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If lions could talk: attempts at mapping over the borders
 

If lions could talk: attempts at mapping over the borders

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Keynote address, given at the Borders and Identities Conference Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Slides by Benjamin Hennig.

Keynote address, given at the Borders and Identities Conference Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Slides by Benjamin Hennig.

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    If lions could talk: attempts at mapping over the borders If lions could talk: attempts at mapping over the borders Presentation Transcript

    • If lions could talk: attempts at mapping over the borders Keynote address by Danny Dorling University of Sheffield Borders and Identities Conference Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 8 January 2010
    • Introduction
      • How would you draw a map of the capital city of the United States of America that represented the human geography of that city? Some of those who have been there say:
      • “ In Washington D.C. the invisible borders of segregation are now so wide that for adolescents, left on the wrong side of the tracks” …downtown does not exit. “There is no talking over the border. The life experiences are so sharply different that it is not clear what the residents of the two sides could talk to each other about were they to meet and stop to converse. It is becoming again as if one side were animals, lions, suddenly given the ability to speak and” (*)
      • … if lions could talk, we would not understand them. Tourists maps of Washington exist with areas shaded to suggest you don’t go there.
      (*) as Ludwig Wittgenstein apparently remarked, expanded upon in: Bauman, Z. (2000 (2nd edition)). Globalization: the human consequences. Cambridge, Polity Press. (page 86).
    • Introduction
      • This talk concerns mapping lives to try to make them comparable across borders. Globally, and within particular cities, people’s lives can be so different today that it is unlikely that two people taken from different sides of the border could easily understand each others’ concerns. Maps of mortality worldwide, of cultural divides along the English midlands, and of wealth divides within the heart of London are discussed in this talk which asks how we can better portray the extent and existence of both perceived and actual socio-political boundaries in ways that people from different sides of the divides can understand. The talk concludes with a justification for attempting to produce new world maps of what we think most people speak everywhere (taken from the website www.worldmapper.org).
    • Introduction
      • The territory size in the following series of maps shows the proportion of the displayed language that are spoken there. The maps are sorted in an order going from languages with the least native speakers towards the ones with the most native speakers, covering a total of 106 languages.
      • All maps are part of the worldmapper project, which is a collaborative work between the following people:
        • Danny Dorling, University of Sheffield
        • Mark Newman, University of Michigan
        • Graham Allsopp, University of Sheffield
        • Anna Barford, University of Sheffield
        • Ben Wheeler, University of Sheffield
        • John Pritchard, University of Sheffield
        • Benjamin Hennig, University of Sheffield
      • All language maps shown here as well as further notes can be found online at:
      • http://www.worldmapper.org/extraindex/text_language.html
    • Basemaps: Land area (c) www.worldmapper.org Map of the territories of the world as used in the worldmapper project
    • Basemaps: Population (c) www.worldmapper.org Map of the distribution of the world’s population
    • MAPPING LANGUAGES
      • "A language is a dialect with an army and a navy.“
      • (Unknown associate of Max Weinreich)
    • A journey through the world of mouth Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png Map of the world’s language families
    • INDIGENOUS LIVING LANGUAGES
      • This map uses data from 'Ethnologue: Languages of the World', and shows the number of languages considered indigenous to each country that are still spoken there. Due to issues of language identification, it is possible to dispute the data used here, and a review of Ethnologue by Campbell and Grondona (2008) does just that; they claim "... the number of indigenous ('living') languages of different countries is inflated ...".
    • Indigenous living languages The map presents a good picture of linguistic diversity. Papua New Guinea has nearly 10% (820) of the world's indigenous living languages, so that there are only an average of 7000 speakers per language living there. Indonesia (737), Nigeria (510), and India (415) also have a large number of native languages. At the other end of the scale, Belarus, Maldives, DPR Korea and Holy See each have only one indigenous living language. 8,592 native speakers are represented in this map. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tuvaluan: 12,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png The red star indicates the region where this language originates or the main place where the native speakers of this language are located.
    • TUVALUAN
      • Tuvaluan is a language of Tuvalu. Roughly 90% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tuvaluan Tuvaluan is spoken by roughly 11 thousand people, most of them on the islands of Tuvalu in the south-central Pacific. The language has also been taken in small numbers to Nauru, New Zealand, Kiribati, Fiji and Australia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tongan: 142,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • TONGAN
      • Tongan is a language of Tonga. Roughly 98% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tongan Tongan is the national language of Tonga. It is a member of the same language family (Polynesian) as Niuean, Hawaiian, Maori, Samoan and Tahitian. It is spoken by roughly 130 thousand people in at least 7 territories. After Tonga, the largest population (around 24 thousand) is in the United States. Other smaller populations are in New Zealand, Fiji, the United Kingdom, Samoa and Australia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Icelandic: 315,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • ICELANDIC
      • Icelandic is a language of Iceland. Roughly 97% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Icelandic Icelandic is spoken by just over 3 million people, in at least 7 territories. Outside Iceland, speakers are also recorded as living in Denmark, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Norway, mostly through relatively recent emigration. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Samoan: 384,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SAMOAN
      • Samoan is a language of Samoa. Roughly 100% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Samoan Sāmoan (or Samoan) is spoken by around 380 thousand people in total, most of them in Samoa and American Samoa. There are also nearly 100 thousand speakers in New Zealand, nearly 30 thousand in Australia, and a small number in Fiji. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Maltese: 451,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • MALTESE
      