fence domestic reform argument that women’s higherwith overhanging trees and ivy climbing up morality, closeness to nature, and domesticthe right wall. In the farthest corner there was values of community and cooperation werea covered area with a hammock. Against the needed to physically re-form men’s immoral,right wall was a small raised garden. Just left of capitalist, urban landscapes of unnatural stone.the garden was a long narrow sand garden that Because women were perceived as innatelyis partly covered by an awning on a wooden superior designers of moral cities, women’stower. To the left of that are two swings, with a organizations instigated “green” urban designsgirl in a feathered hat in the right one and two and negotiated men’s cooperation to implementgirls on the left one (all white). And to the left them.of that is another hammock. The reformers financed their city plans,Children with TB were often placed in parks, and playgrounds with a combination ofhammocks in settlement yards because fresh private and government donations of money,air was considered a productive treatment land, materials, and labor. They informally History 67
  • 78. negotiated government support and alliances urban landscapes and observe how survivingwith moral suasion, demonstrations of ability, buildings of women’s institutions visuallyand sometimes with public pressure through dominate community landscapes. Moderntown meetings and referenda. In many towns women can be re-enfranchised of Americanand cities reformers successfully sought to women’s powerful past by learning how historichave playgrounds permanently administered, women created public built environments andmaintained, and funded by municipal landscapes that challenged male dominance ongovernments. Further, women were often public urban landscapes.appointed by men to formal governmentpositions, such as Supervisor of Playgrounds,and as members of city planning commissions Referencesand playground commissions, although usually Beard, M. R. 1915. Woman’s work in fewer numbers than men. New York: D. Appleton & Co.Playgrounds and children’s gardens have been Cavallo, D. 1981. Muscles and morals: Organizedresearched as female-created and -controlled playgrounds and urban reform, 1880-1920 Philadelphia: U. of Pennsylvania Press.landscapes that materially implemented oneaspect of domestic reform. This research found Fifteenth Annual report of the Elizabeth Peabodythat reform women’s organizations impacted House. 1910. Boston: Thomas Todd Co.urban public landscapes in Boston and othercities at many levels, from instigating the Flad, M. 1999. Miss Brauer’s playground: Thedesign of individual buildings, playgrounds, missionary venture and the organization of Space.children’s gardens, and parks, to the design of Poukeepsie: booklet by author.small cities with green spaces. Hayden, D. 1981. The grand domestic revolution:sThrough a wide variety of reform activities, A history of feminist designs for American homes,women’s organizations transformed urban neighborhoods, and cities. Cambridge: MIT Press.landscapes and American culture by redefining Isenberg, A. Civic work ‘knows no sex’: Gender,the meaning of Victorian gender ideology to urban aesthetics and the commercial landscapes ofmake it acceptable for women to have public the early twentieth century. Paper presented at theprofessions. By increasing women’s presence Visiting Scholar Colloquium Series, Schlesingerin public landscapes and in government, Library, Radcliffe College, May 13, 1999.the reformers demonstrated that womenwere effective citizens before they attained Kaufman, P. W., P. C. Morris and J. Stevens. 1991.suffrage. Boston Women’s Heritage Trail. Booklet produced by P. W. Kaufman.Public awareness of domestic reform has beenincreased through inclusion of a number of Kaufman, P.W., B.H. Smith, M.H. Smoyer and S.reform women’s institutions and landscapes Wilson. 1999. Boston Women’s Heritage Trail:on Boston’s Women’s Heritage Trails. The Four centuries of Boston women. A guide to fiveresearch described in this paper contributed walks. Gloucester: The Pressroom.12 sites, starting with the first trail pamphlet Macleod, D.I. 1998. The Age of the Child: Childrenby Polly Kaufman in 1991, followed by the in America, 1890-1920. New York: Twayne.five-trail book in 1998. The trails preservethe significant imprints of historic women’s Rainwater, C.E. 1922. The play movement in theinstitutions and landscapes on Boston’s public United States: A study of community recreation.landscape and may help preserve surviving Chicago: University of Chicago Press.buildings. Commemorating women’s publicsites is important in showing that historic Robinson, L. V. 1937. Children’s House: A historywomen imprinted public as well as private of the Hawthorne Club. Boston: Marshall Joneslandscapes. Co. Spencer-Wood, S. M. 1987. A survey of domesticThe modern footprints of people walking reform movement sites in Boston and Cambridge,Boston’s Women’s Heritage trails follow in the ca. 1865-1905. Historical Archaeology 21(2):paths of historic women’s footprints as they 7-36.walked across the public cultural landscape towomen’s institutions. Modern women can see ------1991. Toward a historical archaeology ofthe increased visibility of women on public domestic reform. In The Archaeology of Inequality,68 Spencer-Wood
  • 79. eds. R. McGuire and R. Paynter, 231-286. Oxford:Basil Blackwell.------1994a. Turn of the century women’sorganizations, urban design, and the origin of theAmerican Playground Movement. LandscapeJournal 13 (Fall): 125-38.------1994b. Diversity in 19th century domesticreform: Relationships among classes and ethnicgroups. In Those ‘of little note’: Gender, race andclass in historical archaeology, ed. E. M. Scott.Tucson: University of Arizona Press.------1999. The world their household: Changingmeanings of the domestic sphere in the nineteenthcentury. In The archaeology of household activities:Gender ideologies, domestic spaces and materialculture, ed. P. M. Allison, 162-189. London:Routledge.------2002. Utopian visions and architecturaldesigns of turn-of-the-century social settlements. InEmbodied utopias: Gender, social change and themodern metropolis, 116-133. London: Routledge.------2003-2004. Gendering the creation of greenurban landscapes at the turn of the century. In Sharedspaces and divided places, eds. D.L. Rotman and E.Savulis. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.Tuason, J. Public space/private sphere: Parksas gendered landscapes. Paper presented atthe Gendered Landscapes Conference: Aninterdisciplinary exploration of past place andspace, Pennsylvania State University, State College,May 31, 1999. Warner, S.B., Jr. 1978. Streetcarsuburbs:The process of growth in Boston (1870-1900). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Woods, R.A. and A. J. Kennedy, eds. 1911.Handbook of settlements. New York: CharitiesPublications Committee. History 69
  • 80. Power as Reflected in throughout the institution’s history as “the Snugs.” Male and female employees also livedthe Cultural Landscape: at Snug Harbor. While a few women livedSailors’ Snug Harbor, in nearby towns, other women permanently resided in a building on the grounds called theStaten Island, New York “Matrons’ Cottage.” Archaeological materials(1845-1900) also provide a valuable source of data on cultural landscapes (Baugher and DeCunzoSherene Baugher 2003). The archaeological excavations at Snug Harbor reveal details of the everyday lives of the inmates and employees, as well asIntroduction their uses of and alterations to the landscapeSailors’ Snug Harbor (1831-1976), on the (Baugher and Baragli 1987). This culturalnorthern shore of Staten Island, was the landscape article discusses 19th century class,first charitable institution and “home” built status, and power dynamics expressed in thespecifically for retired seamen in the United buildings, artifacts, and landscape design.States. Robert Richard Randall, a successfulNew York merchant, died a bachelor. Hiswill stated that his fortune and lands be usedto establish “Sailors’ Snug Harbor,” a modelinstitution to house and care for aged andinjured sailors (Shepherd 1979, 15). Randall’sSnug Harbor provided a home for sailors fromall ranks and classes. The buildings were grandand its grounds were park–like (Harlow 1976,187). Each year, between six hundred and eighthundred retired seamen lived at Snug Harbor,supported by a staff of administrators, cooks,carpenters, gardeners, farmers, seamstresses,and washerwomen. In 1976, the institutionmoved to a new facility in North Carolina.Today the landscape is being transformed froma nineteenth century charitable institution to atwentieth-first century cultural institution. Figure 2. Sailors’ Snug Harbor 1907. E. Robinson. Plate 2. From Atlas of the Borough of Richmond, City of New York. Map Collection, Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. Methodology In 1985, I became involved with this site while I was the director of the City Archaeology Program at the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Snug Harbor was being transformed by the city into the Snug Harbor Cultural Center, to include a botanical garden, a performing arts center, museums, and a park. In order to evaluate the archaeological resources at Snug Harbor, my colleagues and I researched and prepared a cultural landscape study and an archaeologicalFigure 1. Historic Buildings at Snug Harbor Cultural predictive model (Baugher, Baragli, DeCesare,Center. Photo: Carl Forster. and Venables 1985). This predictive model identified those sections of the Harbor thatDetailed documentary records kept throughout had the highest probability of containingthe history of the institution contain data on all significant archaeological resources. In 1985,aspects of life at the Harbor. At Snug Harbor, the construction of two new parking lots, stormthe retired seamen were all males, known sewer holding tanks, and an underground70 Baugher
  • 81. electrical conduit line enabled the staff at the the Harbor, the Governor and the Physician.City Archaeology Program to examine the However, the Governor’s house was in a moreproperty impacted by the new construction. prominent position than the Physician’s home, We tested in numerous locations, including which was set back and aligned along a secondthe lawn in front of the main buildings, the “street” within Snug Harbor. In between theyard areas of the Governor’s mansion, the two homes and also facing the front terracePhysician’s house, the Chaplain’s house (these were the primary institutional buildings. Thesewere three top officials of the institution), yard main buildings connected to the dormitoriesareas associated with the sailors’ residences, for the sailors. The support buildings (homesand the yard of the female employees at the and work spaces) for the other employeesMatron’s Cottage. The artifacts, architecture, (including the women) formed the center of theand landscape design, coupled with information property, followed by farm buildings, pasture,from the documentary records, enabled us and farm interpret the consumer behavior of peoplewho lived at these sites, as well as the power The documented rivalries between thestruggles within Snug Harbor. Governor (Director) and the Physician reached intense levels between 1867 and 1884 whenPower Struggles and Hierarchy the Governor was Thomas Melville, brotherSailors’ Snug Harbor, like other 19th of author Herman Melville. These rivalriescentury charitable institutions, operated in were evident in their homes and yards. Fora paternalistic manner. The Harbor was an example, each time improvements were madeenclosed community, which was emphasized to one house, such as new paint or wallpaper,by the fences and walls that separated it from or the addition of a bay window, the otherthe surrounding community of New Brighton. rival had similar improvements made to hisWithin the institution, there was a clearly house (Shepard 1979, 62). Because Melville,defined hierarchy, starting with the Governor as Director, was in charge of the grounds,(the director), the Physician, the Steward he was able to enhance the appearance of(assistant director), and the Chaplain, followed his property. For example, Melville added aby minor officials, support staff, and ending fenced-in orchard of apples, pears, peaches,with the seamen at the bottom. This hierarchy and grapes for his family, but no orchard wasrecreated on land the very strictly ranked added for the physician (Shepherd 1979, 24).society that existed onboard a ship. Melville had pathways, a circular drive for carriages, a small garden, and a pond added to his property, but the physician’s home lacked these amenities. Finally, Melville had Augustus Saint-Gaudens create a heroic statue of Randall for the front lawn (Shepard 1979); however, Melville conveniently had the statue placed near his home. Melville was the major transformer of this cultural landscape. He worked with leading architects, artists, and designers. To the original three elegant 1830s Greek Rival buildings, Melville added four dormitories, two gatehouses, extended the iron fence to enclose the property, had the main hall redecorated, and got paintings donated to the institution (Shepard 1979, 23-25). The built environmentFigure 3. Bird’s-eye View of Sailors’ Snug Harbor, 1898. expressed the prestige and wealth of thePostcard Collection, Staten Island Institute of Arts and benefactor, Robert Randall. The landscapeSciences. visually conveyed that Snug Harbor was a model charitable institution at a time whenThe built environment of Snug Harbor reflects many “charitable” institutions for the poorthis hierarchy. There were two equally were simply very inexpensive workhouses.imposing identical homes built on opposite Architectural historian Barnett Shepherd (1970,sides of the front of the property. These homes 28) notes that “with its magnificent buildingshoused the two highest-ranking people at surrounded by graveled walks and flower- History 71
  • 82. bordered lawns it (Snug Harbor) presented the inmates picked up litter, removed garbage, andatmosphere of a grand resort.” “groomed” the grounds. The archaeological record shows that this work was concentratedMelville was successful in doubling the on the lawn in front of the main buildings andenrollment to eight hundred sailors. The on the grounds surrounding the homes of thetrustees appreciated his accomplishments and Governor, Physician, and Chaplain. As a resultMelville was rewarded with steady increases of Melville’s required clean up, we found almostin salary, privileges, and power that further no artifacts from the period 1870-1900 in theseseparated him from the Physician, as well as areas. Melville sought to improve the groundsfrom the other staff members. and undertook major grading operations along the front and western side of the property, and then added extensive plantings of trees, scrubs, and flowerbeds (Governor’s Quarterly Reports 1871). The archaeological data confirms these improvements with evidence of the plantings and garden paths.Figure 4. A nineteenth century drawing of the sailors atSailors’ Snug Harbor. 1977. Cover drawing for BarnettShepherd’s Sailors’ Snug Harbor, 1801-1976. New York:Publishing Center for Cultural Resources.Matron and Female Employees Figure 5. The Assistant Governor’s House at SnugThe Governor, Steward, Physician, and Harbor. Photo: Sherene Baugher.Chaplain were officers of the institution, butthe Matron was lower in the hierarchy. Shedirected the female staff, but she had to beliterate, because her responsibilities involvedkeeping an inventory of all laundry supplies,bedding supplies for the inmates, and householdsupplies used by the female employees. Therewere marked differences in the salaries of theemployees. For example, in 1889, the Stewardreceived $166.66 per month, and the Matronwas paid $50 per month. In addition to thedifferences in responsibilities and pay, therewere other noticeable differences in the statusof the Steward and the Matron. The Steward(Assistant Director), for example, always hadlarger and more spacious living quarters thanthe matron, who had to live with the female Figure 6. The restored 19th century Neptune Fountain atstaff. Snug Harbor. Photo: Sherene Baugher.Archaeological Evidence The elegant grounds contrasted with theMelville required the inmates to work five unadorned functional space (Spencer-Woodhours per day for at least three days a week 2002, 178). Kitchen debris was found inon the farm, garden, or grounds of Snug the inner courtyards next to the inmates’Harbor (Shepherd 1979, 23). Some of the dormitories and in the yard of the low status72 Baugher
  • 83. female employees at the Matron’s Cottage. features that remain are: Randall’s Statue, theHowever, there was a noticeable difference pond near former Governor Melville’s home,in the diet of the seamen and the female and the Neptune Fountain on the front lawnemployees. The women ate very inexpensive near the main buildings.cuts of meat, mainly mutton, while the sailors As designers attempt, yet again, to develop ahad a varied diet of beef, pork, chicken, and master plan for Snug Harbor, they need to takefish, and various priced meats. a closer look at the site’s landscape history. It is important for any researchers undertaking aThe archaeological assemblage reflects the cultural landscape study to check the accuracyknown economic differences between the of the written documentation against theSteward (assistant director) and the female realities of the physical site, and archaeologyemployees. Not surprisingly, the Steward and provides a means to do that. Throughhis wife could afford and did indeed have more excavation, archaeologists can uncoverexpensive wares and a more varied diet than tangible, three-dimensional remnants of thethe much lower paid female employees. The past. These artifacts and landscape featuresSteward could purchase whatever goods he can serve as visuals links between the past andwished and could afford. The Matron and the the present. Archaeological interpretationsfemale employees were given their household and perspectives on Snug Harbor’s past shouldgoods and their food by the institution. be incorporated into any master plan for theBecause of a major salary differential, it is site. Many of the 19th century buildings havenot surprising that the household of these low been adapted to 21st century needs, while theranking female employees would have had less historic landscape has been almost obliterated.variety than the higher status household of the Lastly, the design challenge for Snug HarborSteward. The archaeological record shows that is to develop a new landscape master planthere was great similarity in the material goods that can meet contemporary user needs andassociated with the seamen/residents and the yet reveal this richly powered and genderedlow ranking female employees. landscape.ConclusionSailors’ Snug Harbor perpetuated on land the Referencesmale hierarchy, power dynamics, and strictly Baugher, Sherene and Judith Baragli. Monograph.ranked society that had existed onboard ships The archaeological investigation at the Matron’sat sea. In turn, this charitable institution is also Cottage, Snug Harbor Cultural Center, Statena reflection of the class roles that were at the Island, New York. On file at the New York Cityfoundation of nineteenth century American Landmarks Preservation Commission.industrial society. The men and womenwere afforded a “safe snug harbor” in which Baugher, Sherene, Judith Baragli, Louise Deto live and work. But within that same Snug Cesare, and Robert W. Venables. 1985. Report. AnHarbor, inmates, staff, and supervisors faced archaeological predictive model of Snug Harborthe economic and social limitations of their Cultural Center. On file at the New York Citygenders, classes, and occupations. Landmarks Preservation Commission.Today the buildings and the eighty acres Baugher, Sherene and LuAnn DeCunzo. 2003.surrounding them are being developed as a Archaeological perspectives on and contributions tocultural center, but there is no agreed upon the study of colonial American gardens. LandscapeMaster Plan. The various attempts at master Journal 22(1): 68-85.plans have been highly contested by the leaders Foster, Carl. Historic Buildings at Snug Harborof the diverse cultural institutions residing at the Cultural Center. Photo.harbor. Currently the site is being developedpiecemeal with the contemporary institutions Governor’s Quarterly Reports. 1867-1881.concealing the historic landscape. For Quarterly reports of Governor Melville, Directorexample, open lawns and an outdoor stage are of Sailors’ Snug Harbor, archives of the New Yorklocated on the grounds of the former hospital. Maritime College, Bronx, New York.The Staten Island Botanical Garden openedan elegant Chinese garden in 2001, although Harlow, Alvin F. 1976. Dictionary of Americanthere was no ethnic or historical connection History Vol VI. Revised ed. New York: Charlesto the 19th century Euro-American sailors at Scribner’s Sons: 186-187, s.v. “Sailors’ SnugSnug Harbor. The only 19th century landscape Harbor”. History 73
  • 84. Robinson, E. Sailors’ Snug Harbor 1907. Plate 2.From Atlas of the Borough of Richmond, City ofNew York. Map Collection, Staten Island Instituteof Arts and Sciences.Shepherd, Barnett. Sailors’ Snug Harbor, 1801-1976. 1977. New York: Publishing Center forCultural Resources.Spencer-Wood, Suzanne. 2002. The HistoricalArchaeology of Nineteenth Century AmericanCultural Landscapes: A Review. Landscape Journal21(1): 173-182.74 Baugher
  • 85. The Phoenix Indian Observations and interviews of users of the Steele Indian School Park, particularly its entrySchool Park: Communal garden, described later, corroborate this. TheSpace/Private Meanings Steele Indian School Park appears indeed to have become a public park and urban garden, proximate to a variety of users, and successfulHemalata C. Dandekar, Ph.D. in evoking multiple and layered meaning and utility.Introduction In the execution of this project the City ofThe creation of the Steele Indian School Phoenix faced a responsibility to create aPark, a roughly seventy five acre public space park, which respected the site’s conflictedset in the heart of the City of Phoenix, is the history but also provided a public amenityresult of a persistent and long-term public accessible and welcoming to all. The complexcommitment to the concept by various actors history of associations with Native Americanin the public and private realms. The park was communities was to be acknowledged andrecently inaugurated and opened for public respected. But, as a public park, the needs ofuse and is a culmination of some fifteen years users oblivious to this past were also to be met.of mobilization and master planning effort The City of Phoenix and the Stantec/Ten Eyckinitiated by various agencies of the City of design team partnered to produce a significantPhoenix. The fifteen-acre entry garden to the public space, which has been criticallypark, designed by Stantec, (prime consultants) acclaimed. Two aspects of this project areand Ten Eyck landscape architects (sub investigated in this paper:consultants), builds on themes developed overseveral years in city-initiated planning and 1)The nature of the collaboration betweenvisioning exercises1. The park and its evocative public entities (with claims and constraints onentry garden have been acclaimed a success the design and development) and the landscapeby the media and public.2 The park is thus design team.the concrete manifestation of a cooperativeand long-sustained effort by numerous public 2)The perception and experience of the finishedsector entities and the creativity of a committed product, a public park, by users of the park.landscape design team. Their efforts haveresulted in making possible a public space These serve to illustrate that the design andreplete with meaning, history, ambiance and, implementation/maintenance of great publicmost importantly providing a democratic, spaces results from sustained effort by multiplepublic space, of high utility. entities and actors who commit to, and invest in, the acts of place making. The designer’sThis is a significant achievement given role is essential, transforming the rational,that the site for this park is one of complex logical, pragmatic and mundane needs to blendhistory as a former boarding school for Native with the aesthetic, mythical, and conceptualAmerican children. Described as a school for so as to create evocative, aesthetic space.“assimilationist education to solve what was But in public place making it is insufficientperceived as The Indian problem”3 the school without sustained planning and communitywas a product of the cultural framework of commitment. What one learns from thethe decades between 1890 and the 1930’s. making of the Indian School Park is that whenMemory and association to place and site are these two ways of committing to the ideal ofderived from this sometimes-painful history. creating a democratic, historically responsive space come together they underpin and enableFrancis and Hester4 in their book The Meaning creation of an evocative and functionallyof Gardens: Ideas, Place, and Action make responsive public space.the case that gardens, particularly public,urban gardens must serve multiple users and Making the Park: A Collaborative Ventureallow for the vesting of multiple, and layered The Land: The Phoenix Indian School wasmeanings. Their typology of meanings vested founded in 1891 on land which was thenin gardens includes - faith, power, ordering, outside the city limits, and is now consideredcultural expression, personal expression and central Phoenix located as it is just 2.5 mileshealing. Francis and Hester posit that gardens north of downtown. It is among Phoenix’s mostare spaces of ideas, of place, and of action. significant historic and cultural properties5. History 75
  • 86. At one time there were approximately 100 effort, which followed: completing a sitebuildings on the site. In 1990 the federal inventory; analyzing the assets of the site;government officially closed the school and, obtaining public involvement in programselling most of the land to a private developer6 elements9. A preliminary master plan wasbut designating a twenty-acre parcel within developed which guided and gave direction tothe school property for use as a city park. the design of the landscape architect team ofIn December 1991 Phoenix City Council Stantec (prime consultant) and their design subexecuted a Development and Disposition consultant Ten Eyck Landscape Architects.Agreement (DDA) with this developer trading7.5 acres of city-owned downtown land for54 acres of Indian School property, therebymaking available 75-acres for a public park atthe Indian School site.7As a member of the city team and on thePhoenix Indian School Task Force, JamesBurke, Deputy Director, City of Phoenix,Parks, Recreation and Library Department hasbeen involved with this project since 1986.He has followed it through from discussionsof the potential of the site, through the landacquisition, master planning process involvingsignificant input of publics to the conceptualdesign. He has worked with the project throughdesign and construction phases, and now,as components near completion he providesoversight and support essential in resolvingissues of continuing park maintenance andprotection. He thus has a unique overviewand understanding of what makes for success.8In this he identifies a highlight of the processnoting that during the master planning stage Figure 1. Preliminary Master Plan.a number of tribal entities came together andcreated the concept of six tribal regions in This Preliminary Master Plan (Fig. 1) locatedArizona – Navajo, Hopi, Apache, Desert, the main approaches to the site and identifiedRiver and Pia. They recognized that the Indian the practical and utilitarian needs, whichSchool Site was neutral ground to most tribal were to be served by the park. The searchmembers since they had a common experience for symbols with which to reflect the past arethere. This was the first time that all the tribes conceptualized and an effort made “to balancegot together in this fashion and the idea was Native American traditions with modern parkincorporated into the garden design with six planning … providing meaningful amenitiesspiral gardens off the main entry garden. to the surrounding neighborhoods and the other residents of Phoenix.” 10 Towards thisThe Master Plan Task Force defined the park’s end four plan areas were delineated: Entrymission as four fold – recognizing the cultural Gardens, Circle of Life, Neighborhood Park,historical character of the site; creating a scenic and Phoenix Green. Three access points toand pastoral park for a modern urban setting; the site were defined, water elements wereenhancing the quality of life for Phoenix established as critical and integral to the plan,residents with an accessible, safe, diverse setting and three buildings of the former Indian schoolfor recreation, leisure and cultural enrichment; (the dining hall, the band building, and theand, providing access to all. The mission was Memorial Hall with a war memorial) wereadopted in March of 1992. This led to the identified for preservation.Phoenix Community Alliance committing toraise $7 million in private donations for the The Stantec/Ten Eyck team of Landscapepark. The Steele Foundation, the creation of Architects built on this base of information andnative Arizonan Horace Steele, donated $2.5 analysis. Elements of the preliminary mastermillion and the park bears his name. plan were refined to create an evocative, andThe Task Force report describes an intense sophisticated design in which is embedded76 Dandekar
  • 87. the sensitivity to the past, and the spirituality enveloped by the earth and surrounded by theirto also break with this past to posit a healing native plants. We designed a half-mile trailpresent and future. The design allows for that spirals gently down into the earth. Thean optimistic future. It cherishes the past, retaining wall that forms the spiral was builtseeks to educate about it, and yet embraces out of the broken slabs and foundations ofthe needs and culture of the present. This the 100 buildings that constituted the Indianembrace includes a heightened sensibility school and the walkways that connected themabout conserving resources and respecting the which were all over the site.”11 The Parks andregional and indigenous in the landscape. Recreation department, responsible for project execution, cooperated in this practical reuse of foundation concrete. The design offered an innovative solution to disposing of vast amounts of demolition concrete and symbolic value. Thus the connection to the past was consolidated literally, in concrete, in the retaining walls of the new garden. Reflecting on the design Ten Eyck states, We were very inspired by the words of the Native Americans who had participated in the community workshops. We took these words, and the poetry of the tribes, and sandblasted them into the concrete slabs and columns throughout the entry garden and the circle of life. One of the most memorable statements came from the Navajo Nation Design Team involved in the general master plan. They provided the ethos for the design in the thoughts of an ancient Indian Spirit as follows:Figure 2. Conceptual Master Plan. I have visited this place often. In my dreams. It is a place filled with magicAsked to reflect on her approach to working and power. It is here that the past and thewith social factors in the design of the garden future can be bridged. It is here we canTen Eyck notes that she is acutely aware find ourselves.12that public work such as this garden touchesmany lives. Also, that the site is one to which and further:Indian children some as young as five werebrought here, taken from their families by Without our past, we have no future.force, their traditional clothing replaced with The future springs from the pastmilitary uniforms, and, flying in the face of and makes a bridge. The bridge istheir traditions and taboos their hair was cut. education. Only through knowingThe school was the instrument with which our past can we plan for our future…Indian children were to be taught to break withtheir pasts, so that “the sward gave way to the The design development by Ten Eyck hasspelling book.” The Ten Eyck design sought graphic clarity and vision. A soft but clearto recognize this past, to honor it, quietly and axiality is imposed. The planting, pathwaywith reserve, in keeping with the demeanor and patterns, entry ways, and water elements speaktraditions of the tribes. This is most particularly in plan to the inter-connectivity of the park,manifest in the 15 acre Native American entry and articulate the different zones and theirgarden south of the site approached from characteristics: the neighborhood park accessedIndian School Road. Ten Eyck states: “The through the west entrance; the Phoenix Green,entry garden design was inspired by comments symbolically cut by a water channel whichfrom the tribes that they would like to be connects the Grand Canal to the “Bird Pond.” History 77
  • 88. The overall design is integral yet allowing the cistern in a bosk of water-loving trees to bemultiple, diverse zones offering various and found in riparian areas in the region.different spaces for “ideas, place, and action.13”The neighborhood park includes space fororganized activities: basketball, volleyball,tot lot and playground with an interpretivecanal system. The Phoenix Green offers morethan 30-acre grassy, tree-shaded terrain withramadas for picnics and quiet respite. TheConservatory/Amphitheater for special eventsrelated to the marketplace and festival areas.A circular sidewalk, the four cardinal pointsmarked with ramadas that emphasize the sacreddirections, circumscribes the Historic Core ofthree buildings. Delineating the circle of lifethe pathway provides a sacred closure withinwhich 28 custom designed interpretive columns(which have won a national interpretive award)speak of the history of the school. Figure 4. Fountain. A thread of connecting water from the fountain at the top (Fig. 4) to the Ramada Figure (Fig. 5) to the cistern at the spiral’s center (Fig. 6) provides an integral visual and symbolic link. Water connects the elements of the park from the Grand Canal running to the north of the site, which has historically made viable the contemporary Phoenix settlement, to the heart of the entry garden with its symbolic representation of the Native American sensibility and cosmic view.Figure 3. View from the South of the Entry Garden.A design focus is the entry park. It is approachedfrom the North over a bridge symbolicallyand literally allowing a crossing from the“military” historic school area over a smalllake to the “wild” native, sunken entry garden.The garden is traversed by way of an east entryspiral path (taken from the migration symbolin Native American rock art) sloping gentlydown (wheel chair accessible) allowing thegarden to touch the earth. Six regional gardensfor the tribal groups, yet to be built, are spiralsthat work off this each with an east entry. At Figure 5. Ramada.the heart of the garden, at the end of the spiralis a baptismal-like cistern gently overlapping Yet, as the view from the Circle of Life lookingwater at its edge (Fig. 3). The plantings, yet to down town Phoenix (Fig. 7) indicates, theto mature, of indigenous plants of the Phoenix park and the garden are connected to and anhinterland region, change as one moves down integral part of the city fabric. It illustrates howinto the earth. The upper spiral is edged with the park functions as an oasis and a respite fromplants from the high desert, gradually giving the big city reality of high-rise towers, traffic,way to those from the low desert and ending at and the hard scape of streets and footpaths.78 Dandekar
  • 89. An oasis has been created which adds to the challenged to gauge the impact on park usersquality of life in the heart of Phoenix. of the designer’s intentions, particular those embedded in the entry garden’s symbolism. Students interviewed some fifty park users on weekdays and weekends, at different times of day during September 2002. The interviews were “opportunistic”; of park users who were ready and willing to converse. They do not constitute a representative or systematically drawn sample or cross section of park users. They do however reveal that the park and the entry garden successfully provide multiple meanings and afford different opportunities to the various constituencies who claim and use this new facility. Of the fifty or so interviewees, some 24 were women and 26 were men. Those interviewed varied in age from teenagers and young adults to senior citizens. Users of theFigure 6. Cistern. park who were interviewed included residents of a nearby senior center and the patients in theWalking through the park with Ten Eyck Veterans Hospital to the East of the site. Theyher commitment to the entry garden design constitute a significantly vulnerable group whois palpable.14 She tightens wires and stakes are being served by the plants as she guides students down thespiral and explains the design concept. Shebrushes rocks and gravel on to either sideof an imaginary curved line which is in herminds eye and on the conceptual design, runsher hand over the chipped edge of the cisternwhich a vandal’s hand has damaged, as thoughto heal and mend. It is vividly clear and easyto understand, as one watches her, that a greatsymbolic space and public art such as thisis created and survives with the unstintingcommitment and support of many, and diverse,hands. The success of this project and otherin a similar democratic and public domain, inthe long term, rest on a significant number ofstakeholders who must buy into the premiseof the design, cherish it, maintain and protectit. In this particular space they include: thediverse public who uses the park; the parksdepartment that cultivates and maintains it;and, the authorities that will approve or denycontinuing improvements and amenities. Eventhis abbreviated history of the evolution of thispark has surfaced the give-and take involved inforging the collaborations that have resulted inthis evocative design and will play a significantrole in its future successes.Perceptions and Experience of Users of theIndian School Park. Figure 7. View of Downtown.How do users of this new public spaceexperience it? This question was asked by The Shadow of Past History: Experiencing thesenior Landscape Architecture students in connection of the garden with the past was mostthe Social Factors in Landscape Architecture apparent, as one might expect, in interviewscourse at Arizona State University. They were of a group of three Native Americans, two History 79
  • 90. women and a man, who were visitors from the and wished they would “just be torn down.”San Carlos Indian Reservation east of Phoenix For the above five Native Americans thenear the town of Globe. They were visiting park was a space of ideas. However mostthe park to relax after the man had sold two of of the park users interviewed had little directhis kachina dolls to a store in Scottsdale, a city relationship to, or significant awareness of, theto the north east of the park. The interview history of the site. They came to the park forrevealed that one of them, an Apache woman the different opportunities to recreate, exercisein her forties, had been a student at the Indian and relax that it offered. For example:School from 1974-78. She remembered theschool fondly and likes to visit the garden • Those with younger children visited thewhenever she can. Her favorite area of the neighborhood park in the North Westgarden was where she was sitting with her corner of the site. Some of these usersfeet in the water when the student interviewer never walked to other parts of the parkspoke with her, in the shaded area around the and some were oblivious to the historycistern at the core of the spiral. Her responses of the site. What they enjoyed was theindicated that she was obviously very aware of safety, the lack of crowds, the new playthe history of the site, aware of the park’s name structures and the fact that the childrenwhich held tremendous meaning for her, and could play in or near a body of water.very proud of the park. She said she thought Some had noticed the inscriptions onit was a beautiful place. Her major complaint the concrete columns in the Circle ofwas that there were no barbecue grills where Life others knew that this was a site of athey could cook food, eat and relax. Her male former Indian School but they paid littlefriend, who claimed to be a well-known Native or no attention to this fact. For them theAmerican potter, also visits the park on his park was merely a space of action.visits to the city to sell his artistic products. Hemade few comments about the design except • Health workers at the adjacent Veteransto say that he too wished there were barbecues Hospital care facilities and businessto cook on. This anecdote serves to underscore people from adjacent offices came tothe fact that a public park, albeit one heavy the entry garden’s cistern to have theirwith symbolism, history, and association, lunch or to take a mental and spiritualmust also function, even for those for whom break from their jobs. The park affordedthese associations are immediate and personal, a physical, healing respite from thefor action and for use in the more mundane pressures of their job. For them the parkactivities of recreation and relaxation. Designer was a space of healing.Ten Eyck and Park Director Burke on readingthese comments have pointed out that now, a • In the early morning and in the eveningyear later, the park is replete with barbeques. residents from a one or two mile radiusTheir immediate observation underscores came to the park to run, roller blade ortheir ongoing investment in making this a walk their dogs. The park affordedresponsive space. Also that this is a work-in- them open space, greenery and shade.progress wherein many of the users wishes, The joggers knew that the spiral pathsuch as for instance “more shade” will also in measured a half-mile and could trackdue time be addressed. their effort. The water on the site offered a cooling element in which to rest tiredAnother Native American couple in their late feet or cool a flushed face. For them thetwenties was interviewed by another student park was a space of action.who learned that they were visiting the parkand entry garden for the first time. The couple • Patients who came to the Veterans hospitalwas from Flagstaff and had heard and read found the park to provide a tranquilabout the park and come to see it first hand. and refreshing break from the work ofThe history of the site was a significant part physical recovery. Veterans, especiallyof their interest and experience of the site and those in wheel chairs, appreciated the factthey enjoyed the play of water through the that the park, including the spiral downpark. However, they did not like the feeling to the cistern, was accessible. They cameof the three remaining school buildings, to it to escape from the confinement ofwhich have been slated, for renovation and their health care facilities. For them thepreservation. They expressed discomfort with garden was a healing force.what the buildings represented from the past80 Dandekar
  • 91. • Two teenagers came here after high Indian School Park with its discrete and school, recognizing it as a safe place to different zones was perceived and experienced spend an hour or so before their parents, as a multi-meaning place, reflecting culture, who worked in the area, could pick them memory, but also squarely situated to respond up and drive them home. A man who to present and future needs. This brief rendition was thrown out of his home came to of the processes and actions that have resulted the park to wait out the time and think in this fortunate result serves to underscore through what he would do next. Several that partnerships and collaboration of various student interviewers commented on the constituencies, over more than fifteen years, fact that homeless people appeared to be were essential in this success. They have at the park at different times. For all of made possible the addition of an evocative, them the park was a space of refuge and significant, public space to the heart of the City security. of Phoenix. The Phoenix Indian School Park case corroborates a central thesis of this paper,• A senior woman, a nurse in her sixties that long-term, sustained planning and design who took a walk in the park everyday effort, involving partnerships, participation and and two of her friends met once a week trade-offs between various constituencies who to pick up dog poop in the garden and are stakeholders in a city entity, is an essential clean up the park. With this involvement ingredient to the creation of democratic, they appropriated and claimed the park communal space that can sustain and reliably as their own and contributed effort to provide private meaning and public amenity. sustain and maintain it. For them the park was a physical space of action and appropriation. NotesMost of these park users indicated little 1 The various agencies associated with developingawareness of the past and the history of the a master plan for the park include City Councilsite. Some had read the text on the concrete members, the Phoenix City Parks and Recreation Board, the Mayors Office, the City Managers Office,pillars and the concrete pavements of the entry the Navajo Nation, the Phoenix Indian School Taskgarden. Thus the park had served to educate and Force (consisting of twenty three prominent citysensitize. But predominantly for them the park leaders and professionals and citizens), the Parks,functioned effectively as a place that responded Recreation and Library Department, and Cityto, and celebrated, the immediate needs of Planners and Staff. The names of those involvedplace and action for current enjoyment. are noted on page i of the Phoenix Indian School Park Master Plan Task Force Report, JanuaryFrances and Hester (1990) argue that one 1993, where it is also noted that the Task Forcecannot understand the meaning of gardens report builds on and draws from the Phoenix Indianwithout recognizing that they represent an School Specific Plan 1992 prepared by the City ofinterplay of place as idea, as physical space, Phoenix Planning Department.and as action. 2 The Steele Indian School Park received a good dealThe interviews of the Steele Indian School of attention as it has been the site of major publicPark users reveal each of these aspects. As an gatherings such as the September 11 memorialidea the park and the garden are conceived so events in 2002, the fourth of July gatherings inas to symbolize the historical experience of 2002 and 2003. It has received support, sometimesNative American and white colonial beliefs qualified, from Native American leadership. Seeand values and to speak to reconciliation and for example, David Schwartz, “Tribal leaders giverecognition. As a physical space the users park a chance” The Dallas Morning News, Texasexpound on the experience they have of open and Southwest, Thursday February 7, 2003,, and hope for bigger trees and more 23A.shade. As a place of action they speak tothe park as a place to bring children to fish, 3 Robert A. Trennert, Jr. The Phoenix Indianto climb, to bring the dog for a run and tire School: Forced Assimilation in Arizona, 1891-him out, to jog and do exercises, to interact in 1935, University of Oklahoma Press: 1988.groups, to celebrate as a community and, tofind a place to rest and to recreate. People who 4 Mark Francis and Randolph T. Hester, Jr., Thewere interviewed experienced the park in some Meaning of Gardens: Ideas, Place, and Action, Theor all of these dimensions. The multi-function MIT Press: 1990. History 81
  • 92. 5 By 1900 the second largest Indian school in 10 Phoenix Indian School Park Master Plan Taskthe nation the Phoenix Indian school played an Force Report, January 1993, pg. 3.instrumental role in the emergence and maturationof the federal government’s Native American 11 Quotes and comments from lecture by Christineeducation policies in the 20th. Century. Students E. Ten Eyck, September 10, 2002 to Arizona Statecame to the school from throughout the country, but University, BSLA 410 course Social Factors ina majority was from Arizona. In 1935, at the height Landscape Architecture, instructor, Hemalataof its growth, there were 900 students attending Dandekar.the school. It was at this time that the curriculumchanged from vocational training to traditional 12 Phoenix Indian School Park Master Plan Taskacademics. The school’s most popular features Force Report, January 1993, pg. 3.were a marching band (the building for which stillstands and will be preserved and rehabilitated as Mark Francis and Randolph T. Hester, Jr., The 13funds become available) and athletic program. Meaning of Gardens: Ideas, Place, and Action, The MIT Press: 1990,6 The land was sold to Barron Collier Companies,in exchange for more than 100,000 acres in the 14 Class site visit to Indian School Park, SeptemberFlorida Everglades and a $35 million cash payment 12, 2002 guided by Christine E. Ten the Arizona Indian Education Trust Fund.7 See Phoenix Indian School Park Master PlanTask Force Report January 1993, City of Phoenix,pg. 7 for details of the complex negotiations andland transaction which were needed to acquire thisproperty and assemble this significant parcel ofland for the park.8 As a member of the Parks department staffinvolved in the project, Burke describes the PhoenixIndian School Task Force as a broad based, highlyinfluential and politically powerful group that wascommitted and contributed to the Master Planningprocess. Personal Interview with James Burke,March 10, 2003, City of Phoenix, Parks, Recreationand Library Department. Page i of the Master Planlists the following groups who are involved: Mayorand City Council, Past City Council members,Phoenix Parks and Recreation Board, Mayor’sand City Manager’s Offices, Navajo Nation,Phoenix Indian School Task Force (consisting of23 prominent and influential citizens includinglandscape architect Steve Martino), Phoenix Parks,Recreation and Library Department and City ofPhoenix Planning and Historic Preservation Staff.9 Four concept plans were developed through variouspublic forums. Three of these were produced bythe City of Phoenix Parks department and one bythe Phoenix Indian School Coalition in conjunctionwith the Navajo Nation Design and EngineeringService sand the Tribal Architect. The themesof the four plans were – Romantic Park; CulturalCenter Park; Museum Park; and Native AmericanConference Center. The preliminary master planwas developed to respond to a combination of theseconcepts.82 Dandekar
  • 93. Design with Nature: The without a lunch of roast beef sandwiches and deviled eggs packed by Grandmother. A visitSouth’s Evangel never passed without the entreaty, “Please stay for supper.” Lemonade, fried chicken livers and blackberry cobbler were readily sharedSarah Georgia Harrison with friends and acquaintances alike. Southern folkways emanated from the kitchen, but filled the community as surely as the Spanish mossIntroduction dripped off the trees.Industrialism and land development in theSouth lagged behind that of the rest of the Well-rooted in these social traditions, Marvinnation for the period following the Civil War opened his practice with the support anduntil the latter part of the twentieth century. connections of his family and friends. HisThe poverty that left the region out of step first commissions involved work on nearbywith the national pace of growth also fostered plantations. Guided by traditional plantationthe preservation of a culture, an agrarian way texts such as Plantations of the Carolinaof life and a spiritual connection to the land. Low Country, Prince Williams’ Parish andBecause of these conditions the land was Plantations, and Historic Houses of Earlylargely unspoiled by development. It was America, Marvin’s early designs were reflectivethe vision of Robert E. Marvin to help the of the traditional conservatism of SouthernSouth learn to capitalize on this distinction, landscape design, using the vocabularyby teaching and practicing an attitude of land of Renaissance, baroque, and Americanstewardship and development that he hoped neoclassical traditions (Howett 2002, “Aftercould inspire the South to avoid many of the the “Other” War: Landscapes of Home, Northmistakes perpetrated by other regions of the and South” p.166). Formal gardens werenation. Inspired by early modernists practicing located close to the house, surrounded by atwo thousand miles away, Marvin applied the grove of trees, or forest, and an asymmetricalsocial, environmental, and design objectives arrangement of the lawn.of modernism to the South, and adapted theseideas uniquely to the region.Early YearsRobert Marvin (1920-2001) was born inisolated, agrarian Colleton County of theSouth Carolina lowcountry. Grandson ofa rice plantation farmer and an only child,Marvin explored the native swamps andforests throughout his early years, developingan affinity for the land and the naturalenvironment. Observing the work of Innocenti& Webel at the Bonnie Doone Plantation, wherehis father was overseer, Marvin acquired anunderstanding of landscape architecture at anearly age. Following a degree in horticulturefrom Clemson University, time in the Pacific Figure 1. Marvin’s Walterboro residence front facadetheater in World War II, and graduate studies (photo by author).in landscape architecture at the University ofGeorgia, he established a practice in 1947 in By 1964, when Marvin worked on Orangethe small town of Walterboro, in the heart of Grove, a historic rice plantation near Beaufort,his native county. his method was quite different. He approached the client with ideas of revitalizing theIn the rural culture that dominated everyday architecture, “exploding the box” by revealinglife for the Marvins, elements of gentility views to the marsh from inside the house andand grace were commonplace. Anna Lou making powerful connections to the landscape.Carrington Marvin describes with poignancy A prolific reader, Marvin was aware of thehow her future husband Robert won her heart designs of his contemporaries in architecturewith the presentation of a single camellia and landscape architecture and was refining hisflower, freshly cut from his father’s nursery. A own ideology as his work progressed. Thereday’s trip in the car would not be undertaken is evidence indicating that he was especially History 83
  • 94. influenced by the work of landscape architects lowcountry swamps instilled a deep attachmentGarrett Eckbo and James Rose, as well as to the natural environment. He readilyarchitect Frank Lloyd Wright. incorporated ideas from the environmental movement of the 1960s and 1970s into hisDesign Development own design philosophy. His office, designedHis design exploration was perhaps first in the 1970s, was the classic example of hisexpressed in the redesign of his own house ideology in action. Built as a demonstration ofin the early 1950s. Within the context of an his philosophy for his clients to see upon theiravenue of white-columned colonial relics, arrival, the office was designed by Marvin andMarvin redesigned his small, traditional his associates to “knock the walls down and lethouse to focus on the walled garden of the nature in again. The environmental movementbackyard, fronting the street with a low-profile proves that man needs to get out of his box thatfaçade, painting it brown, and putting granite technology has created. He needs to wrap hisscreenings for parking in front. In keeping with arms around nature” (Marvin in Thompsonthe modernist ideas of his California School 2001, “Robert Marvin, FASLA, 1920-2001.”contemporaries, he integrated the house and p.13).garden by constructing a glass wall to stretchthe length of the house, designing pavementand planters to align with the mullions of theglass panels, and bringing the floor patterninginside. His play on the notion of free spacebetween inside and outside was driven by hislove for nature and expressed with the optimalorientation of the angles of the house at fifteendegrees east of south and the shadow patternsof one specimen tree. Figure 3. Office of Robert Marvin Howell Beach & Associates, Inc. (Source: RM/HB).Figure 2. Marvin’s Walterboro residence interior (photoby author).The private residence of James Rose bearsstriking similarities to Marvin’s, includingthe floor pattern, spatial definition, plate glasswindow, and pergola. The design of Marvin’sgarden is reminiscent of a design by ThomasChurch, with the angular beds played oppositethe curvilinear, the screen fence, and theplacement of the specimen tree. While thereis no direct evidence that Marvin emulated theRose house or the Church garden, it is clearthat contemporary modernist thought pervadedhis design. Figure 4. Simmons Corporation parking (Source: BruceAdditionally, Marvin’s early explorations of the Ferguson).84 Harrison
  • 95. Nature engulfs the visitor to his office. The from the organic architecture of Frank Lloydone-lane sandy entrance drive through the Wright, who attempted to achieve a “nobleswamp forest separates the visitor from the expression of nature,” wherein the buildingoutside world, and leaves him wondering if he cannot be conceived separately from the going to the right place. Upon arrival there From the Prairie houses to Taliesin West,is an even greater surprise. Rather than set Wright “sought to discover the essentialon the high ground, the building is suspended character of the regional landscape in orderover the low, boggy woodland. The swamps to generate an appropriate architectural style”penetrate the structure, and it is set amongst (Howett 1993, “Modernism and Americanthe trees like the nest of some native species. Landscape Architecture” p. 23). In achieving aWhile some plants were selectively removed, careful integration of building and site, Marvinno new plantings were added. A post and beam infused a sense of the Southern region into hisstructure with no foundation, the architecture work, and with its rich narrative content hewas designed by Marvin and members of his conveyed a clear sense of the value of buildingstaff because he could not find an architect that with nature.would do what he wanted (Beach 2003).Figure 5. Southern Progress Corporation (Source: LAM,1997). Figure 7. “The Acres” in Galesburg Country Homes development. (The drawings of Frank Lloyd Wright are Copyright c 2001 The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, Scottsdale, AZ.). This design philosophy was implemented at Jones Bridge Headquarters of the Simmons Company in Atlanta in the mid 1970’s. The headquarters was sensitively sited in the fragile woodland environment of the Chattahoochee River. In an example of the modernist “less isFigure 6. Monarch at Sea Pines (photo by author). more” minimalism in detailing, Marvin’s low impact treatment of the parking lots emulatedhile it is not an architectural masterpiece, the National Park standards with a sinuous designsimple structure is effective because of its around existing trees and no curbing. Anotherintegration of architecture and the landscape. classic example of his Southern regionalThe friction piers are the only place the approach was demonstrated at Southernbuilding touches the earth. Marvin’s design Progress Corporation in Birmingham,approach for his office was clearly adapted Alabama. This corporate headquarters was History 85
  • 96. inserted into a steep, woodland site, spanning woodland settings, because they evokeda ravine. Recirculating water features were a cabin-like feel, reminiscent of vacationadded to enhance the sense of one’s immersion cottages. Derived from ideas of Frank Lloydinto the forest. Monarch at Sea Pines pulls the Wright’s organicism, as opposed to the dictumvisitor away from the traffic and overcrowding of the International Style of Europe, separatingof Hilton Head to another world, where, architecture from nature, the house in the deepdespite the density, one can feel immersed in woods was, for Southern sensibilities, anthe natural scene. acceptable variation on the notion of the grove of trees set against the lawn (Howett 2002,In the conversion of Brays Island Plantation to “After the “Other” War: Landscapes of Home,a residential community, Marvin selected the North and South” p.176).house sites to best suit the land and views ofPort Royal Sound, then drew a one acre circlearound each site to form the lot. The roadswere constructed to connect the lots together,instead of the more common approach of layingout the roads to accommodate the maximumnumber of marketable lots. Marvin was clearlyinfluenced by Wright, whose land planning for“The Acres” and “Usonia II” utilized the notionof the one acre circle optimal lots (Aguar 2002,pp. 252-257). Figure 9. Marvin’s Brays Island house (Source: Landscape Architecture Magazine 1997). With his practice located in such a remote place, Marvin could easily have insulated himself from contemporary movements in the design professions, but he was a voracious reader, always hungry for new knowledge. According to Ed Pinckney, FASLA, his longtime friend and professional peer, Marvin was on a relentless pursuit of expanding his knowledge on manFigure 8. Marvin’s 1 acre circles at Brays Island (Source: and the environment. In many ways, RobertRM/HB). was in transition between two extremes: the very practical and scientific requirements ofHis own house at Brays Island again shows his growing plants and constructing designs and thedesign philosophy of the integration of man and furthest intellectual reaches of environmentalnature. While today’s wetlands laws would not planning and design. He was interested in howpermit building so close to the water, Marvin’s all of this knowledge and these applicationsuse of post and beam construction with friction could “allow each human being to be all thatpiers is evidence of the dramatic effect that can he or she was meant to be.”be accomplished on fragile sites with minimalimpact. Marvin was a profound example and living proof of how much one person could learn,Ideology accomplish, and influence others. WhileWhile these ideas may not have been new to coming from a very simple, agrarian, small,the nation, they were new to the South, whose Southern town, his influence was largelyresistance to modernist designs was rooted in because of his tremendous curiosity for whatconservative traditions and appreciation of the constitutes truth and beauty and how thesehistoric styles. The most acceptable modernist truths, once understood, could be used todesigns in the South were houses in natural benefit mankind (Pinckney 2003).86 Harrison
  • 97. the efforts of multiple disciplines. AgainA seminal moment in his life came during reminiscent of Eckbo, Marvin preached theattendance at the Aspen International Design team approach, suggesting that civic leaders,Conference on “Man’s Environment” in the artists, sociologists, ecologists, engineers,1960s, when he heard psychiatrist Dr. Karl architects and land planners were all requiredMenninger speak on mental health and the to design “the total environment” for man’senvironment. After this experience, he and needs, always emphasizing that the landscapewife Anna Lou wrote his philosophy: “The architect was the one professional best suiteddominant reason for the existence of Robert to lead that team (Rainey 1993, p. 201).E. Marvin and Associates shall be to createand design an environment in which each According to his partner Howell Beach,individual can grow and develop to be a full his design process was thorough, includinghuman being as God intended him to be.” (Alta exhaustive studies of site conditions, clientMae Marvin 2003). personalities and preferences, numerous conceptual studies, and frequent clientHe further developed his ideology through brainstorming sessions. His ability to sell anthe many lectures delivered to garden clubs, idea to a client was a catalyst for much of thecommunity groups and landscape architecture powerfully innovative work he was able toprograms. He wrote, accomplish (Beach 2003). Man is influenced by and is the result of only two things: his genetic inheritance and the total environment in which he lives…. The home and yard should then be designed to stimulate sound physical growth, emotional growth, intellectual growth, and spiritual growth…. A place to live is more than just a place to eat, sleep and wash – it is a reflection of the whole state of civilization and culture. It is a place to grow [physically], spiritually, intellectually and emotionally; it is a place of regeneration. The landscape architect provides the necessary link between the complex needs the role of the home environment creates and the limitations set by man and nature toward the accomplishment of the all-important task of building a safe, pleasurable home for living. (Marvin, “Landscape Figure 10. Day Butterfly Center (Source: RM/HB). Architecture Is Not Just Planting Azaleas, pp.1, 4) Like other modernists, he found the inspiration for many of his designs in forms found inThese words are similar to those of Eckbo in nature, such as the use of nautilus and butterflyLandscape for Living, in which he espoused forms at the Cecil B. Day Butterfly Center atideals of design as a “democratic discipline.” Callaway Gardens. On the other hand, hisEckbo wrote, “The product of [the designer’s] designs were not exclusively “naturalistic.”efforts and inspiration is not, finally, In fact, any suggestion that he had a “style”magnificent space and beautiful enclosure, but would have distressed him. He believed thatthe people who expand and grow and develop each site, program and client was distinct andwithin it” (Eckbo 1950, p.254). there was only “one right solution, even though there might be two or three good ones” (BeachIn a 1976 South Carolina Public Television 2003). Even though he felt that “the land tellsinterview, Marvin described how the Heritage you what to do” (Marvin in Thompson 1997,Club Villas at Sea Pines Plantation were “Southern Savior,” p.76), many of his designsdesigned to address man’s physical, spiritual, contained formal elements, demonstratingintellectual, and emotional needs, and his lack of desire to totally reject historicismhow a project of such complexity required and Southern conservative design traditions. History 87
  • 98. Glencairn Gardens, in Rock Hill, South as parking lots with no curbs or asphalt.Carolina, and the Sibley Horticultural Center, His expression of structure (or machineat Callaway Gardens in Georgia, are both aesthetic) was demonstrated in the Simmonsexamples of his more formalistic designs. Company parking lots, which totally redefined the traditional parking lot to an almost indecipherable form, snaking through existing trees. His office, as well as his residences at Edisto, Brays Island and Walterboro, are primarily post and beam structures, designed for their site relationships and utility. 5. He applied the concept of free space, by integrating house and garden, and by allowing the woods to sweep into the structures, such as at Southern Progress Corporation, where one looks through glass onto undisturbed wooded slopes and the existing ravine passes uninterrupted under the building. These projects illustrate strong narrative content, by engaging the user with powerful images ofFigure 11. Glencairn Gardens (Source: RM/HB). regional landscapes.Summary 6. Dan Kiley has said that “man is nature”A look at Marvin’s contributions to the (Johnson 1991, p. 122). Marvin immersedprofession of landscape architecture reveals man in settings that would feed his physical,that he was clearly representative of the emotional, intellectual and spiritual needs,modernist movement in a region and at a time believing that “man’s happiness and successwhen no one else was. may be more determined by his emotional response to his environment than by his1. Like Eckbo, Kiley and Rose, Marvin had physical response.”a clearly defined philosophy with moral andsocial objectives. He wrote and lectured In his 54 years of practice, Marvin completedexhaustively about his viewpoints. While many numerous projects of great variety and range.of the early modernists designed “for people,” The national and regional awards that heMarvin was also quick to add environmental received include the 2001 ASLA Gold Medalobjectives to the program. Award, FASLA, South Carolina Hall of Fame, South Carolina Order of the Palmetto, 122. Like Eckbo and others, Marvin clearly National Landscape Awards (presented by 5believed that his designs did not reflect a First Ladies), 5 national ASLA awards, manyparticular style, but rather, they were carefully regional and state ASLA awards, AIA awardsadapted to the site, client, user, and program. and other industry awards.Whereas early modernists rejected anynotion of historicism, Marvin did draw from Marvin’s work paralleled that of many oftraditional forms where appropriate, perhaps the defining modernist thinkers in landscapereflecting his regional bias. architecture. In keeping with the California School, his work was well adapted to the3. While Marvin did not explicitly draw from landscape of the region in which he worked.the forms of modern abstract art like so many of As one of the first and most significanthis modernist contemporaries, he did emulate Southern modernists, he was also an innovatorthe early modernist landscape architects, thus within his context, preaching his philosophyindirectly assimilating the association to art, and the benefits of land planning tirelessly, notand he integrated organic forms that he saw in only in lectures, but also to anyone who camenature into his designs. into contact with him. Forward-thinking in a region that was behind the times, he deserves4. He clearly had a “less is more,” minimalist a place of recognition among the second waveapproach to design, not only in forms, but also of landscape architectural modernists. A truein his use of materials. Wherever possible, regionalist, his zeal for protecting the landscapehe utilized low impact construction, such of the South was only matched by his desire to88 Harrison
  • 99. educate about the benefits of designing healthy Marvin, Anna Lou. May 22, 2003. Interview.environments. Marvin’s most important legacyis described by Pinckney thus: Marvin, Robert E. undated. Landscape architecture is not just planting azaleas. It’s very difficult for us to understand where Robert started 60+ years ago, or Marvin, R. E. April 18, 1989. Landscape architecture. shortly after World War II. It’s almost Guest Lecture, College of Architecture, Clemson impossible to put yourself at the bottom University. of the mountain he helped all of us climb. Many or most of the planning and design Marvin, R. E. 1966. Our changing land: Opportunity principles we take for granted today were or chaos? Clemson Alumni News, July. not even thought about in the 40s and 50s. In the Southeast, landscape architecture Pinckney, Edward J. June 30, 2003. Interview. was virtually an unknown profession….. And when you did run across someone Profile: Robert E. Marvin. January 29, 1976. familiar with the term landscape Video produced by South Carolina Educational architecture, their understanding was Television. limited to their ability to design planting plans. Robert didn’t let the limited Rainey, Reuben M. 1993. “Organic form in the understanding of landscape architecture humanized landscape”: Garrett Eckbo’s landscape discourage him at all; in fact, he used this for living.” Modern Landscape Architecture: A limitation to motivate his entire career. Critical Review, 180-205. Cambridge, MA: MIT Robert became an evangelical speaker Press. and educator, blazing the trail for the rest of us. Landscape architecture in the Thompson, J. William. 1997. Southern savior. Southeast is at least 20 years ahead of Landscape Architecture: 74-79, 93-97. where it would be had Robert chosen a different profession. It makes one wonder, Thompson. J.W. 2001. Robert Marvin, FASLA, what profession is 20 years behind 1920-2001. Landscape Architecture: 13. today because Robert chose landscape architecture instead. (Pinckney 2003) Treib, Mark. 1993. Axioms for a modern landscape architecture. In Modern landscape architecture: A critical review, 36-67. Cambridge, MA: MITReferences Press.Aguar, Charles E. and Berdeana. 2002.WRIGHTSCAPES Frank Lloyd Wright’s landscapedesigns.McGraw-Hill.Beach, Howell. May 22, 2003. Interview.Eckbo, Garrett. 1950. Landscape for living. F. W.Dodge Corporation.Howett, Catherine. 2002. After the “other” war:Landscapes of home, North and South. In Thearchitecture of landscape, 1940-1960, 154-179.Philadelphia, PA: University of PennsylvaniaPress.Howett, C. 1993. Modernism and Americanlandscape architecture. In Modern landscapearchitecture: A critical review, 18-35. Cambridge,MA: MIT Press.Johnson, Jory. 1991. Modern landscape architecture,redefining the garden. Abbeville Press.Marvin, Alta Mae. July 24, 2003. Interview. History 89
  • 100. Sustainability A Dialogue for Sustainability: People, Place and Water A. Simon, T. Cordova, J. Cooke, P. Aguilera-Harwood, B. Miera Exploring Spontaneous Uses in Urban Streams Chia-Ning Yang Biomimicry as a Runoff Management Strategy: Multi-Modal Landscapes Robert D. Sykes, Lance M. Neckar, Aaron A. Mikonowicz Sprawl. Nicesprawl or Multi-modal Hydroburbia Lance M. Neckar90 Simon
  • 101. A Dialogue for optimization became dominant in the design of urban environments. In the period followingSustainability: People, World War II, the social celebration of a technologically enhanced environment fadedPlace and Water with the proliferation of utilitarian systems that operated increasingly out of sight and outA. Simon, of mind. Somewhere during that time the termT. Cordova, ‘public works’ shifted to the more technocraticJ. Cooke, term ‘infrastructure’ (Bruegmann 1993),P. Aguilera-Harwood, with ‘infra’ the Latin word meaning ‘below.’B. Miera Energy, water supply, land drainage, and waste management were conceived as separate, isolated, and arguably unsustainable systems inIntroduction the urban environment (Strang 1996; LyndonThe word “sustainable,” some would argue, 1996). While these systems have become thehas been over-used and misappropriated standard in many developed regions, they lackto the point where its meaning has become both ecological and humanistic perspective.too malleable, and its use as a fundamental Strang (1996) stressed the potential forconcept of making places in responsible and infrastructure to add to the urban experienceintelligent ways has been compromised. This and to shape urban form. He suggested that thepaper describes infrastructure and urban biggest gains could be made in re-thinking singlesustainability as a true multi-dimensional purpose infrastructure systems, and promotingprocess that assimilates social, technological, multi-use systems that incorporate both socialpolitical, environmental, and economic and ecological functions. Dunham-Joneselements, and finds a dynamic balance among (1994) pointed out that reducing infrastructurethese. The case study in which this is explored to purely functional criteria does not allowis set within a context of ideas concerning the for the possibilities of systems that recognizerelationship between infrastructure, landscape, humans and their cultural expression. This ideaenvironment, and the social empowerment of was reinforced by Morrish and Brown (1995),citizen participation. who called for infrastructure that also plays a role in the urban landscape, providing collectiveInfrastructure and sustainable design identity and urban legibility. The notion thatThe development of technologies and their infrastructure can contribute to the quality ofapplications in the late nineteenth and early life beyond the functionality that it provides istwentieth centuries held out the promise of a expressed by Thayer (1995), who argued thathealthier, happier, and more perfect existence when we edit out the essential systems thatthat, until then, had only been imagined. support our daily lives we are left with facadeThe landscapes of technology, the machines, and illusion, and we lose the sense of theartifacts, spaces of technological production, interconnectedness between natural, social,and critical services were held in awe and and technological systems. In concert with thisreverence. These were landscapes of the shift in the perceived role of infrastructure,technological sublime (Nye 1995) and were Steiner (1996) stated that putting place backpainted, photographed, written about, and into infrastructure cannot be a superficialcelebrated within the popular culture. The endeavor, but must make connections to thegreat era of public works in America from “deep structure” of a region: that is, to the fullthe late 19th century until the 1930’s saw range of natural, cultural, spatial, and temporalbridges, roads, dams, canals, stone viaducts, characteristics that make the region what it is.reservoirs, and lighthouses as landmarks of Ultimately, “To affect the form of our cities,human achievement and progress, and control landscape architects, planners, engineers andover human destiny (Ellul 1980, Leiss 1990). allied designers must grasp the intrinsic valueAmong the most significant of public works of infrastructure and the theories and history ofachievements were the Civilian Conservation public works” (Wenk 2002,179).Core (CCC) and the many projects that thisprogram carried out throughout the US under There is a consistent thread through all of theseFDR’s New Deal agenda. writings of missed opportunity, ill conceived notions of efficiency, and the profoundAs populations and technological complexity social, cultural, and ecological possibilitiesincreased, the criteria of efficiency and in reconstructing infrastructure as a part of Sustainability 91
  • 102. a complex, interconnected, urban network. the discussions above, is the primary issue inWell-conceived urban systems including trying to address the principle of sustainableenergy, transportation, waste treatment, water urban infrastructure. The knowledge ofdelivery, storm water, and flood control, how to design an environmentally friendlyall hold the possibility for becoming multi- infrastructure is largely in place. It is, however,functional components of a landscape that more difficult to achieve buy-in on the part ofembodies social, cultural, environmental, and authorities for alternative design strategies thateconomic sustainability. fall outside generally accepted approaches and techniques. The case study presented here forPublic participation land drainage in a southwest community withThere are also missed opportunities when deep cultural and historical roots, provided aninfrastructure is designed without full opportunity to test a multi-dimensional processconsideration of its impact on the landscape and for sustainable urban infrastructure.on communities. Infrastructure development,whose origins address health and safety needs, Background: Isleta Boulevard improvementis not only key to community and economic projectdevelopment, but transforms the meaning of The South Valley of the Rio Grande inplace. “It is both the seminal role that public Albuquerque, New Mexico, has a richworks play in social formation and their history, dating back to the settlement by theubiquitous influence in our everyday lives, that Tiwa Pueblos around 1200 AD. and Spanishmake an understanding of public infrastructure settlement in 1598. A major north-south routepolicy important” (Perry 1995, 2). Roads, that allowed trade between indigenous peoplesdrainage ponds, and water and sewer systems, was named the Camino Real (Royal Highway)for example, can be built in ways that either by Spanish settlers. Later named Isletaenhance or destroy a community, and public Boulevard, the road was also an early segmentparticipation has the potential to be the of Route 66. Today, the road still serves as andifference in how a public works project important transportation route into the Southtransforms the landscape. The politics of Valley and south to Isleta Pueblo.infrastructure development, therefore, involvequestions that extend beyond engineering or Current land use patterns and the architecturalfiscal considerations. character along and surrounding the Isleta Boulevard corridor reflect rich and distinctPublic participation at a neighborhood scale historical periods and cultural practices,has been the subject of theorists interested creating the corridor’s uniqueness. Landin how social movements shape urban space uses along this section of Isleta Boulevard(Castells 1983; Kling and Posner 1990). include residential, commercial, communityWhile not every neighborhood mobilization services, schools, and vacant property. Isletamay constitute a social movement, the concept Boulevard continues to serve as an economicof community “is a powerful one that draws corridor for the South Valley and surroundingon deep human desires and commitments” communities.(Kling and Posner 1990, 30). These values areoften in contradiction to the logic that pushes Planned road improvements to the roadwaythrough infrastructure projects focused solely include minor realignments, surfaceon engineering and economic factors. Public reconstruction, curb-and-gutter profile, andparticipation raises the ante, so to speak, for a drainage system to manage floodwater onwhat is possible in infrastructure design, Isleta and in surrounding neighborhoods. Theincluding establishing a dialogue that reflects drainage plan includes a fourteen-acre (6.4engineering standards, economic factors, hectare) detention basin at a County-ownedenvironmental systems, and community site, formerly known as Sanchez Farm, locatedvalues. approximately seven hundred feet (245 meters) from Isleta, and a number of surge ponds to beThe Study located along the Isleta route.Urban systems such as circulation, water,waste, energy, and communications have a The South Valley has an active citizenry thatpowerful impact on urban form, function, took great interest in how both the road andecology, and aesthetics. However, the the drainage system were to be designed andseparation of technological, social, and built, and how they would affect the landscapeenvironmental processes, as exemplified in of their community. Residents are interested92 Simon
  • 103. in enhancing economic activities, historical with the community. If the drainage sites werecharacter, and quality of life in the South to be more than unsightly holes, we needed toValley neighborhoods, and were adamant that determine the potential function and meaningthat these goals be met with respect to both the of the sites to neighborhood residents. Theroad improvement and the drainage system. facilitators created a scenario ten years into the future and asked a series of questions to elicitThe Bernalillo County Public Works participants’ comments regarding how theyDepartment and the Albuquerque Metropolitan ideally saw their community evolving. We thenArroyo Flood Control Authority (AMAFCA), asked participants to elaborate on concepts andmanagers and sponsors of the project were statements that they had offered such as “smallaware, that based on preliminary engineering town atmosphere,” a “good quality of life,”drawings, residents were concerned that the and “unique” qualities of the South Valley. Indetention basins would become “big holes” further discussion, we asked participants toin the neighborhood. In order to address these focus on the sites in question and to envisionconcerns and to implement a process in which the ways in which these would function, andthe neighborhood residents participated in the how they would become a part of their visionoutcome of the drainage project, the County to serve the community.contracted with the Resource Center for Raza The Project Team inserted its agenda forPlanning (RCRP), a Center in the School of sustainable water management and merged thisArchitecture and Planning at the University of with the community’s vision, engineering floodNew Mexico. RCRP, along with the Landscape control requirements, and site capabilities, toArchitecture Program in the School, agreed to develop a design concept for each site. A publicfacilitate a community visioning process and meeting was held for residents, authorities,develop design strategies for both Sanchez and political representatives to present theFarm and for one of the surge pond sites along draft design proposals and to discuss issuesIsleta Boulevard. The mandate given by the that would lead to changes and revisions in theCounty was that these designs acknowledge preparation of a final design. The elaborationthe desires of the residents while meeting the of data and results that follows focuses on theengineering needs and constraints set out in large detention basin, or Sanchez Farm site.the drainage plan.Project team methodThe project team began its research by workingsimultaneously on three areas of investigation.One thrust was to understand fully the drainagestrategy and engineering specifications, andthe economic/legal/political context in whichthe project was being carried out. The projectmanagers and their engineering consultantsprovided the researchers detailed informationon the drainage plan design, as well as legalrequirements of water distribution in the aridNew Mexico environment. Meetings were heldwith other actual and potential stakeholders inthe project, such as the residents whose landwas adjacent to affected sites and community-based organizations that could ultimately becaretakers of the large Sanchez site.The second thrust was to study the Sanchezand surge pond sites. In addition to site visitsthe researchers collected information on soils,topography, vegetation, and surrounding land Figure 1. Albuquerque Urban Contextuses. Maps, air photos, and other relevantdocumentation were analyzed. Data The catchment area for the land drainage was toThe third thrust, essential to the success of this include the Isleta Boulevard road surface withproject, was a visioning process carried out its new curb-and-gutter design, as well as the Sustainability 93
  • 104. lowlying neighborhoods adjacent to the road. and shrubs, a line of cottonwoods along an oldThe design calculations for drainage were lateral ditch, and a significant population ofbased on the one- hundred year storm event. pioneer Siberian Elms at the South end. TheWater was to be collected in catch basins in site is entirely bordered by Siberian Elms. Theand around the road and delivered through a water table is quite high at about thirteen feetforty-eight inch (1220 mm) storm sewer to the (3.96 meters). The old Sanchez house on theSanchez site. Surge ponds located strategically east side of the site is in very poor condition,along the road would prevent local flooding having gone through two fires. Some felt,in extreme events. Ideally the design of the nevertheless, that the building has historicsystem would have incorporated overland importance and ought to be saved.flow to encourage maximum infiltration, butthe researchers were bound to work withthe system as designed to the point at whichthe storm water enters the Sanchez site. Theretention capacity requirement of the Sanchezsite was sixty-four acre-feet (77,700 cu.m.).According to state law water can be held onthe site for a maximum of ninety-six hours.The forty-eight-inch outlet would enter thesite at approximately nine feet (2.74 meters)below grade in order to achieve the drainagegradient in this flat valley/floodplain region.At the point of entry there was to be a portstructure that would capture the large amountsof trash that finds its way through the stormsewers, and in times of low flow would act as asediment trap. At the South of the site, the lowend, pumps were to be installed to pump outexcess water through an eighteen-inch forcemain to the Rio Grande. The Albuquerqueregion receives between seven and nine inches(178-229 mm) of rainfall annually, with 45%of the precipitation occurring in July, August,and September, and the remainder distributed Figure 2. The Sanchez Farm Siterelatively evenly throughout the other ninemonths. Community vision……………………. Through the community visioning process theSanchez Farm site research and design team was able to developThe Sanchez Farm property has a long history of three categories of residents’ responses thatagricultural production and animal husbandry, began to articulate their needs, aspirations,and for over two hundred years exemplified the and preferences for the way in which theeconomy, traditions, and culture of the South Sanchez detention site was to be developed.Valley area. The fourteen-acre (5.67 hectares) These categories addressed how the site wouldsite is surrounded by private properties with no function, the general visual and aestheticaccess on the east, west, and south sides, and character, and particular elements that mightis bordered by Arenal Road to the north (see be incorporated in the site design to addressfig.). An acequia (irrigation ditch) runs along programmatic and visual conditions.the east side, and the site has some water rightsfrom the acequia. Water rights permit a certain In the function category, the residents wantedamount of water to be extracted from the the Sanchez site to be an enjoyable public openirrigation ditch each year. The amount depends space with low impact activities (not sportson the size of the site, and whether any of the fields). They felt that a part of the site could beprecious rights had been sold off or traded in used for some form of community agriculture,the past. The site slopes at about two percent and they also wanted to have areas that wouldfrom north to south. The silty-clay-loam flood become good habitats for a diversity of birdplain soils are well drained. The vegetation is and animal species. They felt that these variouscomprised of weedy pioneer species covering uses could provide educational opportunities.recently disturbed areas, some native grasses In terms of character, they wanted to see a94 Simon
  • 105. peaceful, calm site that would be like an oasis in satisfied the engineering specifications and thethe community. The site would have sufficient residents’ views and desires, while workingvegetation to differentiate various spaces and with the site environment and carrying capacity,to provide an attractive visual environment. and implementing sustainable methods ofAlthough they wanted the site to reinforce water management. The capital cost of thethe existing character of the South Valley, project as well as the on-going maintenancethey wanted it to be unique and different from costs were important considerations.their back yards, and to stimulate a sense ofdiscovery. Sustainable storm water management In order to hold the sixty-four acre-feet of waterResidents’ suggestions for specific landscape required for the one hundred year storm event,elements and features that would achieve the site needed to be excavated and recessed.functional and qualitative goals were to The preliminary engineering drawing hadincorporate gathering areas, to make water shown a basin with relatively steep, constantvisible in some areas, to provide opportunities slopes around the perimeter, and this techniquefor outdoor classrooms, to develop some form for recessing resulted in the site being perceivedof interpretive program, to use sufficient trees as a large hole. In order to address the situation,and other vegetation, and to incorporate public the design team modulated the slope around theart. edges, with some areas being gentle to allow for easy and comfortable access, and others being steeper. The varied topography around the edge added visual complexity and interest, as well as provided friendly and inviting entry points for site visitors (fig.). Figure 4. Site PlanFigure 3. Side Slopes and Terraces Basic sustainable storm water managementSite development practices became the generative principles forThe challenge for the project team was to the design of the site structure. These principlesdevelop a strategy for site development that were to maximize distance and area over Sustainability 95
  • 106. which water flows in order to allow as much wall-channel from which it is distributed toinfiltration as possible, to use vegetation to various parts of the garden. The water supportsfilter out contaminants and act as sponges for tree bosques and herb gardens, planted in awater absorption, and to slow water down as formal composition. Visitors will be able to sitmuch as possible thereby increasing infiltration under the shade of trees, listening to the trickleas well as reducing damage and erosion. of water, enveloped in the fragrance of herbs. The art garden is to be maintained by a localThe basin was designed with four terraces that herb society.drop from north to south. The storm water The second terrace down has been designed assewer outflow was located at the north end of a fruit orchard. The orchard will be managedthe site, rather than towards the south end as and maintained by a local agricultural collegehad been shown in preliminary engineering and used by them as a teaching resource, butdrawings. This allowed for a longer distance will still function as public space.of travel once the water was on site, and thereduction of required forty-eight-inch pipe hada significant impact on costs. The water wasdirected through the site in a bioswale thatwas designed to slow down the flow and toabsorb most of the water in an average stormevent. Water that made it through the bioswalewould circulate through the last terrace thatwas planted with thirsty cottonwoods andwillows, mimicking the riparian forest of theRio Grande. A solar pump would deliver anywater threatening to remain on the site formore than ninety-six hours back up to thetop three terraces, where it would support thelandscapes developed there (fig.). The portstructure into which the water would enter atthe north end would serve as a sediment trap Figure 5. Acequia water spilling out of a canoa in thein low to medium flows. In major events the Art Gardensurge ponds would become additional sedimenttraps, but some sediment would find its way The third terrace down has been designed asonto the northern portion of the bioswale area. an open area for picnicking, social gathering, and informal events. It will be planted with aThe site design would require approximately low-water grass mix, with Chihuahua Desertsix acre-feet of water per year for maintenance. tree species surrounding the edges.There would be more than sufficient waterannually for these needs, but the issue was The fourth and final terrace has been designedthe uneven distribution of water throughout as a public forest of cottonwoods, willows andthe year. Although the months of highest other Rio Grande riparian species. The forestwater use coincide with the months of highest terrace is closest to the water table, as the Rioprecipitation amounts, there would be a need Grande Bosque would be, and will become anfor some supplementary water in the driest ecological education area for the community.times. The vegetation planned for the site wasprimarily native or species well adapted to the Conclusionswater availability in the region, but drought The research and design team for this projectcycles and increasingly un-even precipitation developed a solution that is workable,needed to be accounted for. Gravity-fed water sustainable, and attractive, bringingfrom the acequia would be used as a supplement community aspirations and engineeringto address any deficits. requirements together with ecologically based urban water management. The processResponse to the community demonstrates multi-factored sustainability forEach of the four terraces were designed as urban infrastructure that achieves a dynamicdifferent ‘gardens’ that comprise a community balance among a complex set of issues andopen space. The top terrace has been named constituencies. As a university-based researchthe art garden. Water drawn from the acequia team, faculty and students had the opportunitydrops into a basin and flows along an elevated to work together on issues of mutual interest96 Simon
  • 107. and disciplinary importance. The community, of the Sublime.” In Modern American Landscapes,public administrators, and the landscape were edited by M. Gidley & R. Lawson-Peebles.beneficiaries. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1995.The results of the Sanchez Farm study, when Perry, D. Building the Public City: The Politics,presented, were embraced by residents, County Governance, and Finance of Public Infrastructure.administrators, and the flood control authority, Thousand Oaks and London: Sage Publications,who all perceived benefits in the proposal. 1995.All of these groups participated in the processand felt that they had some ownership of Steiner, F. “Connecting Infrastructure to Deepthe outcome. The process was a productive Structure.” Places 10, no. 3 (1996): 60-61.collaboration among residents, communitygroups, planners, landscape architects, Strang, G. “Infrastructure as Landscape.” Placesand public agencies to make flood control 10, no.3 (1996): 8-15.infrastructure cost-effective, an environmentalbenefit, and a neighborhood amenity. Thayer, R.L. “Increasingly Invisible Infrastructure.” Landscape Architecture 85, no. 06 (1995): 136.References Wenk, W.E. “Toward an Inclusive Concept ofBruegmann, R. “Infrastructure Reconstructed.” Infrastructure.” In Ecology and Design, edited byPlaces (Winter1993). B. R. Johnson & K. Hill. Washington: Island Press, 2002.Corner, J. “Ecology and Landscape as Agents ofCreativity.” In Ecological Design and Planning,Edited by G.E. Thompson & F. Steiner. New York:John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1997.Castells, M. City and the Grass Roots: AcrossCultural Theory of Urban Social Movements.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.Dunham-Jones, E. “Public Duty of Infrastructure.”Architecture 83 (1994): 37-41.Ellul, J. The Technological System. New York:Continuum, 1980.Johnson, M. “Ecology and the Urban Aesthetic.”In Ecological Design and Planning, edited by G.E.Thompson & F. Steiner. New York: John Wiley &Sons Inc, 1997.Kling, Joseph M. and Prudence S. Posner.Dilemmas of Activism: Class, Community, andthe Politics of Local Mobilization. Philadelphia:Temple University Press, 1990.Leiss, W. Under Technology’s Thumb. Montreal:McGill-Queens University Press, 1990.Lyndon, D. “Caring About Places.” Places 10, no.3 (1996): 2-3.Morrish, W. & C. Brown. “Putting Place Back intoInfrastructure.” Landscape Architecture 85, no. 6(1995): 51-53.Nye, D. “The Electrified Landscape: A new Version Sustainability 97
  • 108. Exploring Spontaneous demonstrates the effect of spontaneous use on forming creek conceptions and values.Uses in Urban Streams It advocates the need to promote such use through positive design efforts and arguesChia-Ning Yang that it be treated as the central theme in urban stream restoration.Introduction Value, Conception and Use: Marsh Creek inIn the past century, various regions in the Brentwoodworld traced a more or less identical pattern Located at the innermost tip of the San Franciscoof transformation of urban waterways. The Bay, Brentwood, California is literally theprogress of damming, burying, channelization, suburban front of the sprawling Bay Area.and diversion left unmistakable records, while Running through the heart of the city is Marshits compound impacts on the quality of urban Creek and its three tributaries. Although largelyliving are not easy to calculate, particularly in channelized by the 1950s, the waterwaysterms of the dwindling of the once-common remain open due to the relative short historydaily interactions with a nearby stream. In his of the surrounding developments (Figure 1).book The Thunder Tree, Robert Pyle clearly Investigating Marsh Creek and its users thusillustrated how a watercourse can provide provides a guidepost to understanding thea lifeline of rich experiences for city-bound current scene of human-creek relationships inyouth: suburban America and allows us to reflect on the role of spontaneous use in urban streams. Since the public trail along the canal service road was opened in the seventies, tens of thousands have taken their pleasure there. But even before that, in the days of its unofficial access, I was not alone in finding it. Laura’s dad, Charles, rafted significant portions of the canal, and his children tubed, biked, chased frogs and crawdads, swung, dived, and swam all summer long. It was all against water department rules, but ‘without the canal I don’t know what I would have done,’ Laura told me, ‘or what growing up would have been like.’ (Pyle 1993, p. xvi) Figure 1. Marsh Creek at Brentwood, CaliforniaThis paper names such daily interactionswith nearby streams spontaneous use, where Adult Household Surveyspontaneous is defined as “coming or resulting To begin with, a household questionnairefrom a natural impulse or tendency; without survey sampled 1,800 adult residents who liveeffort or premeditation” (Webster’s College within one-fourth mile of the creek channels toDictionary 2001). While this theme is the inquire into their values, conceptions, and usessubject of much nostalgic expression, the of the creek. The following points summarizeresearch focuses on its current status. In 2002, the primary findings from this stage:an extensive field investigation was conductedin California, Japan, and Taiwan to gain a 1. In general, the creek is valued as “nature,”comprehensive understanding of spontaneous both in terms of abstract concept as well asuse and to seek insights to design for it under the actual use of it. But for most people, suchthe current context of urban stream restoration. value is devoid of sense of ownership andAs a partial outcome of this broader effort, this place attachment.paper concentrates on the works done at MarshCreek in Brentwood, one of the Californian 2. As a trend, residents’ visual preferences aresites. From an adult-oriented household enhanced by familiarity and by adoptingquestionnaire survey, in-depth interviews with judgment criteria other than “culturalselected adults, school drawing exercises, and aesthetics,” such as “use potential” orcreek tours with selected children, the study “intimate experience.”98 Yang
  • 109. 3. The recall of creek experiences seems to individual’s creek advocacy. The survey, resort to a different channel of conception however, did not reveal obvious relationships than the judgment of photographic scenes. between spontaneous use and the conception Even though vegetation is singularly effective of the creek. in determining the visual preference, wildlife is the most mentioned element in recalled, Adult Interviews wonderful experiences. From the survey, twenty respondents who demonstrated high levels of appreciation4. Although the current uses of the creek verify and interaction with the creek were recruited it as part of people’s daily lives, most of for one-on-one interviews, so as to delve them are routine exercise on the trail with into aspects such as the conditions of creek little interaction with the creek environment. appreciation, valued creeks in the past, and Three quarters of the uses can be categorized ideal images for a nearby creek. as “moving along the trail” (walking, biking, jogging and rollerblading), while only 16% The interviews discovered a range of modes can be called “dynamic nature interaction” in creek appreciation, including stewards, (watching and catching of wildlife and other educators, observers, and hands-on users. The forms of play) and 10% belong to “static dominant mode, which almost every subject base-point use” (thinking/ relaxing, watching displayed to a degree, is nevertheless what I the water, reading, etc.). call “idyllists”.5. It is the reciprocal engagement with Idyllists are more or less idealists. They succeed the creek environment that gives rise the two powerful threads of the centuries-long to “wildlife experience” and “aesthetic nature ideology: pastoralism that purports a experience,” the two major themes of creek tamed middle ground between wild nature and memories. Themes such as the enjoyment of artificial city (McHarg 1966), and wilderness relationship and body challenge are usually purism that seeks untouched wild land as concurrent, but do not tend to constitute the only perfect physical and moral paragon memorability by themselves. Similarly, (Nash 1982). The two views have now been “moving along the trail” rarely serves as a sufficiently confused that many would mistake memorable experience without “dynamic the cultivated landscape for the “original” nature interaction” or “static base-point use” nature, and an image intended to be “as natural being present. as possible” could be indeed full of human interventions.6. Users with higher creek interaction levels value the creek more across all listed For instance, subjects overwhelmingly aspects, but particularly on place attachment, identified year-round flow with the natural and solitude, and sense of ownership. They are ideal image of Marsh Creek, although, as most much more likely to possess wonderful Mediterranean streams, the creek had always creek experiences and commit themselves been intermittent until the great irrigation more to actions enhancing the creek. They projects took place in the 1920s. One subject also consider mosquitoes and pests less of a moaned about the widening of the channel in problem and pose significantly less restriction the early 1980s making it “not the original creek on kids playing in the creek. Compared to anymore—it’s sort of man-made now,” while the type of use, frequency of use has a much that section was straightened and channelized weaker effect on these aspects. in the 1960s.7. Parents are much more likely to approve Idyllic mode involves solitude as a basic form of their kids playing at the creek if they can of creek interaction, and the creek is frequently see the creek from the houses, the yards, mentioned as a quick escape. As one subject or walking around the neighborhood. The put it, “I throw on my shoes and just walk down approval rate is notably higher at the area the creek and I’m miles away!” Another subject where subdivisions hold a more friendly described his ideal creek straightforwardly: relationship with the creek channels. “To be able to walk through it and not feel like you’re surrounded by where you really are—In short, spontaneous interaction with the so many houses and civilizations.”creek brings about positive creek experiencesand creek values, which in turn raise the Almost all subjects had valued creeks in their Sustainability 99
  • 110. past, and many presented their ideal creek and channel features. They demonstrated richimages as amalgams of them. Although these knowledge on the details of the landscape,images point to a consistent pastoral scene, the including habitat features. In contrast, theactual use habitats display a higher diversity. drawings of non-users either displayed plainOne subject would go crawdad fishing with nothingness or were strewn with stereotypedher kids under a concrete road bridge, which elements as a remedy (Figure 2, 3).she commented “wasn’t that nice, but that’swhere the crawdads were.” Another subject,when asked to recall human-built structures inher wonderful creek experience, asserted thatthere were none, that their experience was to“look at the nature-built structures.” However,at the creek tour it became clear that not onlydid she and her kids walk through a footbridgeto get to the creek, the very spot they werestanding at was a piece of concrete riprap sothey could be close to the edge of the waterwithout getting muddy.Although the idyllist viewpoint remainsdistorted at times, to label it as simply romanticwould be unfair. The therapeutic effects orspiritual gains acquired through experiences Figure 2. Marsh Creek experience from a 4th grade whoof solitude are undeniable. The loss they felt went to her creek spot almost not pure sentiment—they have observed thesubstantial decrease of wildlife and, parallel tothat, the dwindling of experience.The strong idyllist tendency among those withthe greatest appreciation for the creek thuspresents a paradox. On one hand, they arethe reliable advocates for stream restorationefforts; on the other, their conceptions of thecreek tend to be what is not and what cannot be.Even if we reduce how much solitude a littlecreek can afford to a technical design issue,the idyllist image is something that designerseventually have to confront.School Drawing ExercisesBrentwood children’s interaction with the Figure 3. Marsh Creek experience from a 4th grader whocreek was surveyed through drawing exercises only saw the creek in a car.held in 6 classes ranging from the 2nd to the8th grade. These kids were asked to draw a Non-users’ dream creek drawings give usgood time they had at Marsh Creek. Those with hints about the forming of creek conceptionsno experience with the creek, or who finished devoid of actual contact. Young children’sthe first drawing early, were directed to draw dream creeks are full of whimsy collages froma dream creek in their minds. I then talked contexts unrelated to the stream environment.with each child briefly to get information on The desires to see animals, swim, or play atfrequency and content of their creek uses. a tree house mixed with the themes of urban materialism (TVs, soda machines, manicure/The results indicate that spontaneous use pedicure stands, money, etc.), amusementdoes significantly enhance the understanding parks (looping water chutes, play equipment,of the creek environment. Kids who use etc.), and futurism (cloning machine, flyingthe creek both frequently and interactively, saucer, etc.). Pastoral scenes dominate therendered a much greater variety in all the dream creek drawings of the 6th graders, withfour measurements: the number of vegetation grassy fields, neat looking trees, little bridges,“species,” wildlife “species,” water features, and rocks in the water. At the 8th grade100 Yang
  • 111. level, dream creeks remain pastoral, with environment approach the ideal scene inthe additional elements of tents, horses, and one’s mind.campfires from the experiences of camping 5) Building and arranging: From the “big”trips at remote scenic streams. The dream creek projects of constructing tree houses, huts,drawings given by spontaneous users, on the dams, ponds, to small ones such as arrangingother hand, tend to preserve the fun elements rocks and sticks (Figure 5).from their experiences (wildlife, tree houses,fishing spots, bike jumps, etc.) and invent new 6) Collecting: Treasure hunting (rocks, plantways to have fun (“swimming-only zone,” leaves, fruits, nuts, animal bones, etc.) fromadventure caves, etc.). the basically chaotic stream environment.Children’s Stream Tours 7) Adventures: The action of connecting knownThe climax of the Brentwood research was parts to unknown parts of the environmentthe creek tours led by kids selected from the through biking, swimming, jumping,drawing exercises or encountered in the field. climbing, creeping, crossing, etc.The Marsh Creek tours, along with similartours conducted in other sites of California,Japan, and Taiwan, provided a rich spectrum ofspontaneous use and insights for their specifichabitat needs. Due to the constraint of space,this paper will only present a typology ofspontaneous uses concluded from these trips.1) Quiet and secluded use: The transcendental appreciation, temporary escape, and intimate time with significant others.2) Nature observation: The observation of wildlife and plants in a highly intensive but unintrusive way.3) Catching: The wit matching with fish, frogs, tadpoles, shrimps, crawdads, crabs, insects, and many other fascinating creatures (Figure 4). Figure 5. The gravel beach provides rich materials for building and arranging. (Kochi, Japan). 8) Clever craft: The skillful manipulation of materials found in the stream environment, from skipping a rock to whistling with a deergrass leaf or making bamboo leaf boats. 9) Physical water contact: From gentleFigure 4. The charm of catching attracts kids to even dabbling to violent diving, with varietiesunfriendly environment. (Nangoku, Japan). of walking in water, swimming, floating, bathing, etc. (Figure 6).4) Caring: Actions (planting, trash cleanup, feeding, weeding, etc.) taken to make the 10) Moving along on the trail: Walking, Sustainability 101
  • 112. jogging, biking, skating, horse riding on the the waterfront resorts take care of the comfort trail in a consistent way. recreationists, what is the central theme for the majority of the urban streams that can never11) Social gathering: Chatting, eating, drinking, be genuinely wild or completely tamed? The chess playing, etc. at specific spots adopted results of this study give rise to five grounds by a group of users. to promote for spontaneous use as the central theme of urban stream restoration.Juxtaposing the above typology and the modusoperandi of current restoration or greenway Therapeutic Effectprojects, it is hard to miss that the planning Urban nature is known for its therapeutic powerand design of urban streams has been quite (Kaplan and Kaplan 1989). This research hashostile to spontaneous users. Projects seem to verified that such effect is not only substantial,cater exclusively for the most unintrusive and but a central mode of appreciation for an urbaninnocuous forms of use—“moving along the stream.trail” and “social gathering.” Although “natureobservation” is a widely claimed goal, there has Developmental Effectbeen little innovation to encourage it. The field The research demonstrated the importanceof stream planning and design is pervaded by of the diverse stream environment as thetimidness, a whole gamut of concerns on the bountiful source of “loose parts” (Nicholsonimpacts of streams on people as well as people 1971). Through spontaneous interactionon streams. The fear is understandable, because with such environments, children acquirein the past we both received and inflicted competence-through-play, a quality key toexcessive impacts at times. We have throttled healthy development (Moore 1986).and suffocated streams to control flooding forthe sake of safety before we have a chance to Raising environmental awarenesslearn how to live with them. The environment The research confirmed that spontaneous usershas become safer now; the poverty of human pose higher value at urban streams and are moreexperience is nevertheless getting severe. willing to extend help in creek enhancement efforts. As Orr (1992) contended, ecological literacy is driven by the affinity for the living world, without which, literacy of any sort will not help much. The forming of stream conception and knowledge, although tampered by culture and limited in extent, is significantly linked with the experiences of spontaneous use. Before we reach a new stable plateau in culture, knowledge procured through both direct experiences and indirect data needs to be vigorously supplemented. Preserving remote habitats The backcountry recreational boom shares the same mechanism with urban sprawl, both rooted in a yearning for nature not beingFigure 6. An old weir provides diverse environment for fulfilled near the residence (Nash 1982). In thisphysical contact with water. (Kochi, Japan). regard, proposing spontaneous use operates the other way around—it generates placeConclusion: Filling in the Missing Piece attachment and provides a magnet for peopleExcept for the stellar works built by Olmsted to stay in the city while raising their awarenessand Vaux in the late 19th century, urban stream is for habitat preservation.not a traditional realm for landscape architects.Before the call for urban stream restoration, Interaction with processesdesigners only had their roles in the limited Most spontaneous uses are choreographednumber of waterfront development projects. by the creek environments and correspondOn the other hand, recreational planners have to the creek processes. An action as simpleconcentrated their efforts on remote rural as skipping a rock requires a stretch of calmstreams to develop tourism. If “wild and scenic water and a gravel bar, where one finds therivers” serve best for the wilderness purists and rock with the right shape and size, which in102 Yang
  • 113. turn depends on a subtle balance of fluvialprocesses. It is this intricate relationship withthe processes that attunes them to the outlookof an ecologically healthy urban stream system.Planners and designers can regard spontaneoususe as a layer of human ecology. A matrix maybe woven for spontaneous users and streamorganisms to cohabit.ReferencesKaplan, R. & S. Kaplan. 1989. The experienceofature: A psychological perspective. New York:Cambridge University Press.McHarg, Ian L. 1966. Ecological determinism.In Future environments of North America, eds. F.Darling and J. P. Milton, 526-538. Garden City,NY: Natural History Press.Moore, Robin C. 1986. Childhood’s domain.London: Croom Helm.Nash, Roderick. 1982. Wilderness and the Americanmind. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Nicholson, Simon. 1971. The theory of loose parts.Landscape Architecture 62 (1): 30-34.Orr, David. 1992. Ecological literacy: Educationand the transition to a postmodern world. Albany:State University of New York Press.Pyle, Robert Michael. 1993. The Thunder Tree:Lessons from an urban wildland. Boston: HoughtonMifflin. Sustainability 103
  • 114. Biomimicry as a Runoff Act of 1987) Federal and State regulations have been developed to reduce the pollutionManagement Strategy: of waters receiving runoff, including streams,Multi-Modal Landscapes rivers, ponds, lakes, wetlands, and the oceans (Federal Register 1988). Since then, significant regulatory efforts have been made to reduceRobert D. Sykes nonpoint source contamination of surfaceLance M. Neckar waters based on sections 401 and 402 of theAaron A. Mikonowicz Clean Water Act. These regulations are focused on reducing the concentration of contaminants per unit volume of stormwater.IntroductionMulti-modal landscapes that support rail and The Sitesother transit systems necessarily require higher There were two sites used in this study. Thedensity development to place more riders within first was a 120.11 acre site with rolling terrain,walking distance of transit stops. However, located in Woodbury Minnesota, a suburb ofbecause of the larger roof areas and pavement St. Paul. The second site was a 250.40 acreareas per unit of land area, higher densities with a mix of flat land, bluff land, and ravines,tend to produce more runoff per unit of land located in Cottage Grove, a suburb of St. Paul.area than lower densities. This leaves higher The Woodbury Site has six subwatershedsdensity development types such as Traditional defined by exit points from the site, and theNeighborhood Development (TND), Transit- Cottage Grove Site has seven subwatersheds.Oriented Design (TOD), and similar recentinnovations in development pattern open to Conventional or Baseline Developmentcriticism for negative impacts on stormwater Baseline development designs usingrunoff. This study investigated the integration conventional development strategies andof new types of higher density development techniques for general development and forwith stormwater management systems devised stormwater management systems were createdworking from a strategy of biomimicry. It for each site as controls. These schemes werecompared the stormwater performance of developed for the larger project reportedcomplete site designs for TND, TOD, and New in Transportation, Urban Design and theSuburbanist cluster developments, to designs Environment (Neckar 2002). The baselineusing conventional practices on the same designs used a pattern consisting of a primarilyparcels of land. This work was completed as internal circulatory structure, loop and cul-part of a larger project that compared the effects de-sac streets, curbs with gutters, and stormof multi-modal, water-sensitive landscapes to sewers.conventional development at the subdivisionscale near a proposed station on a proposed Biomimicry as a Strategy for Stormwatercommuter rail corridor (Neckar 2002). Management Systems Design Biomimicry is an interesting design strategyBackground introduced in Janine M. Benyus’ book,Urbanization of the landscape takes place in Biomimicry (Benyus 1997). The termthe context of the hydrological cycle. It has biomimicry is from the Greek bios meaningbeen well established that urbanization locally life, and mimesis meaning imitation. Twodisrupts the hydrologic cycle by shifting the of Benyus’ definitions of biomimicry arebalance of rainfall loss vectors from infiltration of particular interest for developing theto surface runoff (Mockus 1972, p. 10.17; stormwater infrastructure schemes for theSchueler 1995, ch. 2). Thus, in the process of new development design types. These twodesigning urbanization, the dramatic increase in definitions are as follows:impervious surface area and the relationship ofimpervious to pervious surfaces are significant 1. Nature as model. Biomimicry is a newconcerns. Related concerns are increased risk science that studies nature’s models andof flooding to downstream areas, and increases then imitates or takes inspiration fromin erosion and sedimentation. these designs and processes to solve human problems…(Benyus 1997, p. xi)Erosion and sedimentation has also become 2. Nature as a measure. Biomimicrya focal issue. Since the Federal Clean Water uses an ecological standard to judgeAct of 1972 (as amended by the Water Quality the ‘rightness’ of our innovations. After104 Sykes
  • 115. 3.8 billion years of evolution, nature over the entire catchment. has learned: What works. What is appropriate. What lasts. (ibid.) The Biomimicking Stormwater Management Scheme for Higher Density SitesDesign of the stormwater system according The general architecture of the infrastructureto the principles of biomimicry first required scheme designed for the higher density sitesthe isolation of essential characteristics of included the features below.the natural drainage system. The next taskwas to use these characteristics to create a Lots and Parcels: As far as possible, thesestormwater handling system that mimics a were designed so that water flows first fromnatural system in function (nature as model) impervious surfaces to absorptive vegetatedand performance (nature as measure), not surfaces. The importance of this technique ismerely in appearance. discussed fully in Claytor (1996), Schueler (1995), Pitt (1987), and Sutherland (1995).To isolate the principal natural system Bioretention and other infiltration techniquescharacteristics, the hydrological system used were used wherever possible (Fergusonby nature was examined from a system’s 1994; Claytor 1996, p. 2-14; ETA/Biohabitatspoint of view (Churchman 1968). By thinking 1993).through the water cycle in terms of landscapeform and function, three basic characteristics Stormwater inlets: In every case, inlets werecould be isolated. designed to filter and remove larger particles of sediment from the flow before it enteredThe first characteristic isolated was the fact the larger system. There are many proprietarythat water starts being intercepted and removed devices and traditional catchbasin designs thatfrom the runoff where rain hits the ground can be used for this. In some cases the inlets(Leopold 1974, pp. 9-10). This removal of could be a small bioretention pond, dependingwater from runoff flow relies most heavily on space (Claytor 1996, ch. 5 and 6).on (1) infiltration and (2) wetting of largecomplexes of leaf surfaces. Stormsewer: In new high-density develop-The second characteristic observed was that ments, storm sewers are invariably required.the methods nature uses to remove water from In these cases, a “leaky sewer” was used.runoff flow are found in constant and redundant The idea of a leaky sewer was gleaned fromrepetition as one follows the runoff flow across Modern Sewer Design (A.I.S.I. 1971, p. 182),the landscape. which describes the use of perforated sewer pipes that infiltrate runoff.The third characteristic can be best understoodin contrast to the way runoff is typically Connective open space system: Connectivehandled in conventional development. Typical open space systems were designed to both holddevelopments use a pond to collect runoff and convey stormwater. The conveyance typefrom the site, usually located at the principal principally used was the biofilter, or enhancedoutlet point from the site. In effect, standard swale. These swales were integrated into thedevelopment uses a centralized scheme for the street network and provided temporary storagecontrol of water flow. Nature, however, uses areas for runoff from the 10- and 100-yeara decentralized strategy, distributing rate and storms. The vast storage capabilities of suchvolume controls over the entire watershed, an integrated system of swales was describednot just concentrated at an outlet (Krebs 1972, by D. Earl Jones (Jones 1967 and 1971).Leopold 1974). Surge areas: This technique was used justIn summary, there were three basic before every outlet from the site. They werecharacteristics that needed to be exhibited typically dry basins, that, with major storms,by a biomimicry design for stormwater temporarily fill with water to delay flowmanagement: (1) Intercept and remove water downstream, mimicking floodplains andfrom runoff as close as possible to where wetlands (Leopold 1974).rain strikes the ground, focusing especiallyon infiltration and interception; (2) Use New Development Design Typestechniques of runoff management redundantly Three design case studies were developed usingalong the runoff path; (3) Use a decentralized the biomimicking runoff strategy describedapplication of runoff management techniques above. These are more fully described in the Sustainability 105
  • 116. project report (Neckar 2002). The case studies of stormwater runoff performance. Modelingare identified below (note that instead of TOD, was done assuming baseline development forthe term Commuter Rail Oriented Development each site and for TND and TOD.(CROD) is used): Water Quality Volume Modeling1) Traditional Neighborhood Development The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency’s(TND) design approach with a gross density (MPCA) draft general permit for stormwaterof 3.54 (net density of 8.75) dwelling units per runoff (MPCA 2003) establishes a 1.25 inchacre. This design is designated “TND/CROD- rainfall as the water quality volume (WQV)LO” (Low Density) development. It was storm (approximately the 4 month, 24 hourdesigned for the Cottage Grove site. rainfall) to be used for the design of stormwater2) TND design approach with a gross density treatment ponds used to clean storm waterof 7.0 (net density of 16.44) dwelling units in order to meet Federally mandated waterper acre. This design is designated “TND/ quality objectives. The WQV storm representsCROD-Med/Hi” (Medium to High Density) a runoff depth that accounts for nearly 95% ofdevelopment. This design was also developed the historical rainfall record in the Minneapolis-for the Cottage Grove site. St. Paul (Twin Cities) area (MPCA 2000, pp 1.10-4 through 1.10-6). Also, this storm better3) Cluster/Conservation approach that evolved represents the category of runoff flows thatinto a “New Suburban” pattern. This design nourish plant and animal communities thanis designated “Cluster” development, and more infrequent, standard storms traditionallyachieved a gross density of 4.35 (net density applied for stormwater facility design. WQVsof 9.06) dwelling units per acre. This design were calculated using Robert Pitt’s Smallwas developed for the Woodbury site. Storm Hydrology Method (Pitt 1997a; Pitt 1994; Claytor 1996, pp. 2-15 through 2-29).Question for InvestigationThe question for investigation was: Can The Small Storm Hydrology Method was alsodense, new development design paradigms used to determine a peak discharge in cubicthat use a biomimicry strategy for stormwater feet per second for the WQV rainfall system design, compare favorably Times of concentration were estimated usingwith baseline development in terms of runoff the same standards used for the 10-year, 24-impact per dwelling unit? hour rainfall models, except that for vegetated channel flow, an average velocity of 1.5 feetMethodology per second was assumed.Since the proposed designs included moreunits per acre than the baseline development These methods were applied to all of thestandards, it was recognized that it would be alternative scenarios for each case study site.important to compare the runoff performanceon a per-housing-unit basis rather than on Rate and Volume Modeling for 10-Yeara straight area basis. This would give an Stormexpression of environmental cost per housing The design storm used for the 10-year, 24-unit in terms of runoff impact. Such a measure hour rainfall calculations was 4.15 inchesrecognizes that measurement on a per acre (Herschfield 1961). Peak discharges andbasis would ignore the fact that for low density, volumes were calculated for the 10-year, 24-conventional development, more land would hour rainfall event using a TR-20 (SCS 1982)have to be consumed to get the same number of based hydrology model called HydroCADhousing units as the denser schemes. It further (Applied Microcomputer Systems 1998) thatrecognizes that more houses per unit area of is well accepted by municipal would mean more acreage somewherethat would not be occupied by the houses. A Several important assumptions were necessarypure area basis of comparison would skew the to drive this model for use at this conceptcomparison in favor of a less efficient land level of site planning. Peak dischargedevelopment scheme that dilutes the impact calculations require time of concentrationon a regional scale. estimates. A planning level estimation of time of concentration was made for all theHydrology Modeling scenarios modeled. Standard velocities andEach case study site was modeled to provide distances were established for the componenthydrologic measures for purposes of comparison flow types found along mapped time of106 Sykes
  • 117. concentration paths. These standards were Peak discharges cannot be compared on a siteapplied consistently among the scenarios to basis, but can be compared on a catchmentensure balanced comparisons. basis within the site, using the same outlet points as the locations for measurements.Sheet flow portions of time of concentration Unfortunately, there is not sufficient space tocalculations were standardized: maximum report and discuss these data here.lengths used were 100 feet over grass and 25feet over impervious surfaces. After sheet flow Results From the Cottage Grove Sitemaximums were reached, shallow concentrated For the Cottage Grove site, the Water Qualityflow conditions were assumed to occur. Shallow Volume Storm runoff volumes are summarizedconcentrated flow lengths were assumed to be in Table 1, and the 10-year, 24-hour runoffa gutter length up to a maximum of 150 feet volumes are summarized in Table 2.(half the spacing between manholes). Results From the Woodbury Site:Storm sewer reaches were assumed to flow at For the Woodbury site, the Water Quality3.0 feet per second (fps) for WQV and 10-year Volume Storm runoff volumes are summarizedevents. For 100-year events, storm sewer flow in Table 3, and the 10-year, 24-hour runoffrates of 4.0 fps were assumed. For planning volumes are summarized in Table 4.purposes, a storm sewer flow rate of 3.0 fps iscommonly assumed by Twin Cities engineers. Again, peak discharges cannot be compared on a site basis but can be compared on aGrassed channel reaches were assumed to catchment basis within the site, using the samebe flowing differently for each design storm. outlet points as the locations for measurements.A velocity of 1.5 fps was used for the WQV There is not room to report and discuss thesestorm because it corresponds to the maximum data here.velocity at which a biofilter or natural swalewould flow. For the 10-year event, a flow rate Conclusionof 2.0 fps was assumed because it is the velocity The applications of the biomimicry strategyat which sediment will be transported. of stormwater system design demonstrated a robust positive effect on runoff volume yieldFor the Baseline, TND/CROD-LO, TND/ per dwelling unit for the 10-year, 24-hourCROD-Med/Hi, and Cluster scenarios, the storm. The CROD-LO, the CROD-Hi/Medvolume flowing into the standard mitigation and the Cluster alternatives showed reductionsponds was measured in order to isolate the of 59%, 83%, and 50%, respectively. Theeffect of the land pattern on runoff yields CROD-LO, the CROD-Hi/Med designs alsofrom the control effects of the ponds. The showed 10-year, 24-hour per acre reductionsrunoff yield from the water surfaces of ponds from baseline amounts of 35.8% and 42.4%,was assumed to be 100% of rainfall and was respectively. The Cluster design showed aincluded in the runoff volume totals. 4.6% increase in runoff per acre.The TND/CROD-LO, TND/CROD-Med/Hi, The most dramatic effect of the biomimicryand Cluster scenarios include mixed uses of approach was demonstrated for the WQVretail and commercial/office space on the first storm, where each alternative showed 100%one or two floors of mixed-use buildings with reduction from baseline amounts, both in termsapartments above. To provide an approximate of per acre and per dwelling unit measures. Thisbasis of comparison, commercial/office and is very significant because nearly 95% of theretail square footage was divided by the Twin Cities’ historical rainfall record stormsstandard apartment square footages to arrive for April through October, 1891 through 1998,at a reasonable number of residential unit were equal to or less than the WQV (Claytorequivalents for the retail and commercial/ 1996, p. 2-22; MPCA 2000, pp 1.10-4 throughoffice space. This means that, if anything, the 1.10-6; Pitt 1997a).per-unit runoff figures for the TND/CROD-LO,TND/CROD-Med/Hi, and Cluster scenarios Overall, the results of the modeling supportare somewhat higher than they would actually an affirmative answer to the question forbe if only dwelling units were developed, investigation. Further, the results suggestbecause of the larger percentage of impervious that denser development with carefully re-surface area due to parking associated with thought stormwater management systemscommercial land use. can substantially out-perform the stormwater Sustainability 107
  • 118. systems standard in conventional development. Ferguson, Bruce K. 1994. Stormwater infiltration.This study provides substantial evidence Boca Raton, Florida: Lewis Publishers.that adverse impact on stormwater attributedto denser development types such as TND Herschfield, E.J. 1961. Rainfall frequency atlas ofand TOD should not be assumed. Given the the United States for durations from 30 minutes tobiomimicry approach to stormwater systems 24 hours and return periods from 1 to 100 years,design used in the applications presented here, Technical Paper 40. Washington, DC: WeatherTraditional Neighborhood Development, as Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce.well as Cluster development can significantlyreduce the impact of development on Jones, D. Earl, Jr. 1967. Urban hydrology – Astormwater runoff per unit of housing. It also redirection. Civil Engineering ASCE August: 58-raises the question with respect to stormwater 62.performance: Why continue to roll out newdevelopments designed using the Baseline ------1971. Where is urban hydrology practicestandards and approaches? today? Journal of the Hydraulics Division ASCE February: 257-264.References Krebs, Charles J. 1972. Ecology: The experimentalAmerican Iron and Steel Institute (A.I.S.I.). 1971. analysis of distribution and abundance. New York:Modern sewer design. Washington, DC: A.I.S.I. Harper and Row.American Public Works Research Foundation.1981. Urban stormwater management. Chicago: Leopold, Luna B. 1974. Water: A primer. SanAmerican Public Works Association. Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company.HydroCAD Stormwater modeling system version Mockus, Victor et. al., SCS Engineering Division.5. Applied Microcomputer Systems, Inc., New 1972. National engineering handbook: HydrologyHampshire. (section 4). Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (August).Benyus, Janine M. 1997. Biomimicry: Innovationinspired by nature. New York: Quill of William Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA).Morrow and Co., Inc. 2003. Draft general permit for construction activity number R100001. St. Paul, Minnesota: MPCA.Churchman, C. West. 1968. The systems approach.New York: Dell Publishing Co. ------2000. Protecting water quality in urban areas: Best management practices for dealing with stormClaytor, Richard A. 1995. Stormwater management water runoff from urban, suburban and developing- pond design example for extended detention areas. St. Paul, Minnesota: MPCA (March).wet pond. Maryland: The Center for WatershedProtection. Neckar, Lance 2002. Transportation, urban design and the environment: Highway 61/Red RockClaytor, Richard A. and Thomas R. Schueler. Corridor, Report #13 in the series: Transportation1996. Design of stormwater filtering systems. and regional growth study. Minneapolis: Center forSilver Spring, Maryland: The Center for Watershed Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota.Protection. Pitt, Robert. 1987. Small storm urban flow andDebo, Thomas N. and Andrew J. Reese 1995. particulate washoff contributions to outfallMunicipal storm water management. Boca Raton, discharges. Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin.Florida: Lewis Publishers. ------ 1994. Model for water quality investigation.Engineering Technologies Associates, Inc. and In Hydraulic Engineering ’94: Proceedings of theBiohabitats, Inc. 1993. Design manual for use of 1994 Conference, Buffalo NY, eds. George Coroneobioretention in stormwater management. Maryland: and Ralph Rumer. New York: American Society ofPrince Georges County Government, Watershed Civil Engineers.Protection Branch. ------ 1997a. Section 3: Integration of water qualityFederal Register. December 7, 1988. Washington and drainage design objectives. In IncorporatingDC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 49416- water quality into stormwater design, text for short49487. course of the same name directed by Patrick Egan,108 Sykes
  • 119. Diff. from Dwelling Runoff Diff. from Runoff Runoff Baseline, % Change Units per Baseline, % Change Volume per Acre Runoff from (equiv.) in Dwelling Runoff (cu. from Design Scheme (cu. ft.) (c.f./ac.) per Acre Baseline Scheme Unit (c.f.) ft./d.u.) Baseline Baseline 528,818 2,103 0 0 477 1,109 0 0 CROD-LO 0 0 -2,103 -100% 748 0 -1,109 -100% CROD-Hi/Med 0 0 -2,103 -100% 1616 0 -1,109 -100%Table 1 Water Quality Volume Storm Runoff Volumes – Cottage Grove Site Diff. from Dwelling Runoff Diff. from Runoff Runoff Baseline, %Change Units per Baseline, % Change Volume per Acre Runoff from (equiv.) in Dwelling Runoff(cu. from Design Scheme (cu. ft.) (c.f./ac.) per Acre Baseline Scheme Unit (c.f.) ft./d.u.) Baseline Baseline 1,592,554 6,335 0 0 477 3,339 0 0 CROD-LO 1,021,918 4,065 -2270 -35.8% 748 1,366 -1,972 -59.1% CROD-HiMed 916,938 3,647 -2,687 -42.4% 1616 567 -2,772 -83.0%Table 2 10 Year 24 Hour Storm Runoff Volumes – Cottage Grove Site Diff. from Dwelling Runoff Diff. from Runoff Runoff Baseline, %Change Units per Baseline, % Change Volume per Acre Runoff from (equiv.) in Dwelling Runoff from Design Scheme (cu. ft.) (c.f./ac.) per Acre Baseline Scheme Unit (c.f.) (cu. Baseline ft./d.u.) Baseline 226,512 1,886 0 0 249 910 0 0 Cluster 0 0 -1,886 -100% 522 0 -910 -100%Table 3 Water Quality Volume Storm Runoff Volumes – Woodbury Site Diff. from Dwelling Runoff Diff. from Runoff Runoff Baseline, % Units per Baseline, % Change Volume per Acre Runoff Change (equiv.) in Dwelling Runoff (cu. from Design Scheme (cu. ft.) (c.f./ac.) per Acre from Scheme Unit (c.f.) ft./d.u.) Baseline Baseline Baseline 622,037 5,179 0 0 249 2,498 0 0 Cluster 650,351 5,415 +236 +4.6% 522 1,246 -1,252 -50.1%Table 4 10 Year 24 Hour Storm Runoff Volumes – Woodbury Site Sustainability 109
  • 120. Madison, Wisconsin: College of Engineering,University of Wisconsin.------ 1997b. Section 5: Detention pond design forwater quality. In Incorporating water quality intostormwater design, text for short course of thesame name directed by Patrick Egan, Madison,Wisconsin: College of Engineering, University ofWisconsin.Pitt, Robert and Michelle A. Girts. 1999.Stormwater quality management. Boca Raton, FL:Lewis Publishers.Sutherland, R. 1995. Methodology for estimatingeffective impervious area. Watershed ProtectionTechniques 2 (1): 47-51.Schueler, Tom. 1995. Site planning for urbanstream protection. Silver Spring, Maryland: TheCenter for Watershed Protection.Computer Programfor Project Formulation – Hydrology: TechnicalRelease Number 20 (TR20). Soil ConservationService Engineering Division, Washington DC.110 Sykes
  • 121. Sprawl. Nicesprawl or legibility of the relationship of these intentionsMulti-modal Hydroburbia to the form and character of the network is founded, for example, on the fact that theLance M. Neckar developers’ sales of lots are necessary to pay for the construction of residential streets. Combined with the subdivision of theseIntroduction private lands and public open space, then, theSuburban subdivision design epitomizes design of streets sets the scale and the socialAmerica. The landscape of suburbia mirrors and environmental template of settlement as itthe internalized and private values of its also determines modal choices.residents, middle Americans that are nowthe country’s majority. Taken in aggregate,suburban land continues to be developed atsuch a large horizontal scale that it is commonlycharacterized as sprawl. Americans haveaffirmed sprawl as ideology and supported itscontinuance with a legal and policy frameworkand investments in cars and trucks to supporttransportation network tailored to theirexclusive use. The effective rise of vehicle milestraveled is colossal, and the adverse impactson the environment largely immeasurable.This study asked a general question: “Canideologies, laws, economies, and technologiesbe inflected in formal ways such that suburbangrowth could be more sustainable?” The Fifure 1. The Genetic Code of Sprawl: Preapprovedstudy focused on the subdivision of land and houses descending through clouds of regulations, reviews,especially the shape and form taken by the and administrative procedures at the local level ontoprovision of public space of streets—and, to an internalized and largely unstratified street networka secondary extent, parks—that conditions the pre-shaped by the fragmented, yet cumulatively linked,development of private suburban space.1 actions of multiple agencies and levels of government.Given the aggregate effects of so many Subdivision design and evaluation constitutedindividual actors in superficially disaggregated the core methodology of the work. Twosequences of subdivision, the study questions focused the design inquiry:hypothesized a genetic code of sprawl, anorganizing matrix of ubiquitous generative • Can growth in vehicle miles traveledforces that overlay a superficially homogeneous (VMT) be curtailed by design of streetsorder on individually differentiated and patterns of land use in relation tomanifestations of suburbia. Subdivision and transit systems and other multi-modaldesign of streets are the strategic media of approaches?change in the genetic code of a sprawl. (fig. 1)In urbanized areas, streets function as conduits • Can adverse impacts on water resourcesof drainage as well as vehicles. Two variables, be curtailed measurably by more tailored,vehicle miles traveled and stormwater runoff, site specific approaches to the design ofthough independent, are both functions to a stormwater infrastructure with an emphasishigh degree of the introduction of the most on infiltration/ exfiltration and integrationextensive system of public impervious surface of overland flow with connective publicassociated with suburbanization, the pavement space?of roads and streets. The street, the primarymedium of this research, reveals, in section Since the subdivision is the scale at whichits dual nature as pavement for transport in land is taken down, it was hypothesized that itmultiple modes and conduit of water. In embodies most, if not, all of the markers in theplan, in its extent, the street network is also genetic code of sprawl. Although all of thesethe armature of civic design, of community markers were interesting to the researchers, theforms that reveal the social and environmental hypotheses of the research were that suburbanintentions of developers and designers. The design at the subdivision scale could be both Sustainability 111
  • 122. multi-modal and hydrologically sensitive, the corridor of the state’s greatest growth in thethereby reversing trends in two of the central 1990s; the line between Minneapolis and St.problems incurred by sprawl. Paul; and the Red Rock Corridor, from St. Paul to Hastings, another area of rapid growth..Commuter Rail and Multi-modalism inSuburban Form This design research, part of the Twin CitiesMulti-modal landscapes imply transit. Even Transportation and Regional Growth Study,the two core Twin Cities, Minneapolis and sponsored by the Minnesota Department ofSt. Paul, have always been a suburban-scaled Transportation and the University of Minnesotacities in metropolitan area largely characterized Center for Transportation Studies, focused onby free-standing houses. This largely uni- the Red Rock. The Red Rock runs through amodal situation is compounded by increasing floodplain terrace of the Mississippi River, andjob dispersal on major limited access ring the communities it will serve are located bothroads and arterial highway spokes. The Twin on that terrace and on the bluff and ravine landsCities is today more jobsprawled than Seattle above. The watershed defined the subregionalor Chicago with the central cities having less corridor-scaled context for the subdivisionthan 20% of the region’s jobs.2 design work, which focused on the area where the Red Rock line will serve Cottage Grove, Minnesota, a community directly straddling the boundary of the Metropolitan Urban Service Area (MUSA) which defines the core of the metropolitan area that is served by sanitary sewerage. Because sewerage had not been yet extended to large tracts of this area, the opportunities to redefine the infrastructure in relation to the hydrological context as well as to the incipient commuter rail service seemed propitiously linked.Figure 2. MnDOT, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Commuter RailFeasibility Study, 1995.Nevertheless, downtown Minneapolis stillhas the state’s largest employment base, andseveral plans have been made to capitalize onthis advantage, including the opening of theHiawatha LRT, the region’s first light rail line Figure 3. Jamaica Avenue, Cottage Grove Station andin 2004. In order to link relatively dispersed Subdivision Development Sites.populations living at low densities, the state’sDepartment of Transportation has since 1995 Since over 90% of commuter rail riders arrivealso proposed to provide commuter rail service at the station in the morning by car, it seemedinto the cities on existing heavy rail routes. important to analyze various components(fig. 2) More than 95% of commuter rail of that modal split. Here is one of severaltrips in other metropolitan systems, such as isochrome analysis confirming the spatialChicago’s METRA and Seattle’s Sounder are and temporal nature of this situation. Anotherjob-related.3 The three Twin Cities routes were subregional contextual scale of the study, then,that were given top priority in order were the was set by the relationship of the subdivisionNorthstar line from St. Cloud to Minneapolis, development site to the commuter line, within112 Neckar
  • 123. twelve minutes of one of the proposed stations, stations such as those on Portland’s MAX, andand inside the city limits of Cottage Grove. the Seattle’s Sounder, and the Alewife Area of Boston’s Red Line.4 New hydrologicalPrecedents infrastructure techniques innovated by JamesIf the subdivision of land as process embodies Patchett at Coffee Creek Center, Chesterton,the formal arrangement of space and Indiana, gave direction to the specific designsystems associated with the code of sprawl, of streets and open spaces.5 A study by S. B.suburban design precedents that placed these Friedman of Chicago’s Metra suggested therelationships in a different order of integration range of acceptable densities of successfulthan is conventionally operational today could transit communities and raised important ideasbe used to generate design principles for the about techniques to increase ridership in low-subdivision designs in the Red Rock. (fig. 3) density communities.6From the 19th century the designs of HighlandPark and Riverside, Illinois, both commuterrail suburbs, were used for their integrationof street design with drainage, grading andopen space design. (fig. 5) The classic grade-separated approach of Forest Hills Gardensgave another large-scaled formal clue to thestation area street approaches. Figure 5. Highland Park, Illinois, Cleveland & French, 1874. This design for formed the street network in an organic relationship with the site The center of town is a grid related to the rail line; the residential areas are subdivided to relate to the topography and form of the ravines, which are treated as shared and public spaces. Objectives of the Research: Integrating Transportation and Water as Regional Resources This was an applied research study; the participating agencies, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT), theFigure 4. Five-Minute Isochrome Study showing high- Metropolitan Council, Washington County,degree of accessibility to the Jamaica Avenue station site and the City of Cottage Grove were all, towith relatively few riders(symbolized by the single dots varying degrees, looking for answers to theat intersections of the grid in the largely undeveloped larger questions posed by the study, many ofarea beyond the metropolitan sewerage system inside the which focused on various costs of growth asMUSA .line. they related to transportation investments. An important challenge of this study wasNew urbanism was represented by both the the integration of design and governmentalTraditional Neighborhood Development objectives within and across scales and(TND) principles of projects such as Seaside jurisdictions of investments in the public realm.and Transit Oriented Development (TOD) What emerged from this research was a clearprinciples from heavy and regional light problem of fragmentation of design: commuterrail communities, especially around newer rail development would be stewarded by the Sustainability 113
  • 124. state, related suburbanization would be reviewed all ridership is not necessarily defined theon a metropolitan scale, but subdivision is by 1/4- to 1/3-mile radius pedestrian marketcontrolled locally. Similarly water quality and commonly used to describe the pedestrianquantity controls are fragmented across units reach of a light rail station. This pattern, whileand levels of government. Suburban drinking it favors the automobile, must also providewater, for example, is largely overseen by access to other modes in order to shave thelocal jurisdictions with 110 separate water peak demand for parking yet not contribute toutilities in the seven-county core metropolitan congestion at bottlenecks. Mode separationarea. Yet these groundwater reserves are and grade separation in the street networkalso regional resources. Surface water between modes are principles of an ideal formregulation is similarly mostly a regional and designed to increase both safety and multi-state concern, and, except for the Department modal porosity of the network.of Natural Resources which oversees wellpermits, is housed in agencies unrelated to Corridor-Scaled Design: the Watershed andgroundwater. Yet, in the Minnesota landscape, the Intermediate Street Networkwith suburbanization creeping up from the Within the corridor/watershed-scaled studyriver valleys and lakes through the middle area surface transportation is largely structuredthird of many watersheds, it was hypothesized by the grid of county highways on the one-that surface and groundwater hydrology are mile section lines that were the imprint ofintimately related in many landscapes. Water the Land Ordinance of 1785. Since roadsunderpins and is a rough proxy for ecological overlay and mediate hydrological function, thestability. The state and regional commuter rail relationship between roads that would becometransit service investment effects on local units arterial streets that bound new suburbanof government would hypothetically, then, be subdivisions was seen as a critical medium ofintegrated not only with the design of new design relative to the two variables in play. Inand adaptation of existing public space such order to suggest protection of water bodies,as streets and parks, and a vision of the long- stream corridors were mapped and bufferedterm value of developed private space that to 50 meters. Adjacent slopes over 15% andyields sustainable tax bases, but also to these forest cover were also used as measures byregional concerns. In other words, the research which both hydrology and larger ecologicalhypothesized that resources might be protected while suggestingregional concerns of water and transit would a pattern of a connective subregional greenjustifiably be considered in the suburban design infrastructure, part of which will includeand development process given state and the highways (and roads) that will, when urbanized,metropolitan investment in commuter rail become either parkway-like arterial or multi-transit and the region-wide shared ecological modal/transit-oriented collector streets. Thisand economic values embodied in its public subregional structure, then, becomes the newwater resources. What form this consideration connective transportation and hydrologicalwould take was seen as a policy question that tissue into which the subdivision is integrated.could be exposed by design. (fig. 6)Overarching Conditions, Assumptions andPrinciples of the Design ApproachCommuter RailCommuter rail is different from light rail inthat it depends primarily on the commute fromhome to job. Central cities in commuter railmetropolitan areas are strong job locations.The types of suburban places served bycommuter rail are diverse, though commuterrail riders tend to have higher incomes thanbus or, on average, even light rail riders. Thescale is different from light rail: stations aremiles apart. Commuters sometimes walk, takefeeder transit, or bike to the train, but 90%arrive by car. Riders are generally assumed to Figure 6. The subregional pattern of green corridorsbe within fifteen minutes of a station as seen overlaid by new hydrological arterial streets andin the isochrome analysis; in other words, parkways with multimodal access to the station.114 Neckar
  • 125. Baseline and Alternative Commuter Rail- characteristics of these alternative designsOriented Design: Research Method were generally recognizable as exemplars ofThe method of the research was to evaluate their classes (e.g., in the general patterns ofalternative design approaches to subdivisions arrangement of streets, blocks lots and openof land within the 15-minute commute of the spaces), they also demonstrated how theyproposed Jamaica station in Cottage Grove. would be specifically adapted across scalesThese approaches compared and contrasted from details of drainage infrastructure toeffects of baseline conventional design with subregional traffic conditions. The principal‘smart growth’ approaches designed to inflect design variables were mix of land uses, modalthe two central variables evaluated: VMT and intentions, block and lot scales, density,stormwater runoff. GIS coverages were used storm drainage infrastructure, and open spaceto frame the subdivision design opportunities configuration.and constraints. Diagrams, such as the ‘geneticcode of sprawl’ sketch illustrated here, wereused to explain to stakeholders and technicaladvisors (who met at two-month intervalsover the entire project) how formal andinfrastructural aspects of the designs were toaddress the complex array of conditions thataffected VMT and storm water runoff.BaselineThe baseline research hypothesized the uni-modal effects of an internalized and relativelyhomogenous residential street network thatcharacterizes subdivision design today asprescribed ‘the genetic code’ operative todayin most of this suburbanizing zone of themetropolitan area. This design was doneto provide a comparative baseline of dataon VMT and stormwater runoff that wouldbe reflective of the development approvedby the Metropolitan Council in the City ofCottage Grove comprehensive plan and of Figure 7. CROD-Lo Design.MnDOT design guidelines for road networkdesign; i.e., the status quo. In designing the Commuter Rail-Oriented Design-Low Densitybaseline treatment of the development site and Commuter Rail-Oriented-Medium/Highnear Jamaica Avenue, the street plan and Density Alternatives: Principles of Cluster/gross density (@ 4.5 d.u./acre) of an adjacent Conservation, TND and TODsubdivision was mirror-projected onto the site. To demonstrate whether VMT and waterTypical characteristics of the design included quality could be positively affected by theinternalized and disconnective patterns of ‘smart growth’ design approaches acrosscirculation in large blocks, unstratified street densities, several alternative designs forhierarchy, minimal sidewalk construction subdivisions were created for the subdivision(usually on one side of collector streets); arterial near the Jamaica Avenue station. The twostreets with backyard frontage and limited proposals evaluated were cluster/conservationintersections (one intermediate intersection (with some mixed land use elements of TND)per mile). This design also had conventional called here Commuter Rail-Oriented Design-piped storm drainage. Low Density (CROD-Lo, 3 to 4 dwelling units/acre) and Commuter Rail-Oriented-Alternatives Medium/High Density (CROD-Med/Hi, 7The project used ‘smart growth’ design dwelling units/acre), a hybrid TND/commuterprinciples of ‘conservation/cluster, neo- rail density/feeder bus approach. For each antraditional development (TND), transit- expanded station area urban design was alsooriented development (TOD) to contrast shown, although not evaluated. (figs.7 and 8)performance against baseline conditions ofordinary development as guided by current The CROD alternative subdivision designspractices and ordinances. While the formal focused on connective street and public open Sustainability 115
  • 126. space patterns, a hierarchy of multi-modal which people living in low density, dispersedstreets, multiple uses with service and job patterns have to drive more. However, evendestinations (some at walkable locations), with the inclusion of mixed uses in walkablemixed densities, and stormwater infiltration locations, the low-density cluster density ofand exfiltration as part of new connective the CROD-Lo alternatives to this pattern doinfrastructure and armature of public space. little to reduce regional VMT. This finding mayAnother explicit design strategy was the have stemmed, in part, from the insensitivitycreation of linked open space with both of the model to street network design, but alsorecreational and hydrological functions as largely stemmed from the inefficiencies ofa method of stabilizing and adding taxable mass transit for principle trips (home to job) invalue to residential areas near these systems.7 such a low density areas. Only when densityFinally, certain specialized intermodal services begins to approach that of existing multi-modalsuch as peak-hour jitney service and feeder neighborhoods (7 d.u./acre) in the Twin Citiesbuses (CROD- Med/Hi only) to the station as represented in the CROD-Med/Hi design,were hypothesized. is there any discernible effect on the spiraling growth of VMT in the metropolitan area.Figure 8. CROD-Med/Hi Design.General and Specific FindingsCertain types of design approaches exploredin the research could be deemed effectivegenerally and broadly applicable to areaswhere new growth is served by commuter rail.Other approaches are more specific to the RedRock and the development site near JamaicaAvenue. For example, the basic connectivity ofstreet networks and mixed land uses might begeneralizable. More specific types of findingsin this study include those, for example,related to the specific forms of networks, soils,topography, vegetation, and other site-specificissues. Figure 9. Topography and Water.1. VMT 2. Water Quality/QuantityVMT is, indeed, a measure of spatial sprawl. Storm water is currently treated as waste andThe simple two-tiered street networks of piped to distant receiving basins, often witharterials and residential streets with no little ecological or recreational connectivity inintermediate connective streets in their current largely independent institutional frameworksinternalized form become an armature, (or the (110 local water utilities in the suburbanbones, and circulatory system) of single-mode, metropolitan area). Stormwater design issingle-use suburban patterns of growth in conventionally done on a one-size-fits-all basis.116 Neckar
  • 127. The soils on this site were extremely deep—50 However, to enrich the argument for ‘Multi-feet to the water table—and extremely porous. modal Hydrosuburbia,’ there is another probleminfiltrating 6 inches per hour. In both the in the VMT models used by traffic engineers inCROD-Lo and CROD-Med/Hi designs, 100% the Twin Cities. Effects on VMT of specificof the water quality volume (2 year storm event) aspects of subdivision design, including multi-could be infiltrated or stored and exfiltrated modal street and public open space patterns,in the leaky pipe system developed for the specific uses (services and job destinations),site. (See Robert Sykes,, “Biomimicry mixed densities or the development ofas a Runoff Management Strategy for Multi- walkable multiple use destinations could notModal Landscapes” for a fuller description of be modeled. Missing this level of information,the evaluation processes on the performed on arguments default easily to issues of congestionthe designs.) Improvements to surface water and bottlenecks.quality in receiving basins and streams wereinferred but not measured. (fig. 9) On the other hand, this lack of refinement in the modeling seems to suggest for worse, notResults and Conclusions better, the validity of a genetic code of sprawlThe reporting of these findings to the that is productive of an all-too recognizable,sponsoring agencies, MnDOT (and the nearly ubiquitous form of landscape that, inMetropolitan Council,) has created for staff fact, can be modeled anywhere in the Twinsome new windows on the evaluation of the Cities metropolitan region, perhaps anywhereplanning and design of road networks and in North America. In other words, our modelssuburbanization. By using design to elucidate seem to affirm our current choices.some relationships between land use andtransportation a more comprehensive andyet, comprehensible, sense of what issues are Notesat stake was induced into the sprawl debate. 1 A huge number of sources were used to informHowever, these processes remain fragmented, the questions raised by this project and some of thein part because of the cycles of political change design approaches used and evaluated. Since Peterthat characterizes elective office in both state Calthorpe, who has been among the most articulate of designers in his comprehension of formal aspectsand regional government. One of the most of the problems we had posed, had been retainedimportant findings was that current baseline by the Metropolitan Council to update its Blueprintdevelopment is being authorized a density 2030 in this period, the research used his olderbelow the threshold of transit service (7 d.u./ book, The Next American Metropolis, and in mid-acre) by the metropolitan agency that also runs project, his most recent work with William Fulton,the transit system. Yet this finding may be lost The Regional City: Planning for the End of Sprawl,on the current administration. Washington: Island Press, 2001 as a frameworks of organization.If, however, politicians were able to focussuburbanization, the comparison of the The research team had also produced a numberCROD-Lo and CROD-Med/Hi designs also of previous projects evaluating transit- and stormwater-sensitive approaches to design, theilluminated some significant values of various most recent being summarized in the report,‘smart growth’ approaches. If by adopting ‘Organic Infrastructure as City Rebuilding,’more site-specific approaches to subdivision, Department of Landscape Architecture, Universitysimilar hydrological results could be attained of Minnesota, 2001. The full citations for thison all such open sites developed in commuter work are contained in the research report, Lancerail corridors at the CROD Med/Hi densities M. Neckar, “Transportation, Urban Design, and thewith similarly mixed land uses, then VMT Environment: Highway 61/Red Rock Corridor,”could be stabilized with minimal damage to Center for Transportation Studies, University oflocal and regional hydrological function. Since Minnesota, Minneapolis, 2003.CROD-Lo (cluster/ conservation) performedhydrologically no better than CROD-Med/ 2 David Glaeser, Mathew Kahn, Chenghuan Chu, JobSprawl: Employment Location inHi, or‘Multi-modal Hydrosuburbia,’ the U.S. Metropolitan Areas, Center on Urban andencouragement of lower density development Metropolitan Policy, Brookings Institution, June,in areas served by line-haul transit service, can be seen as ‘Nicesprawl’ policy, visually glaeserjobsprawl.pdf.and hydrologically sound, but potentially onlyslightly more sustainable in a metropolitan 3 See than the existing baseline approaches. htm for current information on ridership on the Sustainability 117
  • 128. Sounder. METRA Rail Service and ResidentialDevelopment Study: Summary of Findings. S. B.Friedman & Company, Chicago, Illinois, 2000.4 Designs for station areas on the MAX inPortland were well known to the team, whoincluded Professor James Pettinari, Department ofArchitecture, University of Oregon, then principalof the University’s Portland center for urban design. gives an overview of the multi-modal aspects of the Alewife design.5 See for current newsabout the development and some of the designapproaches; is the website ofthe Conservation Design Forum, headed by JamesPatchett, the landscape architect and hydrologist ofCoffee Creek Center.6 METRA Rail Service and Residential DevelopmentStudy: Summary of Findings. S. B. Friedman &Company, Chicago, Illinois, 2000.7 Highland Park, Illinois, and the MinneapolisPark system, designed by H. W. S. Cleveland,demonstrate this effect.118 Neckar
  • 129. TechnologyAesthetic, Recreational and Ecological Value of Rural Landscape at Town Edge: Public Opinion and 3D-Visualization Technology Sigrid Hehl-Lange, Ph.D., Eckart Lange, Ph.D. Strategic Environmetal Assessment: Change Detection and Sustainable Development Stephen L. SperryRemote Havens for Terrorist and Other Illicit Activity: Geospatial Modeling Douglas S. Way, Ph.D. Technology 119
  • 130. Aesthetic, Recreational participation can be brought to the strategic planning of green space. Three-dimensionaland Ecological Value of a visualization plays a key role in the project byRural Landscape at Town allowing people to explore existing and future landscapes.Edge: Public Opinionand 3D-Visualization The Kaferberg Case Study The Kaferberg case study site is located inTechnology the greenbelt north of the city center, between the campus of the Swiss Federal Institute ofSigrid Hehl-Lange, Ph.D., Technology and the Kaferberg forest (fig. 1).Eckart Lange, Ph.D. This site is mainly agriculturally used, but is also very popular for urban recreational purposes such as walking, jogging, cycling,Introduction etc.In many cities around the world, attractiveurban parks, woodlands, green corridors, andother types of green spaces can be found. Urbangreen space is often a legacy of earlier decades.Already, at around 1900, the town plannerCamillo Sitte acknowledged and underlinedthe importance of urban green space. Sitte(1922) made a distinction between sanitaryand decorative green. Besides fulfilling animportant amenity and social function, inecological terms urban green spaces providehabitats for wildlife, and also function as thelungs and water filters of our cities.In addition, green space and urban open spacehave a considerable economical importance.Lange & Schaeffer (2001) showed that the Figure 1. Model of Zurich with the Alps in the Background.economic value of views from hotels in The Kaferberg green space is in the foreground.Zurich, i.e. the prize for renting a room, isdirectly related to the quality of the view on Of special interest to the Käferberg casethe surrounding area. study is the relationship between aesthetics, recreation, and ecology. The research focusesThe presented work is part of the GREENSPACE on the presence of pasturing animals andproject It is funded the influence of vegetation structure on theby EU 5th framework and Bundesamt fur perception of landscape quality in terms ofBildung und Wissenschaft, Bern. The project ecological value, aesthetic value, and recreationconsortium consists of the University College experience. In the realm of the wide discussionDublin, Robert Gordon University Aberdeen, of sustainability issues, recently this topic hasUniversity of Surrey, Universidad Autónoma gained greater importance. Studies include thede Barcelona, Eindhoven University of work of Hands & Brown (2002), Hehl-LangeTechnology, University of Hohenheim, and (2001a), Kaltenborn & Bjerke (2002), andthe Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Sheppard (2001). In addition, the impact ofZurich. wind turbines (see e.g. Ulm & Lange 2002), planned by ETH Zurich in the case study siteGeneral Objectives Kaferberg, is studied.The overall goal of the project is to advancethe planning and design of urban green space Research Approach(Greenspace 2003). In our research we aredeveloping applied methodologies to identify Visualization Methodologythe types and varieties of green spaces and The purpose of the visualization is to provideother public open spaces that best satisfy a basis from which to analyze how peoplepeople’s needs. In several case study cities, the interpret and react to the visual experienceGreenspace project demonstrates how citizen of the landscape and to different green space120 Lange
  • 131. attributes. In this way the visualizations will are automatically set to the terrain surface.provide the foundation for the assessment of The Campus of ETH Honggerberg and thelandscape changes and will enhance a project’s neighboring farmhouses are modeled andability to explore the contribution that green visualized in detail with geospecific, texturedspace can make to quality of life. facades. Other buildings are mostly derivedOf principal research interest is the extent from the digital topographic map 1: 25’000 ofto which it is possible to visualize various Zurich using pattern recognition techniquespotential maintenance practices, management (Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetrystrategies, design alternatives, and scenarios of ETH Zurich). The resulting 2D data setsfor change in general (see e.g. Lange 1994, are handled by the Geographical InformationBishop et al. 2001, Jorgensen 2001, and Muhar System, ARC/INFO, and can be exported2001). In the Zurich case study, static and semi-automatically in Polytrim in the 3Ddynamic real-time representations of urban spaces are used as a basis for publicsurveys and in participatory planning. Texture mapping is used to provide detail, both for the ground surface and for the architecture.Static visualizations show a single green space Due to hardware texture requirements, thescenario as seen by a static observer, at one terrain is divided into squares that correspondpoint in time. Dynamic simulations allow for to the maximum texture size. When usingtwo types of visualization. The first type is to a 0.5m-resolution, aerial orthophoto, theseshow a demonstration of proposals as viewed squares measure roughly a half a moving observer. The second type allowsthe viewer to see changes due to vegetation The orthophotos are ‘draped’ over the TINgrowth and evolution at a particular site over to give the terrain its visual characteristics.time. In general, dynamic visualizations are a The advantage of this procedure is that itmore innovative and immersive approach to creates highly efficient terrain models; thevisualization (see Danahy 2001). disadvantage of this procedure is that terrain in the foreground of an eye-level image,The goal for the models is to provide optimal depending on the position of the viewpoint,resolution and detail while allowing the digital sometimes appears to be pixelated.model to be computationally efficient. Bothfor static and dynamic visualizations, Polytrim For a precise representation of the existingsoftware from the Centre for Landscape vegetation, tree and shrub species are surveyed,Research at the University of Toronto mapped, and photographed in the field. Of these(Danahy & Hoinkes 1995) is used. Polytrim is photographs, a texture library consisting ofvisualization software for the Unix environment local, woody vegetation such as acer, aesculus,that has strong links to GIS and CAD software alnus, etc. is established. Both the basic terrain(see Hoinkes & Lange 1995). Visualizations data and the digital orthophoto are provided byof polygonal models augmented with texture the Swiss Federal Office of Topography.maps possess a medium to high degree ofrealism (see Lange 2001). They should not be Research questionsinterpreted to compete with photo-realism. The Visualization for the Kaferberg case study site is a basis for the exploration of the aestheticThe visual representation of the landscape for value, the recreation experience, and thethe Kaferberg site consists of a digital terrain ecological value of the landscape. Of specialmodel with various ground resolutions, an interest are peoples’ preferences with respectorthophoto, and 3D-elements such as houses, to different types of changes in the landscape,trees, and farm animals. From contour line such as more or less hedges and more or lessand road grade data, the terrain is built into orchards.a TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network). Theroads with their embankments, two bridges In order to pursue a practice related approachand an underpass, as well as some trails, are to green space planning, it was decided toedited by hand in order to get a precise terrain develop different scenarios for landscaperepresentation. change, including as variables, trees, hedges, orchard, forest, and pasturing livestock.The modeling of the 3D-elements is basedon planning data, zoning data, and on-site There are less than a handful of studies knownvisual surveying. Once built, these structures that explore the influence of the presence or Technology 121
  • 132. absence of animals on the visual quality of the Depending on the level of potential oppositionlandscape. It is hypothesized that especially to the wind turbines, the construction islivestock has a strong positive influence on planned for 2003. The project will bethe visual landscape quality. Hull & McCarthy cancelled if the opposition by the public is(1988) looked at the influence of different too strong.kinds of animals, kangaroos, wallabies, deer,and waterfowl in Victoria, Australia. They For the five scenarios altogether, eightphotographed the landscape with the wildlife, representative viewpoints are chosen. Thethen scared the animals away and took the visualizations of views from three of the eightsame pictures again without animals. This viewpoints are shown in figs. 2-7. In addition toapproach, however, does not allow a structured the scenarios, in selected scenes three differentexperimental setup with a combination of kinds of pasturing livestock, i.e. cows, sheepanimals and different landscape changes at the and horses, are added.same time, which is possible in our approach.Modelling the visual appearance of staticanimals is somewhat comparable to otherlandscape elements. To represent movinganimals or to represent the behaviors of animalsin the landscape is much more difficult. Hehl-Lange (2001b) used amphibians, a bat species,and the green woodpecker to demonstratespatial-functional relationships in a 3Drepresentation of the landscape. Among fewother examples, Bishop & Karadaglis (1997)studied the effect of forest management on thepresence of owls.ScenariosFor the Kaferberg site, Grun Stadt Zurich, the Figure 2. Overview: Status Quo.horticulture department of the City of Zurich isplanning, within the next few years, to developa so-called ‘Landscape development concept,’a masterplan which functions as a guideline toimprove the landscape in terms of ecologicaland recreational purposes. The principle oflandscape development concepts is to pursue aparticipatory planning approach, incorporatingthe views of the public.In order to develop scenarios of landscapechange, several experts were asked by us toarticulate their opinions in a 2D plan format: • Status quo, i. e. the existing virtual model of the Kaferberg site Figure 3. Along Emil-Kloti-Strasse: Status quo. • Agriculture, developed by the farmer of the Scenarios for the Kaferberg Case Study Site Kaferberg site Survey In order to test responses to the different • Recreation, developed by a recreation scenarios, a survey was conducted both in print researcher of our institution form and on the internet (see also Wherrett 2000, Davies & Laing 2001). For interested • Nature conservation, developed by a local citizens, stakeholders, and special interest landscape ecologist of our project partners groups, a complete print version of the test from the University of Hohenheim set with all eight viewpoints was provided in a face-to-face situation, or was provided as a • Wind turbines, as proposed by ETHZ. mail survey (see e.g. Stemerding et al. 1999).122 Lange
  • 133. Figure 4. Waidbergweg: Status Quo. Figure 7. Along Emil-Kloti-Strasse: Scenario Recreation. Preliminary survey results All suggested changes in the scenarios are rated equal or far higher than the status quo. This shows that there is great potential for improving the existing landscape. Preliminary results indicate a very strong preference for the nature conservation scenario, followed by the agriculture and recreation scenarios. The existing situation and the wind turbines scenario can be considered of equal value in terms of landscape preference, recreation preference, and ecological value.Figure 5. Overview: Scenario Nature Protection. Within each scenario, the scores for landscape preference, recreation preference, and nature conservation are relatively close. Compared to scenes without livestock, there is a considerable effect when livestock is present in the scene--especially horses influence the ratings very positively. Conclusions Parks, play areas, and green spaces enrich people’s lives. They promote lifelong learning and healthy living, combat disadvantage, encourage community enterprise and social inclusion, and help regenerate urban communities. DTLR (2001) proposes, as the most prominent criterium for good practice, to understand the values, needs, and aspirationsFigure 6. Waidbergweg: Status Quo with sheep. of local people, and to develop a clear and shared vision for the space.The same set of images was then placed on theinternet. In order to reduce the time needed to The purpose of visualization in the Greenspacedo the test, a random selection of 20 images project in the Zurich case study is to analyzeof the overall test set was loaded each time a how people interpret and react to the visualuser accessed the website. Interviews on the experience of the landscape, specifically toweb are perhaps the most efficient way to the different urban green space context. Thetest people’s preferences. Altogether, several digital visualization of the landscape can assisthundred responses were gathered this way. in communicating planning and design issues Technology 123
  • 134. that are of physical nature. The visualizations landscape. Landscape and Urban Planning 15: 265-aim to articulate the dynamics of landscape 278.over time, in the fourth dimension, depictingpresent and hypothetical future scenarios. Jorgensen, A. 2001. LI Awards01. Space and edgeSuch scenarios are useful in assessing people’s interaction and its impact on perception of safetyvisual preferences for different conditions of and preference in urban parks and green spaces.landscape qualities. Landscape Design. The Journal of the Landscape Institute 305: 28-31, 45.References Kaltenborn, B.P. & T. Bjerke. 2002. AssociationsBishop, I.D. & C. Karadaglis. 1997. Linking between environmental value orientations andmodelling and visualisation for natural resources landscape preferences. Landscape and Urbanmanagement. Environment and Planning B: Planning 59: 1-11.Planning and Design 24: 345-358. Lange, E. 1994. Integration of computerized visualBishop, I.D., Ye W.-S. & C. Karadaglis. 2001. simulation and visual assessment in environmentalExperiential approaches to perception response in planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 30: 99-virtual worlds. Landscape and Urban Planning 5: 112.115-123. ------. The limits of realism: Perception of virtualDanahy, J.W. 2001. Technology for dynamic landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 54:viewing and peripheral vision in landscape 163-182.visualization. Landscape and Urban Planning 54:125-137. Lange, E. & P.V. Schaeffer. 2001. A comment on the market value of a room with a view. LandscapeDanahy, J.W. & R. Hoinkes. 1995. Polytrim: and Urban Planning 55: 113-120.Collaborative setting for environmental design. InM. Tan & R. Teh (Hrsg.): The global design studio. Muhar, A. 2001. Three-Dimensional modeling andProc. CAAD Futures ‘95, 24-26 Sept. 1995. CASA, visualization of vegetation for landscape simulation.Nat. Univ. of Singapore, 647-658. Landscape and Urban Planning 54: 5-17.Davies, A. & R.A. Laing. 2001. Streetscapes: Their Sheppard, S.R.J. 2001. Beyond visual resourcecontribution to wealth creation and quality of life. management: Emerging theories of an aesthetic and visible stewardship. In Forests and landscapes: Linking ecology, sustainability andDepartment for Transport, Local Government and aesthetics, eds. S. R. J. Sheppard & H. W. Harshaw,the Regions (DTLR). 2001. Green spaces, better 149-172. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.places. Interim report of the Urban Green SpacesTaskforce. London. Sitte, C. 1922. Der Städtebau nach seinen künstlerischen Grundsätzen. Ein Beitrag zurGreenspace. 2003. Lösung modernster Fragen der Architektur und monumentalen Plastik unter besonderer BeziehungHands, D.E. & R.D. Brown 2002. Enhancing auf Wien. 5th ed. With appendix “Grosstadtgrün”.visual preference of ecological rehabilitation sites. Graeser, Wien.Landscape and Urban Planning 58: 57-70. Stemerding, M.P., H. Oppewal & H.J.P.Hehl-Lange, S. 2001a. Structural elements of the Timmermans. 1999. A Constraints-Induced modelvisual landscape and their ecological functions. of park choice. Leisure Sciences 21(2): 145-159.Landscape and Urban Planning 54: 105-114. Ulm, K. & E. Lange 2002. 3D-VisualisierungHehl-Lange S. 2001b. GIS- zur Beurteilung der Beeinträchtigung desgestützteHabitatmodellierung und 3D- Landschaftsbildes durch Windkraftanlagen. VPKVisualisierung Räumlich-funktionaler Beziehungen Vermessung, Photogrammetrie, Kulturtechnik 12:in der Landschaft. ORL-Bericht 108: 164p. 716-719.Hoinkes, R. & E. Lange. 1995. 3D for free. Toolkit Wherrett J.R. 2000. Creating landscape preferenceexpands visual dimensions in GIS. GIS World 8 (7): models using internet survey techniques. Landscape54-56. Research 25: 79-96.Hull, R.B. & M.M. McCarthy. 1988. Change in the124 Lange
  • 135. Strategic Environmetal costs result in larger homes on larger parcels. European and Canadian urban policies favorAssessment: Change De- compact development and more sustainabletection and Sustainable development.Development According to Robert Burchell, sprawl can be characterized by unlimited outward expansionStephen L. Sperry of development. The growth is primarily low- density residential and commercial settlements. The result is using more land for fewer peopleIntroduction (Burchell, 1998). Widespread strip commercialUrban sprawl – a landscape of similar low- development is the new development form.density suburbs, strip malls, and additional There are no downtowns or village centers.highways spreading across the landscape Sprawl leap frogs over existing development.– is a contentious topic. The symptoms of and results in an abundance of roads withfrustration are endless: long drives to work; the dominance of private automobiles forfrequent traffic jams; aggravated air and transportation. Sprawl research has focused onwater pollution; lost agriculture and degraded the pattern of land use in an urban area. Studiesbiodiversity. While these effects are visible, suggest there are different types of sprawlsprawl may place fiscal burdens on towns to exhibiting low levels of some combination ofextend services and infrastructure – sewers, eight distinct dimensions: density; centrality;schools, police and fire service – to outlying continuity, nuclearity; concentration; mixed-areas, even as the older core areas are drained uses; clustering and proximity (Galaster,of economic vitality. Arguments can be made 2001)on both sides of the issue as to whether thesedevelopment patterns are what Americans Reid Ewing and others in Measuring Sprawldesire. Concerns about sprawl reflect a and its Impact identified sprawl as thegeneral frustration that suburban life does not process in which the spread of developmentalways live up to the expectations created and outpaces population growth. They developedmemorialized in TV shows about the 1950s a sprawl index based on four factors thatand 60s. Today generally, both parents find can be measured and analyzed: residentialthemselves working. Their jobs compete with density; neighborhood mix of homes, jobs,taking kids to athletic practice; help them with and services; strength of activity centers andtheir homework or being together for family downtowns; and accessibility of the streetdinnertime. The reaction to these frustrations networks. (Ewing, 2002)is understandably emotional. Suburbanitescomplain about constant gridlock, long In researching sprawl, quantification of thecommutes and overcrowded schools. At the impacts or changes has been limited. Thesame time, families cherish the open spaces, focus is measuring/identifying the pattern orsafer streets, better schools, and convenient indicators of sprawl. The only real impact onshopping that they may not get living in the the environment has been traffic congestioncity. People want solutions to congestion (the catalyst for sustainable development).without taking away the conveniences and It requires monitoring and evaluatingfreedoms, that suburban life offers them. of policies, plans and programs. It also requires true environmental measurementIssues of Sprawl and accountability. Linking environmentalHistorically most urban growth has been assessment with sustainable development oroutward. In the modern era, the trend is sprawl can address the measurement issues.accelerating because of rapidly fallingcommunications and transportation costs. Environmental Assessment in the UnitedFavorable public policy has encouraged Statesgrowth with funded highway networks, special Environmental assessment developed in thetax treatment of residential mortgage interest, 1960s and became US law in 1970 with thezoning codes, and low gasoline taxes. (Gordon, National Environmental PolicyAct (NEPA). The2001). In the US, the popular preference is often act was designed to evaluate the environmentalfor suburban living, reliance on the automobile consequences of proposed federal actions andfor personal mobility, and being closer to the to minimize resulting environmental damage.natural environment. Cheaper development Over the years biodiversity has become apart Technology 125
  • 136. of the Environmental Assessments (EA). Cabinet status. As part of the bill, it would createIt has been used as threshold to determine the Bureau of Environmental Statistics withneed for an Environmental Impact Statement the responsibility for gathering environmental(EIS). Additionally, US Laws include the data.Endangered Species Act, Clean Air and WaterActs, Wetland, Critical Areas, and Floodplain Presently at least five government departmentslaws. Many states have seized upon the or service groups monitor and collect data.opportunities presented in these laws as Focusing the responsibility on one agencybiodiversity conservation tools (Environmental should offer a consistency to analysis andLaw Institute 2003). monitoring and lower the exaggerations on both sides of the environmental degradationThe American Planning Association (APA) debate.completed the Growing SmartSM LegislativeGuidebook - seven-year project to draft Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)the next generation of model planning and Strategic Environmental Assessmentzoning legislation. The project involved a (SEA) emerged internationally in the earlywide variety of partners and advisors and has 1990s. It has been a response to sustainableproduced multiple research and education development and the limitation of an EA.products related to the revision of state Most SEAs are carried out in Europe, Canadaenabling legislation for planning and land and Australia. The stimulus for SEA occurreduse. The Guidebook, includes state and local after the United Nations Conference onbarrier removal plans, state zoning reform, Environment and Development Conferenceconflict resolution or mediation, streamlining in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, and in response tostate regulatory responsibility, time limits on Agenda 21. Additional conferences in Londonprocessing and approvals, and state impact fee in 1999 and Johannesburg in 2002 reinforcedstandards (APA 2002) the SEA concept for managing sustainable development.Reform envisioned and enabled by GrowingSmart will provide improved predictability Sustainable development is a term for manyin the planning and development process. conditions. There is much debate over theIt starts at the state level with a statewide term sustainable development based onbiodiversity conservation plan and continues ideology, experience and effects. For thiswith the regional plan. If needed, urban growth paper the definition provided by the Natureboundaries are determined at that level. and Ecotourism Accreditation Program willProtection of biodiversity identified at the state be used. It states “Sustainable developmentlevel is a criterion. Finally, at the local level, is development which meets the needs of thethe comprehensive plan requires a monitoring present without compromising the ability ofevery five years of buildable lands and the future generations to meet their own needs.”carrying capacity within the urban growth (Australia: NEAP, 2000)boundary. In 1996, the European Commission (EC)This kind of predictability aids the development adopted a Proposal for a Directive onand construction industry. It also should create Environmental Assessment. In Decembera better climate for all stakeholders. Similarly, 1999, the Environment Ministers reached athe kind of state and local planning processes political agreement on a common text for theproposed by the optional statutory models future directive. The common position waspromotes efficiency in the investment of public formally adopted on March 3,2000 as the SEA-funds in the location of government facilities Directive. The purpose of the SEA-Directiveand in transportation and utility infrastructure ensures that environmental consequencesand strong public participation. In other of certain plans and programs are identifiedwords, this is America’s answer to sustainable and assessed during their preparation anddevelopment planning. before their adoption. SEA will contribute to more transparent planning by involvingAn exciting new development for monitoring the public and by integrating environmentalan assessment recently occurred. On May 15, considerations. This may help to achieve the2003, Congressman Ose, from California, goal of sustainable development. Furtherintroduced House Bill H. R. 2138. It will development of guidelines is incorporatingraise the Environmental Protection Agency to biodiversity-related issues into environmental-126 Sperry
  • 137. impact-assessment legislation or processes and obvious, although biodiversity is an importantin strategic impact assessment (EC 2003). indicator. This study addressed monitoring and the quantification issues of the SEA process,Finally, the United Nation Economic using an increasingly common application ofCommission for Europe (UNECE) recently remotely sensed data for change detection.adopted and opened for signature the Protocol Change detection is the process of identifyingon Strategic Environmental Assessment on differences in landscape at different periods.May 21, 2003 in Kiev, Ukraine (2003). The Change detection is an important process inProtocol defined SEA as monitoring and managing natural resources and urban development because it provides The evaluation of the likely environmental, quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution including health effects, which comprises of the population of interest. Change detection the determination of the scope of an is useful in such diverse applications as land environmental report and its preparation, use change, deforestation assessment, changes the carrying-out of public participation in vegetation phenology, lost agricultural and consultations, and the taking into lands, as well as biodiversity degradation account of the environmental report and (Singh, 1989). the results of the public participation and consultations in a plan or programme The study focus was the Greenville-Spartanburg (UNECE, 2003). -Anderson Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) located in Upstate South Carolina (Greenville,The protocol, once in force,will require countries Spartanburg, Pickens, and Anderson counties).to evaluate the environmental consequences Oconee County was added to the study area.of their official draft plans and programs. An Greenville-Spartanburg MSA is the fifth mostimportant difference from the original concept sprawling metropolitan region in the USof SEA evaluating process was the elimination (Ewing, 2002). The effort incorporated changeof policy. SEA is undertaken much earlier in detection into a Strategic Environmentalthe decision-making process than EIA, and is Assessment process. The results are part ofseen as a key tool for sustainable development. longer-term research on sprawl and smart(UNECE 2003) growth in exurbia.The SEA Process The work looked at portions of the Greenville-The basic steps of SEA are similar to the steps in Spartanburg MSA for indications of urbanEIA procedures. SEA allows the identification sprawl, and the Lake Keowee area in Oconeeand prevention of possible environmental County for exurban development. Lake Keoweeimpact right from the start in decision-making is becoming a retirement haven of expensivein order to develop a more sustainable policy. low density housing, lakeside housing withRather than minimizing the environmental septic systems. Oconee County has the highestimpact of a project, it enables environmental consumption of land in the region. The studyobjectives to be considered on a par with socio- addressed land use and land cover changeseconomic and health issues. The scopes differ over a 10-year period with the effects of forestwith SEA covering a wider range of activities and agricultural conversion on biodiversitythan with the EIA. The SEA process may be and resultant patterns as the primary focus.applied to an entire sector or to a geographical The study emphasizes three aspects of changearea to address national policy on air quality detection to monitoring natural resources andor a regional development scheme. While SEA urban growth: detecting the change; identifyingdoes not replace project-level EIA, it can help to the nature of the change in biodiversity; andstreamline the incorporation of environmental quantifying the areal extent and mean index ofconcerns (including biodiversity) into the the change by watershed.decision-making process and thereby makingproject-level EIA a more effective process. EC The basic premise in using remote sensing data2003) for change detection is that changes in land cover result in changes in radiance values thatStudy Methodology can be remotely sensed. Techniques to performA review of the literature suggests that SEA change detection with satellite imagery haveterms and intents are well defined. The processes become numerous because of increasingfor determining a project are clear. How the versatility in manipulating digital data andenvironment is measured and monitored are not increasing computing power. Technology 127
  • 138. image dates. One method, image differencing,Watershed as the Primary Environmental is simply the subtraction of the pixel digitalUnit values of an image recorded at one date fromFrom an environmental perspective, watersheds the corresponding pixel values of the secondare the natural mapping unit for regional date. The histogram of the resulting imagemonitoring. As John Wesley Powell wrote: depicts a range of pixel values from negative to positive numbers, where those clustered [A watershed is] that area of land, a around zero represent no change and those at bounded hydrologic system, within which either tail represent reflectance changes from all living things are inextricably linked by one image date to the next (Jensen, 1996). their common water course and where, as humans settled, simple logic demanded This method has been documented widely that they become part of a community. in change detection research (Singh, 1986; (Seaber 1987) Stowe and Sperry, 1990, Green et al., 1994; and Coppin and Bauer, 1996). The methodWatersheds come in all shapes and sizes. They is accurate, simple in computation, and easycross county, state, and national boundaries. No to interpret. Image differencing, althoughmatter where you are, you’re in a watershed! mathematically simple, does not allow changeThe United States national dataset is divided to be separated into multiple classes. For thisinto successively smaller hydrologic units: study, multi-spectral images classified intoregions, sub-regions, accounting units, and land cover classes were the preferred methodcataloging units. The hydrologic units are of change detection. This image type hasarranged within each other, from the smallest robust capability to identify vegetation and(cataloging units) to the largest (regions). development classes.The study used the cartographic unit. It is ageographic area representing part or all of a Classification Schemesurface drainage basin (Seaber 1987). The The study used Landsat TM and ETM+ scenesunits average 4000 Ha nationally. In the five- that covered the five county study area andcounty study area there are 150 watersheds dual dates for the scene were acquired for theaveraging 6000 Ha. Thirty basins are located change detection discrimination. The periodin more than one county. selected was late April in 1990 and 2000, it was preferred for early leaf-on conditions,Landcover Classifications and Change but with no dense canopy to obscure urbanDetection development. In addition, the scenes wereWith rapid changes in land use/land cover cloud free. The 1990 scene was purchasedoccurring because of sprawl development, at retail cost, and the Multi-Resolutionremote sensing technology is an essential Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortiumtool in monitoring urban development and contributed the 2000 imagery. The 1990environmental conditions. From a strategic Landsat 5 TM and 2000 Landsat ETM+ dataperspective, remote sensing (using multi- were geometrically corrected by the EROS Dataspectral imagery, such as Landsat Thematic Center (Sioux Falls, SD) to less than 1/2 pixelMapper) and GIS technology offer timely root mean square error, registered to Universalmonitoring methods for extensive land areas. Transverse Mercator coordinates, zone 17, North American Datum 1983, and resampledVarious techniques are available to detect land to 30-meter pixels by cubic convolution. Allcover changes from multi-temporal remote six reflective bands from both dates were usedsensing data sets (Jensen, 1996; Coppin and for the classification. Land cover mappingBauer, 1996). Initiatives to monitor land has been conducted for the five-county studycover and land use change increasingly rely areas using satellite imagery augmentedon information derived from remotely sensed by other geospatial ancillary data sets. Thedata. Such information provides the data link classification used unsupervised clusteringto other techniques designed to understand program ISODATA into 250 classes.the human processes behind environmentalchanges. The resulting spectral clusters were grouped into 12 classes using ancillary data sourcesThe analysis goal is to characterize those areas (e.g., census, slope / aspect / elevation, ortho-of important change (e.g. forest clearing or land photography etc.) as required. The 12 thematiccover / land use change) between two or more classes resemble the well-established Anderson128 Sperry
  • 139. land use/cover classification system (Anderson image derivatives of imperviousness surfaceset al. 1976). The thematic classes are: open- and tree canopy.water; developed open-space; developedlow-intensity; developed medium-intensity; Urban Classificationsdeveloped high-intensity; barren; deciduous Steps were taken in processing the data occurredforest; evergreen forest (coniferous); mixed to stratify urban or high intensity classes from–forest; pasture/hay; cultivated crops; and rural stratification or cultivated crops.. Thewoody wetlands. grouping of the unsupervised classification used the ERDAS Imagine Grouping Tool.The classification followed the new 2001 Table 1 shows the conflict among the 12National Land Cover Data (NLCD) scheme. It classes. Urban areas, due to confusion withis a modification of the previous 1992 NLCD bare soil, can be classified more accurately ifclasses. The new scheme uses impervious done separately from agricultural or rural areassurfaces for development classes as opposed to (Robinson & Nagel, 1990). For this reason, roadthe land uses such as commercial. Impervious data were overlaid on the imagery to aid visualsurface is more consistent with the capability of identification of urban areas. High intensitysatellite imagery. This new scheme will be used development was separated from cultivatedfor the National Land Cover Characterization by careful manual delineation around urban2001 project is a cooperative effort involving areas greater than 100 contiguous pixels.several US Federal agencies – USGS, EPA, Orthophotography were visually checked forUSFS, and NOAA. It will compile land this delineation.cover data (NLCD 2001) across all 50 statesand Puerto Rico and update the 1992 NLCD In comparing the grouping of the classes thereclassification. The key component of this land- were some conflicts. Major factors that havecover mapping effort is a database approach contributed to disagreements between mappedthat provides flexibility in developing and land cover include: 1990 Landsat TM dataapplying suites of independent data layers. quality and mapping error; early-spring time period – clear-cut, bare earth vs. paved urbanThese independent standardized data layers or areas(hay/pasture, cultivated crops, and highthemes, will be useful not only within the land- intensity development); and spatial uncertainty,cover classification but as data components for such as geo-registration error.other applications. This database will consistof the following themes: Normalized Tasseled Measurement Process for BiodiversityCap (TC) transformations of Landsat 7 imagery The challenge of the study is to monitorfor three time periods per scene (early, peak an environmental program’s trends andand late); Classified land-cover data derived consequences. Such process requires afrom the Tassel Capped imagery; Independent common baseline and efficient and effectiveancillary data layers, including 30m DEM analysis. The process should integratederivatives of slope, aspect and elevation and environmental concerns in land use policySTATSCO soil moisture estimates; NLCD 1992 issues. It can stimulate participation and actionLand Cover/Land Use data; and Independent of stakeholders from business to citizens in the Class name Primary conflict Secondary conflict Open water Woody wetlands Coniferous forest Developed open space Hay/pasture Mixed forest Low int. residential Mixed Forest Hay/pasture Med int. residential High int. commercial Low int. residential High int. commercial Cultivated cropland Med int. residential Deciduous forest Mixed forest Coniferous forest Coniferous forest Mixed forest Woody wetlands Mixed forest Coniferous forest Deciduous forest Hay/pasture Cultivated cropland Low int. residential Cultivated cropland High int. commercial Hay/pasture Woody wetlands Coniferous forest Open waterTable 1 The most frequent conflict between mapped land cover classes. Technology 129
  • 140. development process. If all parties are involved,better and more accessible information on theenvironment can streamline the developmentprocess and benefit all stakeholders. A qualitySEA process informs planners, decision makersand affected public on the sustainability ofstrategic decisions, facilitates the search for thebest alternative and ensures a public decisionmaking process. The process can enhancethe credibility of decisions. SEA process isintegrated, focused and accountable.To demonstrate this process, the studyassessed the biodiversity quality of the fiveccounties and monitered the trend over a 10- Figure 1. Identifying the Natural Landscape as Habitatyear period. For the purposes of this study, Patches.biodiversity information is defined as data onthe location, status, and history of vegetation The number of patches in a landscape canand ecosystems key is monitoring trends serves as an index of spatial heterogeneityor indicators. In monitoring biodiversity, of the entire landscape pattern (see figure 1).ecosystem degradation is more difficult Although the number of patches in a class orto measure than habitat loss. The subtle landscape may be fundamentally important toeffects of changing vegetation diversity and various ecological processes, often it does notfragmentation of habitats into smaller patches have any interpretive value by itself because itcan have significant impacts on biodiversity. conveys no information about area, distribution,It is generally understood among ecologists or the quality of patches. If total landscape areathat smaller patches of habitat provide lower and class area are held constant, then numberquality habitat than larger patches. (Calhoun of patches conveys the same information asand Klemens, 2002). mean patch size and could be a useful index to interpret. Number of patches is probablyThe study used both ERDAS Imagine for most valuable as the basis for computing other,processing satellite imagery in land cover more interpretable metrics. The size, diversityclasses and ESRI’s ArcGIS for generating and shape of patches in the entire landscapestatistics representing the number or density can serve as a good biodiversity index becauseof landscape patches, the size and variability a landscape with greater variety and constantmetrics of patches, the diversity metrics of the shape would have more spatial stability andlandscape and the variation in patch shape at in theory support more species. Another classthe class and watershed levels. These metrics and landscape index based on the number ofare best considered as representing landscape patches is mean patch size (see figure 2).configuration, even though they are not spatiallyexplicit measures. Generating mean values atthe watershed level are good in determining thetrend of the condition over time. The number ofpatches of a particular habitat type may affecta variety of ecological processes, dependingon the landscape context; for example, theymay determine the number of sub-populationsin a spatially dispersed population, or meta-population, for species exclusively associatedwith that habitat type. The number of sub-populations could influence the dynamics andpersistence of the meta-population (Gilpin andHanski 1991). In addition, habitat subdivision,as indexed by the number of patches, mayaffect the propagation of disturbances acrossa landscape (Franklin and Forman 1987). As Figure 2. Classifying Patches by Size.such, habitat fragments may suffer higher ratesof disturbance than do contiguous habitats. Again, the area of each patch comprising a130 Sperry
  • 141. landscape mosaic is perhaps the single most by the relative abundance of each vegetationimportant and useful piece of information type. In this application, it helps in evaluatingcontained in the landscape. The area comprised the edge condition. Because richness does notby each patch type is equally important. For account for relative abundance of each patchexample, progressive reduction in the size of type, rare patch types and common patchhabitat fragments is a key component of habitat types contribute equally to richness. Patchfragmentation. Thus, a landscape with a smaller diversity, nevertheless is an important elementmean patch size for the target patch type than of landscape structure because the variety ofanother landscape might be considered more elements present in a landscape can have anfragmented. Mean patch size at the class level important influence on several ecologicalis a function of the number of patches in the processes. And because many organisms areclass and total class area (McGarigal and associated with a single patch type, patchMarks 1995). Therefore, at the class level, diversity often correlates well with speciesthese two indices represent slightly different richness. Diversity richness is partially aaspects of class structure. For example, two function of scale - larger areas are generallylandscapes could have the same number and richer, and they have greater heterogeneity thansize distribution of patches for a given class over comparable smaller areas (McGarigal andand thus have the same mean patch size. Marks 1995). Therefore, comparing diversityHowever, if the total landscape area differed, among watersheds of different sizes can bepatch density or canopy quality could be very problematic. The mean of diversity over adifferent between the landscapes. In addition, watershed standardizes diversity to a pertwo landscapes could have the same number area basis that facilitates comparison amongof patches and total landscape area and thus watersheds.have the same patch density. However, if theclass area differed, mean patch size could bevery different between landscapes. This studydid not address density directly and furtherresearch on density and canopy quality willbe conducted. For this study, the mean size bywatershed is a key value. Figure 4. Classifying Shape by Mean Perimeter/Area Index. The final variable to quantify of a landscape configuration is the complexity of patch shape at the patch, class, and landscape levels (see Figure 4). The lower index number is a better shape because the area is large and the perimeter is small. The interaction of patch shape and size can influence a number of important ecologicalFigure 3. Shows the change in diversity over a 10-year processes. Patch shape has been shown toperiod. The images from left to right are 1990 diversity influence inter-patch processes such as smalland land cover followed by 2000 diversity and landcover. mammal migration (Buechner 1989) andNotice the pasture area changing to forest. woody plant colonization (Hardt and Forman 1989) and may influence animal foragingDiversity is another measurement. Diversity strategies (Forman and Godron 1986). Shapemeasures a patch’s richness or variety of classes is a difficult parameter to quantify concisely(see figure 3). While it measures the number in a metric. The study used a mean shapeof vegetation types present, it is not affected index to measure the average patch shape, Technology 131
  • 142. or the average perimeter-to-area ratio, for a appears to be a strong locational association ofparticular patch type (class) and all patches in new forest land and the development patterna watershed. Although there are other means of (see Table 7 and Figure 7).quantifying patch shape (Lee and Sallee 1970),this shape index is widely applicable and usedin landscape ecological research (Forman andGodron 1986).The final analysis categorized each index intofive value levels based on standard deviation.The three indexes were added to determine thebiodiversity for 1990 and 2000 by watershed.The final trend analysis was determined bysubtracting the mean values of 1990 from the2000 mean values.Results and DiscussionTables 2 through 8 present the land coverand biodiversity change from April 1990to April 2000. Within the five county studyarea medium intensity development grew191% from 370 square kilometers to 1076kilometers. High intensity development grew79% from 124 square kilometers to 281 squarekilometers. Deciduous forest and coniferousforest grew 38% and 8%. These changes cameat the expense of agriculture. Over 1000 squarekilometers were lost. In 2000, cultivated cropsare essentially nonexistent, and pasture declineby 689 square kilometer. While the growth inGreenville and Spartanburg grew outward, theexpansion in Anderson and Oconee were moresignificant. The growth showed more of aleapfrog pattern and had significant impact onexurbia. Urban growth was more concentratedand contiguous to the 1990 development.The relationship between sprawl and thequality of life shows that development is faroutpacing population growth. The regiongrew in population by 12.7%, but the areaof new development grew 48.9% (see table8). In Anderson and Oconee counties, thedeveloped land increased even faster at 63.4%and 77.4%. In the northern portion of thestudy area, the outward growth resulted in adecline in the biodiversity of the Appalachianfoothills. Biodiversity near existing built-up areas showed only a slight improvement.Biodiversity degradation does not matchthe development change. In fact, several Figure 5. Watershed Change in Size, Diversity, andwatersheds showed improvement. While 33% Perimeter/ Area Indexof the 150 watersheds declined in biodiversity,another 42% improved. Eighty-five percent This research suggests that these old fieldsof the agricultural land changed from pasture while adding to the natural habitats may in factand cultivated crops to development and forest be “development in waiting”. In other words,vegetation. The result is the natural patches over the next 10 years many of the old fieldsincreased in size over the 10-year period. There will become new development (see figures132 Sperry
  • 143. 9 and 10). The changes were far less than the biodiversity trends and the developmentwould be expected for type of sprawl the study patterns, and reviewing new Landsat TMarea showed. These results suggest that after imagery and visiting specifically Spartanburginitial development the vegetation/habitats County is required. Using either a fuzzycan improve. The development of cul-de-sacs tolerance classifier or a knowledge-basedroads and clustering may actually offer more classifier may improve the results. Usingopportunities for patches to remain connected new high-resolution data will also be exploredthan previously thought. for determining impervious surfaces and tree canopy. Finally acquiring additional changeFuture Research detection data such as road pattern densityIt is important to understand that these are from imagery will be assessed.preliminary results. The research intentwas primarily an SEA process study. The Conclusionclassification was secondary, and improvement Change detection, as part of Strategicof biodiversity near exiting built-up areas Environmental Assessment, is a tool thatwas unexpected. Accuracy assessment must can promote sustainable development. Withbe performed, and some reclassification may cheaper data, better software and moreoccur. The area also needs to be ground- powerful computers, remote sensing producestruthed. More analysis is required to verify reliable monitoring data. Change detection2000 Land Cover Anderson Oconee Pickens Spartanburg Greenville Total PercentOpen Water (11) 105 118 41 27 20 311 3%Developed Open Space (21) 51 23 16 18 17 125 1%Low Density Urban (22) 217 116 96 183 175 788 9%Medium Density Urban (23) 252 137 126 276 284 1,076 12%High Density Urban (24) 45 23 24 80 109 281 3%Barren (30) - - - - - - 0%Deciduous Forest (41) 585 444 374 618 568 2,589 28%Coniferous Forest (42) 231 366 251 400 351 1,599 17%Mixed Forest (43) 286 396 308 372 419 1,782 19%Open Fields/Pasture (81) 179 94 75 128 102 579 6%Cultivated Crops (82) - - - - 0 0 0%Woody Wetlands (91) 10 27 13 20 17 86 1%Total Sq Km 1,962 1,744 1,324 2,121 2,064 9,216 100%1990 Land Cover Anderson Oconee Pickens Spartanburg Greenville Total PercentOpen Water (11) 108 121 39 23 19 309 3%Developed Open Space (21) 74 32 22 33 34 195 2%Low Density Urban (22) 184 92 89 226 199 791 9%Medium Density Urban (23) 66 33 39 119 114 370 4%High Density Urban (24) 22 11 14 50 60 157 2%Barren (30) - 4 - - - 4 0%Deciduous Forest (41) 378 373 285 379 454 1,870 20%Coniferous Forest (42) 249 294 231 377 330 1,481 16%Mixed Forest (43) 392 538 397 449 496 2,271 25%Open Fields/Pasture (81) 380 172 144 332 241 1,268 14%Cultivated Crops (82) 95 49 43 91 85 363 4%Woody Wetlands (91) 13 25 22 42 32 135 1%Total Sq Km 1,961 1,745 1,324 2,120 2,063 9,214 100%Changed Land Cover Anderson Oconee Pickens Spartanburg Greenville Total PercentOpen Water (11) (3) (3) 2 4 1 2 0%Developed Open Space (21) (23) (9) (5) (16) (17) (70) -36%Low Density Urban (22) 33 24 6 (42) (23) (3) 0%Medium Density Urban (23) 187 105 87 157 171 706 191%High Density Urban (24) 23 11 10 30 49 124 79%Barren (30) - (4) - - - (4) -100%Deciduous Forest (41) 206 71 89 239 114 720 38%Coniferous Forest (42) (18) 72 21 22 21 118 8%Mixed Forest (43) (106) (141) (88) (77) (76) (489) -22%Open Fields/Pasture (81) (200) (78) (68) (204) (139) (689) -54%Cultivated Crops (82) (95) (49) (43) (91) (84) (363) -100%Woody Wetlands (91) (3) 2 (10) (22) (16) (49) -36%Total Sq Km 0 (0) 0 1 1 2 0%Area in Square KilometersTable 2 1990 – 2000 Land Cover Change Technology 133
  • 144. using Landsat TM imagery offers very useful conjecture and more facts on both sides of theinformation. At 30-meter resolution, the sustainable development issue may become aimagery works well at map scales of 1:75,000 reality. We need to place as much emphasisto 1:250,000 or larger. on the strategic decision-making as we do on project level environmental assessment.With SEA process assessing the quality andvision of sustainable development, SEA Acknowledgmentsinvolves testing against environmental/ The author gratefully acknowledges Clemsonsustainability standards. The process needs to University’s College of Architecture, Artsassess development patterns and their affect and Humanities, and The Innovative Fundingon environmental quality. It should be based Grant Program for their financial support ofon land cover information For the process to this research it required the following: • Governments must offer land cover References information just as they supply census Anderson, et al. 1976. A Land Use and Land Cover data. Classification System for Use with Remote Sensor • Government has a responsibility to Data. Geological Survey Professional Paper No. establish and update land cover data. 964, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, • Programs, such as the NLCD program DC in the US, should perform the classifications to establish consistent Buechner, M. 1989. Are small-scale landscape baselines. features important factors for field studies of small • International standards for the land mammal dispersal sinks? Landscape Ecology. 2: classes should offer consistency 191-199. for worldwide environmental trend analysis. Burchell, Robert W., Naveed A. Shad, David • Monitoring should occur on a regular Listokin, Hilary Phillips, Anthony Downs, Samuel basis with data collection every five Siskin, Judy S. Davis, Terry Moore, David Helton, years with matching census estimates. Michelle Gall, and ECO Northwest. 1998 Cost • Environmental statistics should be of Sprawl- Revisited. Washington, DC: National mapped by watershed boundaries. Academy Press. • Matching census tract boundaries with Calhoun, A., and M.W. Klemens. 2002. Best cataloging watersheds units should development practices (BDPs) for conserving pool allow demographic and environmental breeding amphibians in residential and commercial data to be used together. developments (MCA Tech. Paper 5).SEA with change detection can become a Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety by Parties to thetransparent and flexible process. By thinking Convention on Biological Diversity.strategically at a regional level stakeholders can Cook, E.A. and Iverson, L.R. (1991) Inventory andreview and monitor the effectiveness of policy change detection of urban land cover in Illinoisdecisions for development. The SEA process using Landsat Thematic Mapper data, Technicalallows assessment of both positive and negative Papers ACSM-ASPRS Annual Convention, Vol. 3,affects. The broad-brush or qualitative nature pp. 83-92, Baltimore.of the process allows program changes to bealtered more quickly. It offers enough detail Coppin, P. & Bauer, M. 1996. Digital Changeto highlight the regional development trends Detection in Forest Ecosystems with Remoteand the environmental consequences. It is a Sensing Imagery. Remote Sensing Reviews. flag approach, whereby change detection 13. p. 207-234.can allow stakeholders to act quickly and onlyfocus on the detail where need. De Lannoy, Walter 1999. “Sustainable urban development: definition, planning and assessment”,Change detection can allow stakeholders to quickly and focus where detail analysis is Env.%Planning/text%20m%20English/PIChap9.required. It can clarify for politicians, planners, pdfdevelopers and the public the political priorities Dobson, J.E., Bright, E.A., Ferguson, R.L., Field,and judgments that are less easily realized D.W., Wood, L.L., Haddad, K.D., Ireland III, H.,by the existing development process. Less Jensen, J.R., Klemas, V.V., Orth, R.J. and Thomas,134 Sperry
  • 145. J.P. (1995) NOAA Coastal change analysis program quantifying landscape structure. Gen. Tech. Rep.(C-CAP): guidance for regional implementation, PNW-GTR-351. Portland, OR: U.S. DepartmentNational Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific NorthwestWashington, NOAA Technical Report NMFS 123 Research Station. p122.Galster, G, Hanson, R, Ratcliffe, M, Wolman, H, NEAP, 2000. Nature and Ecotourism AccreditationColeman, S, and Freihage, J, 2001. Wrestling Program, 2nd edition, Australia: NEAP,Sprawl to the Ground: Defining and Measuring an Reese, H, Lillesand, T, Nagel, D, Stewart, J,Elusive Concept Housing Policy Debate, Volume Goldman, R, Simmons, S, Chipman, J and Tessar12, Issue 4, Fannie Mae Foundation. P, 2002. .Statewide land cover derived fromERDAS Field Guide. 2002. Leica Geosystems, GIS multiseasonal Landsat TM data, A retrospectiveand Mapping Division. Atlanta, Georgia. of the WISCLAND project Remote Sensing of Environment 82 (2002) 224–237.Ewing, Reid, Pendall, Rolf, and Chen, Don.2002,Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact, Smart Growth Robinson, R., & Nagel, D. (1990). Land coverAmerica, Fannie Mae Foundation. classification of remotely sensed imagery and conversion to a vector-based GIS for the SuwanneeForman, R.T.T.; Godron, M. 1986. Landscape River water management district. Proceedings:ecology. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1990 GIS/LIS, Anaheim, CA (pp. 219–224).Franklin, J.F.; Forman, R.T.T. 1987. Creating Bethesda, MD: ACSM/ASPRS.landscape pattern by forest cutting:ecological Seaber, P.R., Kapinos, F.P., and Knapp, G.L., 1987,consequences and principles. Landscape Ecology. Hydrologic Unit Maps: U.S. Geological Survey1: 5-18. Water-Supply Paper 2294, USGS.Gibbs, J.P. 1993. Importance of small wetlands forthe persistence of local populations of wetland- Singh, A. (1989) Digital change detection techniquesassociated animals. Wetlands 13(1):25-31. using remotely-sensed data, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, pp. 989-1003.Gilpin, M.E.; Hanski, I., eds. 1991. Metapopulationdynamics: empirical and theoretical investigations. Stow, D., S. Westmoreland, D. McKinsey, F. Mertz,San Diego: Academic Press. D. Collins, S. Sperry and D. Nagel, 1990. Raster- Vector Integration for Updating Land Use Data,Gordon, Peter and Richardson, Harry, 2001. The Proceedings of the 23rd International SymposiumSprawl Debate: Let Markets Plan, University of on Remote Sensing of Environment, 837-844,Southern California School of Policy, Planning, Bangkok, Thailand, May, 1990.and Development. Thérivel, R., Wilson E., Thompson S., Heaney, D.Green, K et al. 1994. Using Remote Sensing to and Pritchard, D. 1992. Strategic EnvironmentalDetect and Monitor Land-Cover and Land-Use Assessment. Earthscan Publications Ltd., London,Change. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote UK.Sensing. Vol. 60. No. 3. p. 331-337. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe,Hardt, R.A.; Forman, R.T.T. 1989. Boundary form Draft Protocol on Strategic Environmentaleffects on woody colonization of reclaimed surface Assessment, The Convention on Environmentalmines. Ecology. 70: 1252-1260. Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context,Kareiva, P. 1990. Population dynamics in 2003.spatially complex environments: theory and data.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ofLondon. B(330):175-190.Lee, D.R.; Sallee, G.T. 1970. A method of measuringshape. Geographical Review. 60: 555-563.Macleod, R.D. and R.G. Congalton, 1998, Aquantitative comparison of change-detectionalgorithms for monitoring eelgrass from remotelysensed data, Photogrammetric Engineering andRemote Sensing, 64:207-216.McGarigal, Kevin and Barbara J Marks,. 1995.FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for Technology 135
  • 146. County 2000 1990 Change Anderson Size Patches Percent Patches Percent Patches Percent < 4 Ha 2,488 88.7% 3,235 88.4% (747) -23% 4-40 Ha 253 9.0% 347 9.5% (94) -27% 40-400 Ha 50 1.8% 66 1.8% (16) -24% 400-4000 Ha 12 0.4% 11 0.3% 1 9% >4000 Ha 2 0.1% 1 0.0% 1 100% 2,805 3,660 (855) -23% Oconee Size Patches Percent Patches Percent Patches Percent < 4 Ha 929 88.5% 1,070 89.4% (141) -13% 4-40 Ha 99 9.4% 107 8.9% (8) -7% 40-400 Ha 20 1.9% 16 1.3% 4 25% 400-4000 Ha 1 0.1% 2 0.2% (1) -50% >4000 Ha 1 0.1% 2 0.2% (1) -50% 1,050 1,197 (147) -12% Pickens Size Patches Percent Patches Percent Patches Percent < 4 Ha 896 90.4% 983 90.3% (87) -9% 4-40 Ha 79 8.0% 93 8.5% (14) -15% 40-400 Ha 14 1.4% 10 0.9% 4 40% 400-4000 Ha 1 0.1% 1 0.1% - 0% >4000 Ha 1 0.1% 1 0.1% - 0% 991 1,088 (97) -9% Spartanburg Size Patches Percent Patches Percent Patches Percent < 4 Ha 1,989 88.3% 3,442 89.4% (1,453) -42% 4-40 Ha 215 9.5% 343 8.9% (128) -37% 40-400 Ha 34 1.5% 56 1.5% (22) -39% 400-4000 Ha 11 0.5% 8 0.2% 3 38% >4000 Ha 4 0.2% 3 0.1% 1 33% 2,253 3,852 (1,599) -42% Greenville Size Patches Percent Patches Percent Patches Percent < 4 Ha 2,209 98.0% 2,686 69.7% (477) -18% 4-40 Ha 308 13.7% 293 7.6% 15 5% 40-400 Ha 48 2.1% 53 1.4% (5) -9% 400-4000 Ha 6 0.3% 3 0.1% 3 100% >4000 Ha 5 0.2% 2 0.1% 3 150% 2,576 3,037 (461) -15%Table 3 1990 – 2000 Patch Size Change 2000 1990 ChangeCounties County Size Patches Area* Percent Patches Area* Percent Patches Percent Area* PercentAndesrson 196,122 2,805 109,312 55.7% 3,660 101,108 51.6% (855) -23% 8,204 8%Oconee 174,465 1,050 122,616 70.3% 1,197 122,189 70.0% (147) -12% 427 0%Pickens 132,425 991 93,919 70.9% 1,088 92,708 70.0% (97) -9% 1,211 1%Spartanberg 212,021 2,253 139,469 65.8% 3,852 122,458 57.8% (1,599) -42% 17,011 14%Greenville 206,322 2,576 134,069 65.0% 3,037 129,383 62.7% (461) -15% 4,687 4%Totals 921,354 9,675 599,386 65.1% 12,834 567,846 61.6% (3,159) -25% 31,539 6%Table 4 Patch Area Change136 Sperry
  • 147. 2000 Diversity Level Anderson Oconee Pickens Spartanburg Greenville Total PercentLevel 1- Lowest 15,629 9,642 8,226 14,149 13,323 60,969 9.02%Level 2 52,851 58,282 43,511 57,352 61,094 273,091 40.39%Level 3 51,472 55,169 42,549 68,934 60,891 279,015 41.27%Level 4 13,009 10,958 8,778 14,009 11,283 58,037 8.58%Level 5 1,229 966 717 1,054 882 4,849 0.72%Level 6 30 17 12 29 23 111 0.02%Level 7 - Highest 1 0 0 1 0 2 0.00%Total Hectares 134,220 135,034 103,795 155,527 147,497 676,073 100.00%Mean 2.489 2.522 2.521 2.553 2.494 2.516Std. deviation 0.857 0.774 0.788 0.808 0.788 0.8041990 Diversity Level Anderson Oconee Pickens Spartanburg Greenville Total PercentLevel 1- Lowest 12,108 9,157 7,693 12,223 13,937 55,119 8.15%Level 2 46,460 48,576 36,995 51,461 52,924 236,416 34.97%Level 3 65,508 63,026 47,080 73,247 68,074 316,934 46.88%Level 4 28,342 23,358 18,726 28,336 26,812 125,574 18.57%Level 5 5,391 4,337 3,559 4,793 5,054 23,134 3.42%Level 6 338 285 225 299 338 1,485 0.22%Level 7 - Highest 8 6 5 6 8 34 0.00%Total Hectares 158,156 148,747 114,282 170,365 167,146 758,697 100.00%Mean 2.807 2.772 2.774 2.782 2.744 2.776Std. Deviation 0.948 0.901 0.921 0.915 0.941 0.926Change Diversity Level Anderson Oconee Pickens Spartanburg Greenville Total PercentLevel 1- Lowest 3,521 484 534 1,926 (614) 5,850 -7.08%Level 2 6,391 9,706 6,516 5,891 8,170 36,675 -44.39%Level 3 (14,036) (7,857) (4,530) (4,313) (7,183) (37,920) 45.89%Level 4 (15,334) (12,400) (9,948) (14,327) (15,529) (67,538) 81.74%Level 5 (4,162) (3,371) (2,841) (3,739) (4,172) (18,285) 22.13%Level 6 (308) (268) (213) (270) (315) (1,374) 1.66%Level 7 - Highest (8) (6) (4) (6) (8) (32) 0.04%Total Hectares (23,936) (13,713) (10,487) (14,838) (19,650) (82,624) 100.00%Table 5 1990 – 2000 Diversity ChangeArea in Hectares Sq Counties Watersheds Hectares Kilometers Sq Miles 1990 PAI 2000 PAI Changed PAIAnderson 41 196,067.5 1,960.7 757.0 0.02367 0.02517 (0.00129)Oconee 27 174,383.4 1,743.8 673.3 0.01278 0.01520 (0.00241)Pickens 29 132,389.3 1,323.9 511.2 0.01566 0.01748 (0.00166)Spartanburg 46 212,005.3 2,120.1 818.6 0.02337 0.02026 0.00336Greenville 42 206,269.1 2,062.7 796.4 0.02256 0.02197 0.00102Study Area Watershed Average 1,228.2 12.3 4.7 0.02088 0.02076 0.00039 Percent PercentCounties No Change Improved Degraded Total* No Change Improved DegradedAnderson 0 10 31 41 0% 24% 76%Oconee 0 2 25 27 0% 7% 93%Pickens 0 6 23 29 0% 21% 79%Spartanburg 1 40 5 46 2% 87% 11%Greenville 0 23 19 42 0% 55% 45%Total Study Area 1 69 80 150 1% 46% 53%* Portions of 30 Watersheds are in multiple countiesTable 6 1990 – 2000 Patch Perimeter/Area Index Technology 137
  • 148. Figure 6. 1990 and 2000 Biodiversity Analysis.138 Sperry
  • 149. Figure 7. 1990 – 2000 Biodiversity Change by Watershed Sq 1990 2000 Biodiversity Counties Watersheds Hectares Kilometers Sq Miles Biodiversity Biodiversity ChangeAnderson 41 196,067.5 1,960.7 757.0 9.1 8.7 (0.4)Oconee 27 174,383.4 1,743.8 673.3 12.0 12.3 0.2Pickens 29 132,389.3 1,323.9 511.2 11.5 11.3 (0.2)Spartanburg 46 212,005.3 2,120.1 818.6 9.6 10.8 1.2Greenville 42 206,269.1 2,062.7 796.4 9.4 9.3 (0.1)Study Area Watershed Average 6,141.4 61.4 23.7 10.0 10.3 0.3Highest Biodiversity Average 6,996.5 17,288.7 27.0 15.0 14.3 (0.7)Lowest Biodiversity Average 2,556.4 6,317.0 9.9 3.0 3.1 0.1 Percent PercentCounties No Change Improved Degraded Total* No Change Improved DegradesAnderson 15 7 19 41 37% 17% 46%Oconee 12 11 4 27 44% 41% 15%Pickens 8 9 12 29 28% 31% 41%Spartanburg 10 33 3 46 22% 72% 7%Greenville 13 14 15 42 31% 33% 36%Total Study Area 49 63 38 150 33% 42% 25%* Portions of 30 Watersheds are in multiple countiesTable 7 1990 – 2000 Biodiversity Change by County Technology 139
  • 150. Figure 8. Biodiversity With Development.Figure 9. Shows the 1990 land cover classification on the left and the 2000 classification on the right. Notice the change inpasture from open field to new development and forestland.140 Sperry
  • 151. Area / Sq 1990 Area / Sq Density/ Percent of 2000 Area / Sq Density / Percent of Population LandCounty Km Population Km Sq Km County Population Km Sq Km County Growth GrowthAnderson 1,961.22 145,196 346.38 419.19 17.7% 163,654 565.9 289.2 28.9% 12.7% 63.4%Oconee 1,744.65 57,494 168.53 341.15 9.7% 65,435 299.0 218.8 17.1% 13.8% 77.4%Pickens 1,324.25 93,894 164.12 572.10 12.4% 110,394 245.5 449.7 18.5% 17.6% 49.6%Spartanburg 2,120.21 226,800 427.38 530.67 20.2% 252,842 557.0 453.9 26.3% 11.5% 30.3%Greenville 2,063.22 320,167 406.71 787.22 19.7% 358,012 585.8 611.1 28.4% 11.8% 44.0%Total 9,213.54 843,551 1513.12 557.49 16.4% 950,337 2,253.3 421.8 24.5% 12.7% 48.9%Table 8 Population Growth Verses Development GrowthLand Cover Classes Anderson Oconee Pickens Spartanburg** Greenville Total PercentOpen Water (11) 41.9 25.9 19.5 44.4 32.3 164.1 0.1%Development (21,22,23,24) 19,507.5 7,519.8 7,293.5 16,636.1 14,861.8 65,818.7 40.4%Forest(41,42,43) 20,346.0 11,890.2 8,976.4 20,699.1 14,005.7 75,917.4 46.6%Agriculture (81,82) 7,423.4 2,597.1 2,319.9 4,764.0 3,591.6 20,696.0 12.7%Woody Wetland(12) 63.7 117.4 52.7 94.5 60.0 388.3 0.2%Total* 47,382.6 22,150.4 18,662.0 42,238.1 32,551.5 162,984.5 100.0%* Area in Hectares**6.21 Ha were not contained in the 2000 imageTable 9 Landcover Classes in the four neighboring CountiesFigure 10. 1990 – 2000 Patch Size Change near Spartanburg, SC. Technology 141
  • 152. Possible Remote Havens of the San Diego Union-Tribune, Andres Oppenheimer reported:for Terrorist and OtherIllicit Activity: Geospatial In the new U.S. military doctrine, one of the biggest dangers to Latin AmericaModeling no longer comes from foreign armies or urban guerrillas taking over capitalDouglas S. Way, Ph.D. cities and expanding their reach to the interior. Rather, it comes from criminal forces occupying empty spaces in jungles,Introduction mountains and other remote areas, andLandscape architects have significant skills expanding their reach from there to big cities and centers of landscape analysis, site suitability studies,and geographic information systems. They Also, in the same article, it was reported thathave long addressed problems such as where during a security conference in March inand what geographic areas have suitable Miami, General James T. Hill, head of USconditions to support a defined use. Why then, Southern Command in charge of militaryshouldn’t landscape architects contribute these relations in Latin America, spent much ofanalytic skills to the broad range of military, his speech addressing the ungoverned areasintelligence, and environmental security challenge:applications? Many of these applicationquestions contain the word “where,” which Today, the threat to the countries of theprovides an opportunity for GIS analysis. The region is not the military force of themarketplace is large and encompasses many adjacent neighbor, or some invadinggroups, from federal-state agencies and military foreign power. Today’s foe is the terrorist,commands, to those associated with homeland the narco-trafficker, the arms trafficker.(or global) security. In some instances, security This threat is a weed that is planted,clearances may be required, but as this project grown and nurtured in the fertile grounddemonstrates, there are applications satisfied of ungoverned spaces, such as coastlines,with open source data. rivers and unpopulated border areas.Throughout history, insurgents (such as Mao, It is noted, however, that these locationalCastro, and Guevara), smugglers, and some elements are not as important in states whereterrorist groups not under state sponsorship, have groups find either official or defacto safeused rugged remote terrain to their advantages. harbor, and thus do not need to strategicallyOften referred to as “stateless zones,” these distance themselves from government forces.locations encompass characteristics that hinder For example, the al-Qa’ida training campsgovernment troops and favor the illicit groups: in Afghanistan, while somewhat remote torugged terrain, thick vegetation cover, remote facilitate their armed exercises, operated withfrom population and lines of communication full knowledge and agreement with the Talibanand control, close to foreign borders, and in government.countries of poor governance (O’Neil 1990).This perspective was confirmed by Ian Beckett, Illicit groups that may seek remote operationalU.S. government expert in insurgencies: centers can include insurgents and guerrilla fighters, terrorists, and smugglers. However, Fairly obviously, features of insurgency it is noted the objectives, and hence the that have remained constant over the operational patterns of these groups, may be centuries have been the tendency for very different (Hoffman 1998). While difficult insurgent groups to operate in difficult to precisely define, it is generally agreed that terrain – mountain, desert, forest, terrorists commonly portray themselves as swamp, and jungle – of which they often “freedom fighters,” operate in small groups, possessed local knowledge denied their and take part in operations designed to disrupt opponents. and shock governments and societies. On the other hand, guerrillas and insurgents operateWhile the knowledge of these criteria is not more like military units, attacking enemynew, changing global terrorist strategies are forces and capturing and holding territorycapturing the attention of the US Military over which they may exercise sovereignty andCommands. In the March 12, 2003 issue control. The analysis explored in this paper142 Way
  • 153. focuses upon suitable locations for remote was compared to a number of actual illicitcamps and operational centers for illicit groups operational centers, where a high correlationnot condoned by the local government. At first was obtained. Since a number of those campglance this would encompass insurgencies, locations contain sensitive information,guerrillas, and smugglers, but can also include those results are not presented here. Afterterrorist camp locations where training completion of each regional segment, eachactivities require a more remote location. was transformed to Robinson projection andRecent examples of terrorist groups that have mosaiced into a global map. For final graphics,operational camps in “loosely governed” areas vector files containing country boundaries,include: al-Qa’ida fighters in Afghanistan and coastlines, and graphic meridian data, weresouthwest Pakistan, Ansar al-Islam in Iraq, also transformed to a Robinson projection. TheAl-Ittibad al-Islami in Somalia, and Jemaah final global graphic was created at both one andIslamiya in Southeast Asia. five by five-kilometer resolutions to support varied hardcopy requirements. To simplify theData Sources and Methodology display of the final analysis, the 185 valuesGIS software programs, most notably ERDAS created by the model were aggregated into 16.(all recent versions) and soon to be releasedArcGIS 9.0, have matured, now containing Key Analysis Criteriatools that support geospatial modeling. These The model criteria included definitions ofmodeling tools support numerous commands; terrain complexity, vegetation cover, lines ofone can link defined geospatial manipulations, communication and proximity to populationcreate sequential outputs if desired for error centers, proximity to foreign borders, climate,checking and validation, and record the entire suitable size of operating area, and governance.model construct. Thus, once formulated, a Terrain is important, as rugged terrain presentsmodel can be run through multiple iterations, mobility difficulty for government troops whilecomparing results as weightings, variables, favoring small indigenous forces. Vegetationand geospatial manipulations are modified. cover is similar in providing visual screening and mitigation of aerial detection. OptimumData utilized for this project was open source, distance from lines of communication andavailable globally, and was typically in transport infrastructure affect supply issues forone-kilometer raster format. Digital terrain both government and partisan forces.elevations (dted 0) and transport infrastructureare from Digital Chart of the World (DCW), Government forces require closer proximity topopulation density from Oak Ridge National transport infrastructure and military facilitiesLab (Landscan), and land cover from the for resupply; illicit forces can have a moreInternational Global Biosphere Program remote relationship and tend to obtain supplies(IGBP). While the Oak Ridge and IGBP data locally from small villages. Proximity to foreignwere available in global format, the DCW data borders is important, as illicit groups may needoriginated in five-degree cells. Mosaicing and to seek safe haven when under pursuit, or find atransforming these data into appropriate equal strategic advantage in operating across borders.area projections was not trivial. The size of area suitable for these illicit actors also affects the control ability of governmentFor disk storage, processing efficiencies, and forces. Larger areas of connectivity increase theuse of appropriate projections, these data were manpower of government forces necessary toformatted into regions consisting of Central exert control. Conversely, smaller areas can beAmerica and the Caribbean, South America, more easily controlled by government forces.Africa, Eastern Europe, East Russia, West Lastly, as identified by the State Failure TaskRussia, South-Central Asia and the Middle Force (2002), the effectiveness and legitimacyEast, South East Asia, and China-Mongolia. of government can be a significant modulatingNote that that the more developed nations were factor. Weak governments are challenged tonot included in the analysis, namely North extend forces into remote areas.America and Western Europe. Once the modelwas established it was run for each region, Terrain Complexitymaintaining the one-kilometer resolution. The objective of this measure is to quantifyValidation of results utilized the Delphi the mobility attributes of terrain. The modelmethod, where various experts reviewed measures, within a five by five-kilometer focalinterim and final products, suggesting model filter, the terrain texture, elevation difference,modifications. In addition, the modeled surface and mean elevation difference. Terrain texture Technology 143
  • 154. is calculated by passing a diversity filter over a Vegetationnine-category aspect map and then over a slope The visual characteristics of the IGBP landmap that has been summarized in five-percent cover data were interpreted and scaled for theirincrements. Thus, an area that is surrounded visual absorption characteristics (Jacobs andby many different aspect orientations and with Way 1969). Evergreen, deciduous, and mixedmany slope categories, has a higher slope-aspect forests were the most visually absorptive,diversity (texture) than a more homogenous closely followed by shrubland, and decreasingsurface and provides a greater mobility to grassland, agriculture and barren areas. Sincecomplexity and visual screening. Elevation the IGBP spatial resolution and categories aredifference is also an important mobility factor. fairly coarse, these measures just provide for aIt is measured by twice applying a five by regional characterization.five focal filter: first measuring the maximumelevation, and second, recording the minimum Climateelevation. The focal minimum is then subtracted Many experts dismiss climate as a criticalfrom the focal maximum to get the elevation variable in this context. It is both positive anddifference that occurs within the five by five- negative as it affects equally the illicit groupskilometer area. Again, higher values indicate and government forces. That being said, it isa higher level of mobility difficulty. As a final also true that climate would adversely affectrefinement, illicit camps are typically located illicit group training operations and the abilityin visually absorptive areas. Small ravines of new recruits to acclimate. After muchand valleys are identified and separated from discussion on this variable, it was agreed toridgelines by calculating the mean elevation degrade areas as a function of the number ofwith a five by five focal filter and subtracting days below freezing. Thus, much of centralthe original elevation. The resulting negative and northern Russia and the Tibetan Plateauvalues are exposed ridges; the positive values received lower suitability scores for campare ravines and valleys that are more visually locations. The additive effects of vegetationclosed. These four sub-analyses are combined cover and climate are shown in figure create the final terrain complexity surface.High values having the best suitability for illicitgroups and difficult for government troops tocontrol are characterized by high slope andaspect diversity, high elevation difference, andcontain tight ravines and valleys (see figure 1).Conversely, flat, homogenous areas of littleor no elevation difference receive the lowestscore and are most easily controlled, in thatthey don’t offer visual screening and mobilityconstraints. Figure 2. Composite of terrain complexity, vegetation cover, and climate. Northern South America has a moderately high score (medium gray); the vegetation is very thick but does not contain complex terrain. Population and Lines of Control The issues of resupply differentially affect both illicit groups and government forces. Resupply of government forces relies upon transport infrastructure and travel time from major supply points such as major cities and/ or military bases. Illicit groups also require supplies but can rely upon a closer proximityFigure 1. Composite terrain complexity in Central Asia. from much smaller settlements. However,At this scale it is apparent that the analysis has quantified while there is a strategic desire by these groupsmountains and rugged terrain. to be remote, being too remote is a supply144 Way
  • 155. disadvantage for illicit groups. For the purpose influenced by its effectiveness and legitimacy.of this model, a preferred supply zone of 10 According to O’Neil, “The poor performance,to 200 kilometers from smaller villages was corruption, and neglect that characterizedused. Thus, when examining the final maps, it the administration of the South Vietnameseis noted that while many areas in the Saharan government of Ngo Dinh Diem in the formativedesert satisfy the remote criteria, they are too years (1958-1964) of the Vietnam War wereremote, and therefore are not scored highly. exploited by the Vietcong” (O’Neil 1990).Also, in the Sahara there is neither suitable While there aren’t any accepted measures ofvegetation cover nor complex terrain. In a state’s ability to control its territory, expertsaddition to proximity to resupply centers and often cite geography and physical conditionstransport infrastructure, population density as one of the influential variables (Rotbergwas considered. Utilizing the global Landscan 2003). In the context of this project, severalpopulation density data, higher densities were experts of the US Government State Failurepenalized while lower densities received higher Task Force nominated measures of legitimacyscoring (see figure 3). and effectiveness listed in the World Bank publication, Aggregating GovernanceBorder Proximity and Area Size of Suitable Indicators (Kaufmann, Kraay, and Zoido-Terrain Lobaton 2000). These factors, which areAt this point the model components of generated by expert survey, were averaged andterrain complexity, vegetation cover, lines of normalized 0-100. As applied to the model, acommunication-population, and climate are mid value of 50 did not change a pixel’s score.combined to create a preliminary composite. But, if a country had poor governance ratingThis map is then processed through a density from 50 to 100, the suitability scores of thefilter to further weight suitable areas as to model increased by a factor scaling from 1 totheir densities of connectivity. Thus, areas 10. Conversely, if governance was excellentcontaining a greater number of high scoring (from 0 to 50 on the scale), the remote havenspixels are positively weighted verses single or model score was reduced by as much as minusfew isolated pixels. Government forces have 10. The resulting map, figure 5, shows theless trouble securing relatively small areas effect of poor country governance. Note thatof terrain that satisfy the model criteria than the two Congo’s, Paraguay, Somalia, andvast regions where this terrain is continuous. Afghanistan, among others, have increasedFinally, proximity to foreign borders and, to a scores and more territory in the darkerlesser extent, coastlines, are included to create gray. Conversely, countries relatively well-the final model composite (figure 4). governed, such as Namibia in Africa, show reduced vulnerability.Figure 3. Lines of control and population proximity. Notethat the Saharan desert does not receive the highest score Figure 4. Map of composite-terrain complexity, vegetationsince it is too remote for reasonable resupply. Conversely, cover, climate, population and lines of control, proximitymuch of north Central South America receives a high to foreign boundaries and coasts, and area density.score due to the presence of many small villages. ConclusionsGovernance From the broader perspective of landscapeAll other criteria being equal, a government’s planning and analysis, landscape architectsability to control its remote territory is can play an important role in the markets of Technology 145
  • 156. homeland security, military operations, and and their implications for policy. World Bankintelligence. Similar to work in resource Development Research Group paper, June 2000.analysis, this is accomplished by workingwith experts, utilizing geospatial tools, Hoffman, B. 1998. Inside terrorism. New York,implementing models, and employing N.Y.: Columbia University Press.validation processes. This project that identifiespossible remote havens for terrorist and Jacobs, P., and Way, D. 1969. Visual analysis ofother illicit activity is not methodologically landscape development. Harvard Graduate Schooldifferent from identifying suitable locations of Design: Department of Landscape Architecture.for high valued resort housing. It demonstratesthe value of visualization that provides a Junger, S. 2002. Terrorism’s new geography. Vanitydiscussion format for military strategists. The Fair, December: 194-206.model itself provides the ability for the expertsto argue and propose criteria modifications and Kaufman, D., Kraay, A., and Ziodo-Lobaton,P.evaluate the result modulations. In addition, 2000. Dataset from Aggregating governanceindividual factors can be added or subtracted indicators and governance matters. Washington,to perform sensitivity analysis. Landscape D.C.: World Bank.architects should be challenged by emergingglobal issues, become involved, and apply O’Neil, B. 1990. Insurgency and terrorism: Insidetheir skills. modern revolutionary warfare Virginia: Brassey’s Herndon. Oppenheimer, A. 2003. Latin America’s “ungoverned spaces.” The San Diego Union- Tribune, March 12. Rotberg, R., 2003, ed. State failure and state weakness in a time of terror. Washington, D.C.: World Peace Foundation and Brookings Institution Press. State Failure Task Force Meeting. The role of terrorism in state failure. SAIC, McLean, Va., November 2002.Figure 5. Final map adding governance. Note the increasein values in Congo, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Central Asia,and Paraguay.As a final note, there are several importantdata improvements soon forthcoming thatwill further enhance this analysis. Globallandcover mapping prepared by Earth SatelliteCorporation for NIMA/NASA at a 30-meterresolution is nearing completion. In addition,the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapping(SRTM) project will provide as high as 30-meter digital elevation data, the equivalentof dted2. Both datasets provide a significantimprovement (from 1 kilometer to 30 meters)in spatial resolution.ReferencesBeckett, I. 2003. The future of insurgency. Paperpresentation, Washington, D.C., July 2003.Collier, P. 2000. Economic causes of civil conflict146 Way
  • 157. Learning International Landscape Architecture Programs: CELA Programs in the United States Robert Hewitt, Hala Nassar, PhD,Structuring Teams for Learning and Performance:Criteria and Methodology for Instructor- Assigned Teams Kim L. Wilson Assessing the Potential Play Value of Vegetation:Outdoor Environments of Preschools in Tuscon, Arizona Beth W. Darnell, Margaret Livingston, Lauri Macmillan Johnson Learning 147
  • 158. International Landscape CELA-participating colleges and universities, particularly in the United States.1 The paperArchitecture Programs: also notes relevant correlations between the dataCELA Schools in the evidenced in the recent surveys and the existing scholarly literature concerning contemporaryUnited States trends in international education.Robert Hewitt, Method of InquiryHala Nassar Ph.D, Data were collected on the international education offerings of the CELA-participating Landscape Architecture/Design programs in the United States and abroad, from twoIntroduction principal sources.The vast majority of American universitiesoffer international education opportunities The first source is a survey ofthrough most of their schools and colleges. published information about theAmong those schools and colleges that offer subject departments and theirinternational education, agriculture, health, respective program offerings derivedbusiness, communications, journalism, from program, department, college,law, library science, public administration, and university websites, as well asinternational service, theology, engineering, from departments closely associatedlanguages, and education have been best defined with the subject departments – usuallyin the scholarly literature.1 That body of largely architecture and planning departmentsdescriptive literature typically treats the various within the same school or college,programs’ graduate and undergraduate degrees, or from the international studiestheir scholarly areas of emphasis, and their programs of their university.affiliated foreign institutions.2 Information onembassies, professional associations, granting The second source is an unpublishedagencies associated with the programs, and survey of department or programrelevant international periodicals are also heads or chairs / directors conductedtypically provided.3 No published work to date, and made available by Ball Statehowever, is available that defines or describes University faculty membersthe international education opportunities within Malcomb Cairns and Anne Hoover,the design professions—including landscape in collaboration with the Council ofarchitecture. Educators in Landscape Architecture, that compiled data about landscapeIn addition to this extant body of descriptive architecture program offerings,literature, a significant stream of scholarly student and faculty participation, andwork relevant to international education the perceived benefits of internationaladdresses contemporary trends in international—including multiculturalism,globalization and internationalization, In the broader, web-based survey, 160comparative education, pedagogy in department, school and/or university websitesinternational settings, and education policy, were reviewed in order to evaluate the subjectplanning, and development.4 As with the landscape architecture programs. Data weremore definitive literature on international available for 85% of the 62 programs, little published work to date treats In Professors Cairns’ and Hoover’s survey,this subject matter as it relates to the design 48% of the seventy-five survey requests sent toprofessions—and none as it relates to landscape department/program heads, chairs or directorsarchitecture. were returned and compiled. The compiled data from both surveys were analyzed forAccordingly, this paper provides an analysis consistencies and natural groupings, and forof the results of several recent, unpublished relevant correlations with existing internationalsurveys concerning international education education landscape architecture and in the designprofessions generally, providing needed General Findingdefinition and descriptions of the international The data from the two surveys provide severaleducation offerings in the various programs of significant findings:148 Hewitt
  • 159. I Considerable variety exists among The number of weeks spent overseas by the programs that offer international students is somewhat evenly distributed: education activities in terms of the breadth of their offerings, faculty participation, 14% - 1 to 2 weeks time spent abroad, the number of students 24% - 2 to 4 weeks participating in the offerings, and in 14% - 4 to 6 weeks international study destinations. 28% - 6 to 12 weeks 15% - stays of varying durations II The programs were most similar The largest number of programs reported in their perceptions of the benefits of sending: one or two faculty members overseas international education, in their available (63%); 16% reported sending three or four study destinations according to continent, faculty members; 5% reported sending more in the extents of affiliated and exchange than four faculty members; and 16% reported study opportunities available to students, sending various numbers of faculty members. and in the degrees that they support international education through financial The number of students participating in the aid. programs is relatively evenly distributed between: III Natural breaks in the data suggest several groupings based primarily on the 33% - less than 10 students breadth or focus of individual program 39% - 10 to 20 students, overseas offerings, associations with 28% - more than 20 students. permanent overseas study centers, and the extent of additional international The variety exhibited between the programs study offerings available at the home was particularly telling in the breadth and campus. type of international study activities offered. While most program heads reported additionalI Discussion of the Findings Concerning international study activities above and beyondProgram Variety the travel portion of their offerings, fewThe data reported in both the broader, web- reported similar offerings (although there werebased survey, and the survey of program heads, slightly more similarities noted in the larger,suggest the following characteristic description web-based survey).about program variety in CELA participatinglandscape architecture programs. A sampling of additional activities reported in both surveys include: international workshops Study destinations associated with and seminars with various foreign universities, a program’s international education collaborations with the American Academy offerings are often unique to the in Rome, internet/student exchange studios individual programs - in landscape and other web-based exchanges, informal architecture and the design professions exchanges of staff, visiting professors or in general. The duration of program lecturers, exploring third world design build, activities can range from several weeks international concentrations within the to several semesters. Activities are led major, international distance learning, and by one to four faculty members leading international faculty development programs a range of small, medium and/or large emphasizing multiculturalism and foreign groups of students who have options for languages. additional international study activities at home and overseas that are unique to The variety noted in the international education their programs. activities of the surveyed landscape architecture programs was also evident in the architectureSpecifically - in programs reporting and planning programs in the broader, web-international study offerings - students have the based survey. Similar variety was also noted inopportunity to travel to 33 different destination some of the international education literature,countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle particularly regarding the implementationEast, Australia/New Zealand, North America, of university internationalization policy byand South America. Of those 33 destination individual schools and departments,5 andcountries, more than half (54%) are associated in strategic planning and development atwith only one CELA program. university level6--suggesting that variety Learning 149
  • 160. may be a significant characteristic of Australia and New Zealandinternational education in general, and in 7%-landscape architecturelandscape architecture and design education in 7%-design professionsparticular. African destinations 2%-landscape architectureII Discussion of the Findings Concerning 2%-design professionsProgram Similarities North American destinationsThe data reported in both surveys suggest the (2%-landscape architecturefollowing description of program similarities 2%-design professionsbetween the CELA participating landscapearchitecture programs. The vast majority of landscape architecture programs have also made agreements with Study destinations focus largely on affiliated foreign institutions (91%)--as have European countries, with a significant most of the design and planning programs concentration of study centers and (94%). Most of the reporting landscape offerings in Italy, reflecting destination architecture programs offer international study choices similar to those in design and through their own program and/or with their planning programs. The vast majority affiliates (85%), but some programs offer of programs have arranged affiliation international study just through their affiliates agreements with other international (15%). The number of agreements that CELA institutions, and more often than not, landscape architecture programs have arranged programs have exchange agreements with with affiliated international institutions range other international institutions. Most from 1-5 with 3.1 per program as an average. programs offer financial aid in support And while the web-based study suggests of their international study activities, a moderately greater amount of affiliation and virtually all view their international agreements (from 1-8), the average number study activities as beneficial in terms of of agreements per program is similar (3,3 per promoting multiculturalism, enhancing program). pedagogy, and fostering student / faculty professional development. Slightly more than half the programs (51%) report exchange agreements with foreignSpecifically, nearly half of the study universities. 78% of the programs report thatdestinations (46%) are shared by two or more financial aid is available to their students forof the programs. Italy is the most popular international education. And while only 9%destination, with 20% of all programs offering of the programs report that international studystudy there. Italy is also home to most of the is mandatory, the fact that 1/6th(16%) of theoffshore centers in the programs that have such entire student body of reporting programsfacilities. takes part in international education annually suggests that most students in the reportingWhile there is generally great variety in the programs participate in international educationstudy destinations, both surveys indicate that during there matriculation, and that mandatoryEuropean destinations are most numerous participation alone may not be necessary to(53% of landscape architecture program encourage high rates of participation.destinations offer study within Europe, and69% of the design and planning professions The Perceived Benefits of Internationaloffer study there). Education The survey results also suggest that the extentRegional study destinations other then of participation likely reflects the perceivedEuropean destinations also exhibit a similar benefits of international study by students.rank order among landscape architecture and Most program heads (91%) report benefits tothe design professions: the students, while fewer program heads (65%) reported benefits to their faculty – although theAsian and Middle Eastern destinations benefits, when reported, were similar to those 20%-landscape architecture reported for the students in several ways 11%-design professionsCentral and South American destinations The perceived benefits of international 16%-landscape architecture education for landscape architecture students 7%-design professions, were reported within three broad categories:150 Hewitt
  • 161. 39% - multiculturalism education literature treats these areas. 37% - pedagogy Particularly significant correlations were evident 12% - professional development. in published work addressing the integration of professional or practical areas of knowledgeIssues related to an “expanded view of culture with a range of multicultural competencies forand design” and a change in perspective about students,7 educational gains in social domains“where students are in the world” are the most of learning, including values clarification,frequently reported aspects of these benefits, attitude change, personal development, andbut social, historical, communication, and social maturity associated with internationalaesthetic aspects of multiculturalism were also education,8 the relevance of globalization andspecifically mentioned. Issues related to out internationalization to international educationof classroom educational settings, the effect programs, 9 and the relationship betweenof immersion in unfamiliar cultural settings second-language acquisition, experienceon student maturity and decision making, abroad, and ethno-relativism for faculty andmore intense student/teacher interaction, and staff.10 More generally related topics include:more flexible study situations were the most comparative education, curriculum andreported aspects of pedagogical benefits. instruction, ethnicity, race, class, and sexualOpportunities to practice outside the United orientation, gender, intercultural, bilingual,States, international networking, and the and multicultural education, and methodologybenefits of international experience to the and theory.11student’s resumé were reported as benefits forstudent professional development. III Discussion of the Findings Concerning Natural Breaks in the Data:The reported perceived benefits of international Because the reported data on the programseducation for landscape architecture faculty evidenced both great variety and a significantalso fell largely within the same three areas: degree of similarity, natural breaks appeared 25% - multiculturalism as clusters of similarities. And while the data 25% - pedagogy reported could certainly be more complete, 43% - professional development both surveys suggest the following description concerning natural breaks within the CELAAs with the perceived student benefits, issues participating landscape architecture programs’related to an “expanded view of culture international activities data.and design,” and a change in perspectiveon “where faculty are in the world” were More than half of the CELA participatingfrequently reported aspects of these benefits. landscape architecture programs in theSimilar issues related to out of classroom United States offer international studyeducational settings, the effect of immersion in activities to their students. Of thoseunfamiliar cultural settings, and more intense programs, most focus on one or twostudent/teacher interaction were noted, but kinds of offerings with some variation.sharing research interests was also an aspect A significant number of programs offerof pedagogical benefit reported in the data for broad-based activities in a variety of studyfaculty. destinations. While more than one-third of the landscape architecture programsThe biggest difference reported in the benefits provide center/off-site /facilities as partof international education to faculty, however, of their international education activities,concerned professional development. 43% the broad-based programs are far moreof the responses noted its importance, likely to provide such facilities than theciting “enrichment much like a sabbatical,” more focused programs.“enhancing teaching awareness of new theoriesand projects,” “research opportunities,” and Specifically – the data from the broader website“international networking” as beneficial survey found 52% of the CELA landscapeattributes of international study activities. architecture programs offer international study activities, and the survey of headsLittle consistent data concerning the benefits suggests 64% provide offerings (the amount ofof multiculturalism, enhanced pedagogy, or variation in this category is likely related to thestudent / faculty professional development difference in response rates and data sourceswere overtly evident in the web-based survey, of both surveys). The data from both surveys,but a considerable amount of the international however, is more consistent concerning breadth Learning 151
  • 162. of offerings, program focus, and availability of programs support international educationoff campus international study facilities through financial aid.The programs defined here as broad-based, • Clustering, based primarily aroundas a whole, offered many study destinations broad-based program offerings or focused(often more than 5) through affiliations, offerings, association with permanentexchanges, and/or centers. These broad- centers/off-shore facilities, and thebased programs also often offered activities amount of additional international studyduring the semester and/or summer and/or offerings available at the home campus.other briefer periods time, often in conjunctionwith a variety of additional international study Evidence from both the scholarly literatureactivities at home or abroad. There was also and the surveys suggests that the kind ofoften some evidence of future planning for variety exhibited in landscape architecturemore international education activities reported international education may be a commonby this program type. 34% of the programs in characteristic of international study offeringsthe broader, web-based survey, and 30% of the in general, and at departmental, college, andprograms from the program heads survey, fit university levels in areas of strategic planningthis program description. and policy development.The kinds of programs found to be focused Reported benefits associated with internationalon just several kinds of offerings with some education were generally universal among thevariation, offered fewer study destinations, landscape architecture programs and are largelyoften only through affiliations or exchanges. related to notions of multiculturalism, enhancedThey also reported fewer additional pedagogy and student /faculty professionalinternational study activities, often for one or a development. While multiculturalism andlimited number of study durations. 66% of the enhanced pedagogy are considered importantprograms in the broader, web-based survey, for both students and faculty, professionaland 70% of the programs from the program development is clearly considered the mostheads survey, fit this description important aspect of international education for faculty.38% of the programs in the broader, web-basedsurvey, and 43% of the programs from the Particularly strong correlations were noted in theprogram heads survey, reported international scholarly literature concerning the integrationstudy activities related to a center/off site of professional or practical areas of knowledgefacility. Of those reporting international study with a range of multicultural competencies foractivities related to a center/off site facility, students, educational gains in social domains ofbetween 78% and 84% were broad-based learning, and the relationship between second-programs. Between 19% and 22% of the language acquisition, experience abroad, andfocused programs reported international study ethno-relativism for faculty and staff. Theactivities related to a center/off site facility degree to which landscape architecture students attribute benefits to international educationSummary and Conclusions is evidenced in the data indicating extensiveThe paper suggests that the international voluntary activities of CELA participatingdepartments and programs – particularly in The paper also found that the majority ofthe United States -- exhibit three significant landscape architecture programs provide morecharacteristics: focused international education activities, but a significant minority provide broad-based • Variety, in terms of breadth of offering, offerings. Of the significant minority of faculty participation, time spent abroad, programs that were affiliated with centers/off- numbers of participating students, and shore facilities, the vast majority were of the international study destinations. broad-based type. • Consistency, in terms of the perceived Finally, while this paper has provided benefits of international education, study considerable description, correlation, and destinations according to continent, the definitive groupings not previously available extent of affiliation and exchange study concerning the international study activities of opportunities, and the degree to which CELA landscape architecture programs, areas152 Hewitt
  • 163. of inquiry remain unanswered by the data and Education: A Bibliography (2000).”analysis. Unfortunately, data from some of Comparative Education Review, vol. 45, no. 3: pp.the CELA participating landscape architecture 435-474programs is still not available. Further attemptsto ascertain a complete reporting would surely 5 Schoorman, Dilys 2000, Internationalization andbe worthwhile. Its Pedagogical Implications: Understanding and Implementing Global Perspectives, Teaching inOther research questions that seem immediately Higher Education 5, no. 3: 323-45.valuable include: comparative studies betweennon-US CELA programs and US CELA 6 Barber, Elinor G. and Barbara B. Burn, eds.programs, the history of international programs 1991, Study Abroad: The Experience of Americanin landscape architecture, and surveys of Undergraduates in Western Europe and thethe current research in multiculturalism, United States, Council on International Educationglobalization / internationalization, and Exchange, New York.pedagogy. Also immediately relevant to thesubject is the extent to which students have 7 Brill, Rhondda 1998, Internationalization ofbeen surveyed, and to what degree student Undergraduate Education: The UTS Initiative,surveys support the perceived benefits of Journal of Studies in International Education, vol.multiculturalism, enhanced pedagogy, and 2, no. 2.professional development. 8 Immelman, Aubrey, Peter Schneider1998, Assessing Student Learning in Study AbroadNotes Programs: A Conceptual Framework and1 The analysis was limited to the United States Methodology for Assessing Student Learningprograms because its university systems generally in Study Abroad Programs, Journal of Studies indiffer significantly from the university systems of International Education, vol. 2, no. 2the non-US CELA schools 9 McCabe, Lester T. 2001, Globalization and Internationalization: The Impact on EducationReferences Abroad Programs, Journal of Studies in International1 Altbach, Philip G. 2001, Higher education: a Education, vol. 5, no. 2.worldwide inventory of centers and programs,(Center for International Higher Education, Lynch 10 Olson, Christa Lee, Kent R. Kroeger 2001,School of Education, Boston College), Phoenix, Global Competency and Intercultural Sensitivity,Ariz: Oryx Press; and 1991, Guide to international Journal of Studies in International Education, in the United States, Detroit: Gale 5, No. 2.Research. 11 See Dimmock, Clive, and Walker, Allan. 2000,2 Guttierez, Ginny and Ward Morehouse, eds. 1990, Developing Comparative and InternationalInternational studies funding and resources book: Educational Leadership and Management: AEducation Interface guide to sources of support for Cross-Cultural Model. School Leadership andinternational education, 5th ed. New York: Council Management 20, no. 2: 143-61; Gough, Noel 2000,on International and Public Affairs: Apex Press. Locating Curriculum Studies in the Global Village, Journal of Curriculum Studies 32, no. 2: 329-43;3 Petrik, John F. 1997, Academic opportunities: Hayden, M. C., Rancic, B. A.; and Thompson,, fellowships, international study, J. 2000, Being International: Student and Teacherundergraduate research, post-baccalaureate Perceptions from International Schools, Oxfordeducation, and experiential learning: what they Review of Education 26, no. 1: 107-25; Made,are, how to find them, how to pursue them, and what Patricia A. 2000, Globalisation and Gender Trainingto do once you have got them, West Hartford, CT: for the Media: Challenges and Lessons Learned,Graduate Group; Paris: International Association Gender and Development 8, no. 1: 29-35; Vargas,of Universities 1993 International handbook C. M. 2000, Sustainable Development Education:of universities, New York, Stockton Press; and Averting or Mitigating Cultural Collision,Findlay, Robert 1997, International education International Journal of Educational Developmenthandbook, London, Kogan Page in association with 20, no. 5: 377-96.Educational Relocation Associates (ERA).4 CER, ed.2001, “Comparative and International Learning 153
  • 164. Structuring Teams class was for students to work in semester-long teams towards a common goal requiring thefor Learning and combination of multiple skills, experiences, andPerformance: Criteria judgments. The instructor designed a complex service learning project with a short timeframeand Methodology for to ensure participation of all team members.Instructor- Assigned Team building and skill development exercises along with formative assessments were usedTeams to assist in student learning. Dissatisfied with team performance and team learning in theKim L. Wilson previous three years, the instructor conducted this study to determine if student learning and performance could be promoted if multipleIntroduction selection criteria are used to assign teams.Teams of individuals complete most projects The criteria used in instructor-assigned teamsin the landscape architecture profession. An included technical skills, student preferences,individual’s ability to work effectively as learning styles, interpersonal style, and aptitude.part of a team is critical to project success, This article begins with a general review ofwhether it’s an interdisciplinary team with cooperative learning on teams and methodsexpertise in managing, designing, and for assigning teams; a description of criteriatechnology, or a multidisciplinary team of and methodology used to assign teams; andlandscape architects, architects, engineers, and results, best practices, and recommendationsplanners. Historically, preparing students for for instructor-assigned in landscape architecture has includedheavy usage of teams. My experience as an Literature Review:undergraduate in 1978 and as a graduatein 1981 included use of teams to complete Cooperative Learning and Teamsmany assignments. Teams are used in Cooperative learning is the instructional uselandscape architecture curriculums, currently of small class groups where peer interactionand historically, for efficient use of materials plays the key role in learning (Johnson, 1985).and teaching resources, to minimize faculty/ Teams, a type of cooperative learning, arestudent contact hours, or reduce individual students working together to achieve a commonstudent responsibilities and commitment. goal and share leadership responsibility to facilitate learning. Cooperative learningLittle thought is given to student learning involves the design of course structure thatrequired to develop critical teamwork skills supports the development of high performanceand qualities that are important for workplace learning teams and provides opportunities forcollaboration. Other professional areas of teams to engage in significant learning tasksstudy such as engineering, business, science, (Michaelsen, 2002). Team learning improvesand technology have responded to industry information acquisition and retention, higher-needs and recommendations by modifying level thinking skills, interpersonal andcurriculums and teaching methods for communication skills, and self-confidencebetter development of student cognitive, (Johnson, 1998).communication, and interpersonal skillsthrough the use of student teams in the learning Team learning and performance are two criteriaprocess (Kunkel & Shafer, 1997). Team used to evaluate student teams (Druskat, 2000).learning is an attempt to develop self-directed Team learning is defined as team memberslearning skills and introduce students to real- acquiring and sharing unique knowledgeworld experiences before graduation. and information and also examining team performance to continually improve as a unit.For learning and team skill development to Team performance is defined as meeting oroccur in teams, the instructor must structure exceeding the performance standards of thethe learning experience by making informed people who receive or review the team “output”decisions relative to goals of the assignment, (Hackman, 1987). Two team processes thatthe size and structure of teams, individual and highly influence the prediction of both teamteam accountability and rewards, and feedback learning and performance are interpersonal(Michaelsen, 2002). One of the primary understanding and proactivity in problemlearning objectives in senior urban design solving (Druskat, V.U., 2000). Interpersonal154 Wilson
  • 165. understanding involves an understanding of the because it seems fair to the students (Griffin,spoken and unspoken preferences, concerns, 1985), others have questioned this conclusion,and strengths of team members. Knowing and suggesting that randomly assigning teams isunderstanding one another enables effective “just as unfair as randomly assigning grades –knowledge sharing and open communication in each student would have the same probabilitya team (Cannon-Bowers, 1998). Proactivity in of getting an A or an F, regardless of theirproblem solving is predictive of team learning ability or efforts” (Bacon, 1998). Randomand performance. Members anticipating and assignment is not likely to generate teamspreventing potential problems increases the with a combination of skills or create cohesivethought and attention with which the team groups of students (Bacon, 1999).approaches tasks, thereby improving efficiencyby minimizing unexpected challenges (Druskat, The third approach is instructor-assigned2000). teams. Some instructors assign students to teams to maximize heterogeneity using: aTeam learning and performance is largely mix of males and females, ethnicity, andimpacted by a single factor: the high level of performers and non-performers (Connery,cohesiveness that can be developed within 1988). Team learning theories are premisedthe student learning team. Studies show on some level of heterogeneity among teamthat students evolve into cohesive learning members, since heterogeneity is assumed toteams when these teams are properly formed. be the source of different points of view on a(Michaelsen, 2002). topic and on skills. Instructor-assigned criteria for making teams differ widely, can be difficultMethods of Assignment of Teams to implement, and are seldom used (18% in aAssigning effective teams involves two study by Decker, 1995). However, instructor-variables: team membership characteristics that assigned teams offer the greatest possibility ofare not likely to interfere with the development ensuring diversity and critical skills.of group cohesion; and team diversity ensuringteams have approximately the same talent pool Instructor-Assigned Teamsto draw from in completing their assignments The instructor assigned in this study were(Michaelsen, 2002). heterogeneous teams using the following criteria: technical skills, student preference,Three approaches to assigning teams have been learning styles, interpersonal style, andexplored in literature (Decker, 1995): self- aptitude. Below is a description of eachselection; random assignment; and instructor- criterion and team implications.assignment. Self-selection offers higher initialteam cohesion (Strong and Anderson, 1990), 1. Technical skills required to produce the finalwhich tends to generate quick productivity and project in this class included hand graphics,mitigate interpersonal conflict. Self-selection computer graphics, writing, and publicencourages students to take ownership of group presentation. Since many believe that formingproblems, motivating students to manage teams begins with identifying a leader (Scholtesinterpersonal conflict more successfully. 2000), leadership was identified as the fifthCommitment to team performance could be skill. Each team had equal representation ofhigh, but increases the risk of group-think, a strengths in all five skill decision-making phenomenon whereconsideration of team solidarity leads to 2. Becaise student preference inhibits theignoring available information and accepting development of team cohesiveness (Michaelsena non-optimal decision (Janis, 1972). When 2002), previously established relationshipsstudents self-select team, they rely primarily between a subset of team members and theon social networks without giving much potential for a cohesive subgroup that excludedthought to the knowledge, skills, and abilities other members was avoided. Because personalthat these members will contribute (Levine dislike for a team member based on previous& Moreland, 1990). Self-selected teams differences also affects team cohesiveness itcompromise lack of diversity and critical was also taken into consideration.skills for initial cohesiveness, productivity,and minimal conflict. 3. While learning styles, a student’s preferred way of acquiring and using information, haveA second approach is random assignment. been an active research area in adolescentThough some recommend random assignment education (Gregorc, 1982), the intent of Learning 155
  • 166. learning styles testing in this study was to Materials and Methodsidentify student learning styles and matchthem with instructional methods to optimize Participantslearning. Research verifies that students with The data used in this study is from a sampleparticular learning styles select majors and of 104 students enrolled in a Landscapedisciplines and play specific roles on teams Architecture Design IV: Urban Design course(Ross 2001). The Gregorc Style Delineator at a major public university from August 1999(1982) was used to merge qualities of personal to January 2003. The student sample formedlearning style in four distinct ability channels: 22 instructor-assigned teams. The studyconcrete sequential, abstract sequential, focuses on the final year with a sub-sample ofabstract random, and concrete random. 26 students in 6 teams.4. Personality style relates to enduring Forming Teamspersonality characteristics that are reflected in On first day of class, each student participatedindividual behavior. A balance of personality in five self-evaluations to assess technicaltypes is desirable for effective complex skills, student preferences, learning styles,problem solving teams. The Personal Profile interpersonal style, and aptitude. The followingSystem (1996) was used to measure two assessment instruments were used.dimensions of human emotion: how a personperceives himself or herself in relation to the 1.Questionnaire A -A five-item self-question-environment; and how the person is likely to naire was developed to assess technicalbehave in response. The instructor assigned skill levels. Students defined themselves asteams were composed of diverse personality strong, average, or weak for leadership, handstyles in this class. graphics, computer graphics, writing, and public presentation.5. Aptitude and cognitive ability are the bestpredictors of individual performance (Wagner 2.Questionnaire B –A two-part questionnaire1997) and mean level cognitive ability of was developed to identify possible problemteam members predicts how well a team will relationships affecting cohesion. Studentsperform (Devine 2001). Prior performance was were asked to list up to three classmates theyassumed to be an asset for the team in solving work with well and those they do not workcourse related assignments and performance. with well.Aptitude was measured using the student’sfinal grade in the previous design studio. The 3.Learning Style Assessment–A 10-item Greg-instructor assigned teams with similar average orc Style Delineator (1982) was used to assessteam grades. learning styles.6. Team size and longevity are important in 4.Interpersonal Style–A twenty eight-itemteam learning and performance. Teams must Personal Profile System (1996), was used tobe large enough to maximize their intellectual assess interpersonal style.resources, and as heterogeneous as possible, butyet not so large as to prevent full participation 5.Aptitude -Students recorded their final sem-by all team members (Michaelsen, 2002). ester grade from the previous design class.Recommended team size is three to seven Using student’s self-reported information, themembers for classroom projects involving instructor developed a matrix to organize theresearch that culminates in a written report five criteria. Students were listed down theand /or an oral presentation (Scholtes, 2000). left side and criteria across the top. StartingInstructor-assigned teams that maximize at the top of the matrix, students were orderedheterogeneity are initially less likely to be by technical skills beginning with studentscohesive and less effective than homogeneous that identified strength in leadership. The restteams. Diverse teams take longer to develop to of the students were listed sequentially by thethe point where they can use member resources following characteristics: strong hand graphicseffectively. Diverse teams working together without strength in leadership; strong computerover along period will be effective performers graphics without strengths in leadership(Watson, 1993). The instructor in the study and hand graphics; strong writers withoutassigned teams of four and five members for strengths in leadership, hand graphics, andthe entire semester in this class. computer graphics; strong public presenters156 Wilson
  • 167. without strengths in leadership, hand graphics, are examples of student journal comments:computer graphics, writers, and publicpresenters; students with no strength area; and “Team officially rolling with ideas. ___ending with students with only weaknesses. has a great grasp on architecture, veryAll weak skill areas were recorded. The much a visionary; ____is jumping on afour other criteria were recorded after each renovation plan, which reminds me ofstudent’s name in the following order: student how wonderful he is to work with; ____,preferences, learning styles, personality style the detailed person, is working on aand aptitude. model; and I am looking at beginning to put some of these ideas in the computer.The instructor formed 4 four-person and 2 five-person teams, starting by assigning the first six “He is so tedious in his perfectionism,students from the matrix to six different teams. could make me look sloppy. DealingStudents were added to teams, distributing with very detailed people is very hardeach skill area uniformly between teams. for me. Even during brainstormingStudents were not assigned to teams with activity one member tried to take overstudents they had identified as preferring not and was putting too much detail. I amto work with. Team membership was refined aware that my own perfectionism may beto include strengths in all four learning styles. bothersome to other team members. So IThe personality style instrument identified 9 keep that in mind and try to zoom out toperfectionists and they were distributed across the big picture. Sometimes details matter,all teams. Similar team mean aptitude ensured but when it doesn’t, I tell myself to moveuniformity between teams. on and leave it alone.”Outcome Measures “This team stuff is definitely aTeam learning and performance was measured learning process about understanding,using instructor journal, student journals, communicating and effectively handlingformative assessments, experts review, and situations. Our team has talked aboutfinal project grade. Throughout the semester the difficulties we all were having and Ithe instructor recorded qualitative observations think this is a step in the right direction.on student team learning and performance. A …I feel there will be frustrations and atqualitative analysis was made on 26 students, times hardships but I hope we can learn15 journal entries each using the learning and to identify problems as they occur andperformance criteria. Self and peer evaluations learn to appreciate the differences thatand formative assessments were used to we bring to the team.”ensure individual accountability and assist thestudents in learning. Teams presented final “I feel this team is able to work wellprojects to six professionals (experts) where together because we have been honestthe experts made comments and criticisms on with each other, able to communicateteam performance. Projects were evaluated differences. We do need to switchby the instructor and assigned a final grade. A roles…I want to focus more on the ideasfinal assessment was conducted during finals rather than writing what other peopleweek where students were asked to identify are thinking (her strength and learningand prioritize what they learned. style).”Results “I have to really encourage ____ toThe instructor’s journal indicated all teams speak her mind and encourage her towere communicative and engaged, struggled have confidence in herself and to leavewith team members and concept development, unimportant issues behind when meetingdiscovered new ideas, and were surprised and in the team.”pleased with their final projects. “____ and I resolved our conflicts”Student journals were assessed usingperformance and learning criteria. Of 390 “____ is very detail oriented. _____isjournal entries, 64 percent included comments so graphically oriented, he was beingon interpersonal understanding of team extremely fussy on our boards. I guessmembers and 53 percent included comments on I am turning into the time beeper,proactivity in problem solving. The following concerned with the deadline. I guess Learning 157
  • 168. after thinking about it more, I realize that that the criteria could ensure more uniform it takes all of us, with these very different success in performance. qualities, to complete the project.” Discussion “So that’s it. Nothing more to stress It is the responsibility of the instructor to over, we got it done. Blow-ups, plans, create the best environment in which a student framework, text, photo simulations, final can learn. The manner in which teams are board layout…all done. It’s kind of sad composed plays an important role in creating though. Presentation went well. I like a learning environment, which yields high the final project…everyone work. It was team performance. The findings support wonderful.” the expectation that instructor-assigned, heterogeneous teams play a significant roleA jury of experts that included a city engineer, in team learning and performance. However,a planner, an environmental designer, an as an instructor who administers teamarchitect, a landscape architect, and an academic assignments, there is a valid concern with thereviewed all of the projects informally. The number of instructor-assignment criteria.students presented the projects formally, andthe jury, after questions and clarifications, The assessment of technical skill, preference,complimented all teams on their thorough learning style, interpersonal style and aptitudeunderstanding of the project context, unique measures different individual characteristicsapproaches, creative and practical solutions, contributing to team diversity. Which ofand professional presentations. In the past the six criteria is the best predictor for teamthe experts thought that at least one and up to learning and performance? Technical skills,three teams’ methodologies and solutions did learning styles and interpersonal styles are thenot respond to the project issues or the urban most divergent and most predictive of learningcontext. and performance. Campion and colleagues (1993) found that using technical skills asStudents, on the final self and peer evaluation team assigning criteria aligns most with theform, were asked, “What was the most formation of professional teams. Self-reportedsignificant team trait that contributed to measures of skills are significantly related tothe project?” Of a possible 26 responses, team process and effectiveness in assuring80 percent of the responses identified some team performance, but do not ensure the extentkind of interpersonal understanding of team of diversity required for team learning.members or proactivity in problem solving.Comments included integration of ideas, Learning style assessment provided the studentdelegation, ability to resolve conflict, team and team members with knowledge of how theycooperation through the struggle to develop process information, and interpersonal profileideas, mediation, listening, diversity of assessment provided knowledge of how apersonalities, encouraging and supporting one student perceives themselves in relation to theanother, dealing with difference to understand, environment, and how they are likely to behaveand ability to overcome differences to produce in response. Journal writings indicated thata great project. both assessments not only increased student awareness of behaviors, but also assisted inStudents on the final assessment responded the development of a shared responsibilityto the statement, “List and prioritize the towards understanding.three most important things you learned thissemester.” Of the 75 responses, 45 percent of Research findings suggest that activitiesthe responses sighted teamwork skills such as focused on interpersonal understanding cancommunication, patience, timeliness, conflict increase both learning and performanceresolution, and stepping outside normal and (Druskat, 2000). As proposed by Cannon-expected behavior. Of the 45 percent recorded, Bowers (1998), knowing and understandingover half ranked team skills as the highest. one another seems to enable more effective knowledge sharing and open communicationAll six teams satisfied the performance criteria within a team. That an understanding of theand received an A for a final project grade. spoken and unspoken preferences, concernsIn each of the previous three years, when the and strengths of team members helped toinstructor-assigned criteria was not used, all predict the amount of learning occurring withinteams did not perform A work. This indicates a team. More time spent on becoming familiar158 Wilson
  • 169. with one another can have a positive impact on profession. Landscape architecture curriculumsteams (Deeter-Chmelz 2002). Both learning should consider incorporating communicationstyle and interpersonal style assessments proved abilities training and assessment beginning theto be valuable for developing team cohesion, freshman year.helping students with self-awareness, assistingstudents in adapting to teams’ expectations, Some students behaved unacceptable asand providing members with a higher level of team members. The instructor believes thisunderstanding. is the result of student immaturity. Student development theorists believe that emotional,Learning style and interpersonal assessments interpersonal, and ethical development isprovided the instructor with knowledge and equal to intellectual development. It is theunderstanding that assisted in supporting responsibility of higher education to impartindividual and team learning. The instructor transferable skills and relevant knowledge,assisted students in realizing their natural bolster confidence and creativity, and engenderabilities and capabilities, recognizing and social responsibility and self-directedappreciating others’ abilities and developing learning. Fundamental to this is interpersonalskills that allow stretching beyond their natural competency that entails not only the skills ofabilities to adapt and cope. listening, cooperating, and communicating effectively, but also the more complex abilitiesIn establishing highly diverse teams, journals of appropriate response, aligning personaland formative assessments revealed the agendas with the goals of group, and choosingfollowing shortcomings in preparing students from a variety of strategies to help a relationshipfor teamwork in the workplace: team practice; flourish or a team function (Chickering, 1993).communication skills; and student maturity. As learning communities, the framework is inStudents study landscape architecture as place for curriculums to teach a wide range ofa learning community, a pedagogy where behavior skills that foster tolerance, civility,students and faculty are organized into smaller and personal and social responsibility.units with curricular integration. One of thedrawbacks is individual work is emphasized The goal of this study was to provide instructorsearly in their academic careers creating using teams with recommendations on howcompetition between students. When use of to assign students to teams in a way thatcooperative learning teams is limited to the will enhance performance and better preparefinal year, students are challenged to overcome students to deal with teams in the workplace.individual competition in favor of cooperation Results of this study indicate that instructor-and interdependence instead of independence. assigned, heterogeneous teams using theTherefore, a balance of individual learning and criteria of technical skills, student preferences,cooperative learning on teams should occur learning styles, interpersonal style, andthroughout the curriculum. aptitude promotes greater team learning and performance.Student journals identified the lack ofcommunication skills necessary to advance Conclusionteamwork, such as the abilities to describe, Our responsibility is to prepare students forpersuade, listen, and negotiate. The ability success in the workplace. Team learningto communicate is a learned behavior and is improves information acquisition and retention,required for effectiveness in any profession. higher-level thinking skills, interpersonal andUnlike most curriculums, Alverno College, in communication skills, and self-confidenceMilwaukee, WI, uses an ability-based outcome (Johnson, 1998). This finding admonishes us asprogram with communication ability training instructors to place students in team situationsand assessment in behaviors including leading, that have the greatest chance for preparingreinforcing, information/opinion seeking, them for the workplace. Although we cannotchallenging, summarizing, evaluating, ensure the success of every student, structuringclosure, mediating, advocating, and a myriad the learning experience by making informedof blocking behaviors. Alverno students move decisions relative to goals of the assignment,through levels of development beginning with the size and structure of teams, individual andidentifying individual strengths and weakness team accountability and rewards, and feedbackin communication through to training ensuring and finding ways to improve team training, wecreativity and habitual effectiveness using can establish an environment that is conducivestrategies, theories, and technology that reflect a to team learning and performance. Learning 159
  • 170. Lee Bolman, a professor of education at Experimental Learning.Harvard University commenting on a similarprofession, wrote that many practicing Deeter-Schmelz, D. R., Kennedy, K. N., & Ramsey,architects felt their schools shortchanged them R, P. 2002. Enriching our understanding of studentsin non-design topics, and 22 percent regretted team effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Education,not having learned how to deal better with 24(2), 114-124.people. In addition, Ernest Boyer (1996), fromthe Carnegie Foundation, stated that for creating Druskat, V. U., & Kayes, D. C. 2000. Learningsustainable design, a curriculum built around versus performance in short-term project teams. Small Group Research. Vol. 31, No. 3:328-356.collaboration and teamwork is necessary. Inlight of the importance of teamwork and Gregorc, A. 1982. Gregorc Style Delineator.cooperation in our society and the lack of Maynard, MA: Gabrial Systems, Inc.instruction concerning these values in currenthigher-education systems, a more serious and Griffin, J. 1985. Some problems of fairness. Ethics.accountable approach to cooperative learning 96:100-118.on teams is justified. Hackman, J. R., 1985. The design of work teams. In J. Lorsch (Ed), Handbook of OrganizationalReferences Behavior. (pp. 315-342). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Bacon, D., Stewart, K., & Silver, W. 1999. Lessons Prentice Hall.from the best and worst student team experience:How a teacher can make a difference. Journal of Janis, I. 1972. Victims of Groupthink. Boston:Management Education. 23:467-488. Houghton Mifflin.Bacon, D., Stewart, K., & Stewart-Belle, S. 1998. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. 1985. StructuringExploring predictors of student team project groups for cooperative learning. The Organizationalperformance. Journal of Marketing Education. Behavior Teaching Review. 9:8-17.20(1):63-71. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K.A.Boyer, E. L., & Mitgang, L. D. 1996. Building 1998. Active learning: Cooperation in the CollegeCommunity: A New Future for Architecture Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Co.Education. The Carnegie Foundation for theAdvancement of Teaching. Princeton, New Jersey. Kunkel, J.G., Shafer, W.E. 1997. Effects of student learning in undergraduate auditing courses, JournalCampion, M. A., Medsker, G. J.,& Higgs, A.C. of Education for Business, 72, 197-200.1993. Relations between work group characteristicsand effectiveness: Implications for designing Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. 1990. Progress ineffective work groups. Personnel Psychology, 46, small group research. Annual Review Psychology.823-850. 41, Rosenzweig, M.R. & Porter, L.W. (Ed.) pp.585- 634.Cannon-Bowers, J. A., Salas, E., & Blickensderfer,E. L. 1998, April. Making fine distinction among Michaelsen, L. K., Knight, A. B., & Fink, constructs: Worthy endeavor or “Crewel” 2002. Team-Based Learning: A Tran formativeand unusual punishment. In R. Klimoski (Chair), Use of Small Groups. CT: Praeger Publishers.When is a work team a crew and does it matter?Symposium presented at the 13th annual Conference Scholltes, P. R., Joiner, B. L., & Streibel, B.J.of the Society for Industrial and Organizational 2000. The Team Handbook. (Ed), WI: OrielPsychology, Dallas, TX. Incorporated.Chickering, A. W., Reisser, L. 1993. Education and Strong, J. T, & Anderson, R. E. (1990). Free-Identity. (Ed.) CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. riding in group projects: Control mechanism and preliminary data. Journal of Marketing Education.Connery, B. W. 1988. Group work and collaborative 12:61-67.writing. Teaching at Davis. 14(1): 2-4. Watson, W. E., Kumar, D., & Michaelsen, L.Decker, R. 1995. Management team formation for K. 1993. Cultural diversity’s impact on grouplarge scale simulations. In J.D. Overby & A.L. Patz process and performance: comparing culturally(Eds.), Developments in Business simulation & homogeneous and culturally diverse task gouops.experiential exercises. 22 (pp. 128-129). Statesboro, Academy of Management Journal. 36(3):590-602.GA: Association for Business Simulation and160 Wilson
  • 171. Assessing the Potential However, in the early 20th century, built elements including playground equipment forPlay Value of Vegetation: the primary purpose of physical play began toOutdoor Environments replace natural elements and this “playground paradigm” persists today. Unfortunately, manyof Preschools in Tuscon, children who enter daycare facilities as infantsArizona may spend up to 12,000 hours there before they reach school age and these play areas could represent their only experience outdoorsBeth W. Darnell (Isbell and Exelby, 2001). Furthermore, there isMargaret Livingston growing concern that children’s opportunitiesLauri Macmillan Johnson for outdoor play and direct experiences with nature are shrinking and consequences may include increases in attention deficit behaviors,Introduction childhood obesity, and a general lack ofOutdoor play is considered a necessary part concern for the natural environment (Kellert,of early childhood education. However, 2001; Moore and Wong, 1997; Wilson, 1997).outdoor play environments associated withpreschools often do not reflect qualities of The need for children’s outdoor environmentsnatural environments, particularly the presence that are sensory rich and facilitate play involvingof vegetation. Furthermore, curriculum all the domains of development (physical,for teaching children about their natural socio-emotional, cognitive, and sensory) hasenvironment may be equally devoid of hands on inspired a handful of designers and educatorsexperiences with vegetation and other natural to advocate ways of incorporating naturalelements. This study explored the potential play elements into outdoor play environments.value that vegetation can contribute to early Moore and Wong (1997) pioneered the redesignchildhood learning environments through both of play environments using deliberatelyphysical characteristics and value attributed to selected vegetation to increase the potential forit by educators. play. Behavior of children was studied before and after implementation of these landmarkWhile the very word “play” brings with play areas and results indicated an increase init connotations of “aimlessness” or variety of play behaviors, motor activities and“entertainment” that often conflict with particularly, interactive uses of plants (Mooreeducational goals (DeVries et al., 2002), play and Wong, 1997).is the investigative process by which youngchildren construct knowledge and is central Children tend to recognize the potential for playto the concept of developmentally appropriate or activities related to vegetation. This coincidespractice, advocated by the National Association with memory research by Sebba (1991) andfor the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Francis (1995) in which adult memories of(Bredekamp and Copple, 1997). Nationally vegetation from their childhood often involvedaccredited programs are recognized as settings activity. Yet Olwig (1989) maintains that adults,in which work and play are integrated with perhaps forgetting childhood memories, tend tophysical, social, emotional, and intellectual see vegetation primarily as passive backgrounddevelopment and materials and play activities scenery. Schneekloth (1989) contends that theare abundant and challenging. The teacher’s relegation of vegetation to background scenicrole in these settings becomes that of status results in its value being “invisible” toenvironmental facilitator, where play is used as most adults. It seems that assessment of playa tool for teaching and appropriate responses potential of vegetation in early childhoodto children’s inquiries are met by extending environments would require both the presencethe play experience (Bredekamp and Copple, and characteristics of vegetation as well as1997; DeVries et al., 2002). the awareness of the opportunities vegetation creates as a stimulus for play and learningIf the goals of developmentally appropriate (Moore, 2002). This study focused on analysesearly childhood education are to be applied of these two general concepts; the physicaloutdoors, the element of vegetation holds great presence and characteristics of vegetation andpotential value. In fact, nature and vegetation adult awareness of vegetation for play potential.were central to the curriculum of the first More specifically, methods were developedearly childhood educators (Herrington, 2001). with the following questions in mind: Learning 161
  • 172. 1) What vegetation is available for vegetation value stated by educators, presenceyoung children in their outdoor learning of other landscape elements, and overall playenvironments? value richness. These are discussed in the following sections.2) What are the qualities of vegetation thatdirectly support the development of young Vegetation Value Based on Site Assessmentschildren? Thirty-eight percent of all species recorded were native; however, 67% of those appeared3) Do early childhood educators recognize in only two sites. Mulberry (Morus alba)and value vegetation in the context of early appeared most frequently (46% of sites), achildhood education? large, non-native tree no longer planted in Tucson due to associated allergies. MulberryMethods does, however, contribute several play valuesPotential sites were initially identified from a such as dramatic seasonal change, plant partslist of NAEYC-accredited programs in Tucson, and dense shade as well as being the soleArizona and study sites were randomly chosen food source of a favorite preschool pet, thefrom schools that agreed to participate. Sites silkworm.were stratified across Tucson, presumablyrepresenting a variety of ethnic and socio- Vegetation density varied greatly, rangingeconomic backgrounds of children ages 3 from 0 to 48 plants/ 10,000 sq. ft., suggestingto 5. Sites differed in size and several were no evident consistency in terms of the plantingpart of larger public school playgrounds. Site design requirements for these outdoor learningmeasurements were restricted to the outdoor environments. Diversity based on growthplay areas used by preschool children. Sites structure richness indicated that the majoritywere evaluated using a two-part assessment. of plants among the 13 sites were large trees. Indeed, these trees were almost exclusivelyPart I consisted of assessment of existing single trunk trees with canopies above thevegetation and presence of other relevant reach of most young children. A groundcoveroutdoor elements. Data was used to formulate plant appeared at only one site and vines atfour indices: 1) plant density and richness, 2) only 2 sites.frequency of plant growth types, 3) presence of19 potential play values (PPV) of vegetation— A variety of shrub sizes appeared infrequently,those characteristics identified in the literature which is unfortunate since shrubs tend to be atas potentially valuable for play of young more of a child’s scale and their qualities (i.e.children (Table 1), and 4) presence of other plant parts, fragrance, texture) more accessiblenatural and built elements, including lawns or to young children. Shrubs are also more likelycultivated gardens. Values within each index to form enclosures and refuges or small hidingwere standardized by dividing the value for places of noted importance for children’s play.each site variable measured by the maximum One site, with its large number of medium tovalue for that variable. This standardization large-height creosote shrubs providing severalresulted in values that could range from 0 to refuge areas, was the only site in which shrubs1.0 for each of the variables used in each index. were clearly used for this purpose. In general,Characteristics unique to individual sites were the diversity of vegetation structure was low,recorded and used in site narratives. thereby minimizing children’s contact with plants offering variation in texture, size, colorPart II consisted of assessment of vegetation and ultimately in their potential for play.value through: 1) analysis of responses byteachers relating to value of vegetation, and 2) Results regarding potential play value ofanalysis of how vegetation was reportedly used vegetation among all 13 sites indicatedin the curriculum. Two indices were developed relatively high frequency (10-12 out of 13)from these results, using standardized values for the values A, B, C, H, I, M, O, P, and previously described. Finally, an overall Of the PPV identified, the relative absence ofplay value richness was determined by adding certain values is significant. Values D, E, J,the six index values for each site. and K all appeared infrequently despite their relative importance based on noted literature.Results In particular, absence of climbing trees andResults suggested trends related to plant species vegetation refuge spaces may indicate a lackoccurrence, vegetation density and variety, of knowledge about vegetation as potential162 Darnell
  • 173. for play and concerns for safety, liability, indicator of how vegetation is valued in theseand maintenance may be playing a more environments. Recognition and interpretationdominant role in the minds of teachers and of the vegetation present or available toadministrators. educators for potential play value appears to be the most limiting factor in these settings.Careful selection of each plant in the designfor its potential play value can compensate for Presence of Other Landscape Elementslow plant density, species richness and growth Sixty-two percent of the sites contained outdoorstructure richness. Assessing PPV alone may be cultivated gardens and lawns and 78% of thema better indicator of play complexity achieved contained built shade structures and all-in-onethrough vegetation while typical vegetation play structures. Two sites that did not have all-assessments, such as species diversity and in-one structures, however, contained a muchrichness, offer limited information relating higher proportion and diversity of vegetationto potential play activities associated with than other sites. The high occurrence of builtplants. elements suggests a prioritization of these over their natural counterparts. This is consistentVegetation Value Based on Educator with literature citing the bias toward builtInterviews structures for the purpose of primarily largeMeasurement of the “visibility” of vegetation motor development in children’s outdooris a largely subjective determination by the play rather than natural elements and settingsresearcher of how the adults responsible for the providing for additional types of appear to “see” or value the element of Furthermore, these built structures tend to givevegetation. While a direct correlation between a generic quality of all play areas, underminingvegetation visibility and actual effectiveness the importance of a “sense of place” or elementsof vegetation was not tested in this study, the that are meaningful to a specific region andassessment of both illustrates that a potential population (Herrington, 1997; Bredecamp andrelationship exists and can be used as a guide for Copple, 1997).future study. Eight out of 17 possible reportedvalues of vegetation was the greatest number Combined data regarding physical qualitiesmentioned by an educator. Interestingly, this and presence of vegetation and educatornumber was reported by an educator from a perceptions suggests that the value placedsite with relatively low ranking for vegetation on vegetation for play can be measured inrichness. However, this site differed from most different ways. Landscape architects shouldothers in that the class frequently played in a focus on plant selection for play environmentsnearby park with native vegetation and the lead that maximizes the number of potential playteacher was very knowledgeable about plants. values associated with each individual species.Furthermore the school was in the process of Sharing results of studies such as this withobtaining a grant to redesign their play area educators will likely increase their awarenesswith the goal of integrating natural and built of vegetation as a valuable element supportingelements. their teaching goals.Of those values corresponding to the PPV Overall Play Value Richnessassessed for in existing vegetation, values All sites were ranked according to the sumA (shade) and B (beauty) were reported of their individual rankings for each richnessmost frequently (10 sites), corroborating category (Table 2). Sites 12 and 13 were rankedresearch suggesting that adults tend to value first and second as their individual rankingsvegetation as background scenery and not for were consistently high. It is significant to noteactive learning. In general, the curriculum as that these sites are both private, tuition-basedreported by educators did not regularly use programs (although the special needs programvegetation, regional emphasis, or the outdoors at Site 12 is publicly funded). Site 4 rankedas means of teaching children about the natural relatively high (fifth) due to strong rankingsenvironment. Research by Kellert (2001) in reported vegetation value and curriculum.suggests that curriculum tends tended to focus The lead teacher at this site took the initiativeon indoor activities, such as growing seeds in to use vegetation off-site, an activity notcups or reading books about plants. feasible at all facilities. Site 8 was also ranked high (third) and represents a good balance ofWhile this data only reflects the opinion of one vegetation richness and educator visibility at aeducator from each site, it serves as a general publicly-funded program. Learning 163
  • 174. Conclusions References Bredekamp, S. and C. Copple. 1997. DevelopmentallyWhile vegetation in study sites showed appropriate practice in early childhood programs.relatively high potential for play based on Washington D.C.: National Association for theobserved characteristics, vegetation value Education of Young Children. 182 reported by educators did not correspond.For example, presence of plant parts for play DeVries, R., B. Zan, C. Hildebrandt, R. Edmiaston,was observed at 11 sites but only 2 educators C. Sales (Eds). 2002. Developingreported it as a vegetation value, suggesting constructivist early childhood curriculum: Practicalthat its potential is possibly not being realized. principles and activities. New York: Teacher’sGreat variation in vegetation diversity and College Press. 250 p.natural features in study sites suggests thatNAFYC accreditation criteria may not be Francis, M., 1995. Childhood’s Garden: Memoryaddressing the quality of “naturalness” in and Meaning of Gardens. Children’s Environmentsoutdoor environments and subsequently not Quarterly, 12: 183-191providing adequate teacher training about thetopic. While variety and complexity of play Herrington, S. 1997. The Received View of Playmay be accomplished through the presence of and the Subculture of Infants. Landscape Journal.built structures and play equipment, the unique 16: 149-160.and necessary relationship children have withsuch nature is largely missing and presence of Isbell, R. and B.Exelby 2001. Early Learningnature as reflected by vegetation seems more a Environments That Work. Maryland: Gryphonfunction of chance than a planned educational House Inc. 191 p.benefit. Kellert, S.R. 2001. Experiencing Nature: Affective,Landscape architects can be insrumental in Cognitive and Evaluative Development in Children.the planning of educational facilities that In P.H. Kahn and S.R. Kellert (Eds.), Childrendeliberately use vegetation for play and and nature: Psychological, sociocultural, andlearning. Plant recommendations, curriculum evolutionary investigations. Cambridge, MA: Theuses, and maintenance guidelines are examples MIT Press. 348 p.of some of the valuable information landscapearchitects can provide. Specific play values, Moore, R. C., 2002, Plants for play, Berkeley, CA,identified in this study, could be a basis MIG Communications, 121p.for plant selection. Firthermore, a detailedaccounting of potential play values for each Moore, R. C., and H. H. Wong, 1997, Naturalplant selected for those facilities and provided learning: the life history of an environmentalto lead instructors would help maximize schoolyard: creating environments for rediscoveringthe play potential of the vegetation choices, nature’s way of teaching, Berkeley, CA MIGmaking each plant “count.” Communictions, 280 p.This clear highlighting of vegetation as Olwig, K.R. 1989. The Childhood Deconstructiona valuable educational tool may increase of Nature. Children’s Environments Quarterly. 6:awareness of teachers as well as parents, 19-25.planners, and designers not informed aboutthe importance of vegetation for play and Schneekloth, L.H. 1989. “Where did you go?” “Thetheir development. In turn, future planning forest” “What did you see?” “Nothing”. Children’sfor children;s environments may begin to Environments Quarterly. 6: 14-17.have greater emphasis on plants and natureand their associated benefits, and lessreliance on built structures and playgroundequipment. More focused integration ofvegetation in environments for play seems alogical step in the direction of ensuring futureappreciation for natural environments as wellas providing memorable learning experiencesfor children that are necessary for their healthydevelopment.164 Darnell
  • 175. Table 1 Identified Potential Play Values (PPV) of Vegetation Based on Noted Literature in LandscapeArchitecture and Early Childhood Development. Key PPV Plant characteristic providing value Reference A Provides physical comfort Modifies microclimate (provide shade) or reduce wind Moore, Olds B Provides beauty Appears well-maintained or softens hard surfaces and architecture Moore, Olds C Provides unusual texture Provides especially interesting textures (foliage, bark) Moore, D Provides edible parts Produces edible parts Francis, Moore E Provides fragrance Produces fragrant flowers or foliage Moore F Provides sound Produces wind effects or has parts that can create sounds Moore G Provides color Produces high color contrast in flowers and foliage Moore H Provides a landmark or focal Exhibits distinctive form or is single, relatively point large and planted near center of play area Moore, Olds I Provides parts for Produces regenerating parts such as seeds, Moore, manipulative play pods, flowers Rivkin, J Provides structure for safe Supports climbing or swinging, have horizontal climbing or swing attachment branching structure Moore, Francis M. K Forms enclosures (refuge Grows naturally or can be pruned to form child- spaces) that support dramatic scale refuge space play Kirkby L Attracts wildlife Provides food or shelter for wildlife Moore, Rivkin, Wilson M Shows the passage of seasons Exhibits noticeable seasonal changes (leaf color, leaf drop) Moore, Olds N Contributes to regional or Native or drought tolerant plant, distinctive of cultural identity the region Moore, O Is safe for young children Not toxic or dangerously thorny Does not create a complete visual barrier. Has resilient surfacing as required below climbing trees Moore, Rivkin P Does not create significant Produces minimal litter and requires minimal maintenance requirements. pruning and irrigation Moore Q Is accessible to children Exhibits features at a young child’s scale R Is well-maintained Appears healthy and is actively growing Cooper- Marcus and Barnes, Moore S Is intentionally planted or Appears to have been planted in relation to placed potential use by children. Learning 165
  • 176. Table 2 Overall play value richness(PVR) index for thirteen early childhood programs in Tucson, AZ basedon indices total for species and growth structure richness, PPV(potential play value), related landscape elementsrichness (RLE), RVV(reported vegetation values) and curriculum related to the natural environment (CNE). Site # Species Growth PPV RLE RVV CNE PVR Site richness structure richness richness Total rank of richness PVR 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.63 0.38 0.08 1.09 13 2 0.04 0.14 0.63 0.75 0.50 0.33 2.39 11 3 0.06 0.14 0.63 0.88 0.63 0.33 2.67 8 4 0.05 0.14 0.58 0.63 1.00 1.00 3.40 5 5 0.09 0.28 0.63 0.88 0.38 0.42 2.68 7 6 0.11 0.28 0.58 0.50 0.63 0.33 2.43 10 7 0.06 0.14 0.63 0.75 0.25 0.25 2.08 12 8 0.18 0.86 0.79 0.88 0.75 1.00 4.46 3 9 0.17 0.43 0.79 0.75 0.63 0.67 3.44 4 10 0.33 0.25 0.84 0.75 0.63 0.42 3.22 6 11 0.29 0.25 0.74 0.75 0.25 0.25 2.53 9 12 1.00 1.00 0.84 0.88 0.63 1.00 5.35 1 13 0.41 0.86 1.00 1.00 0.75 1.00 5.02 2166 Darnell
  • 177. Learning Fin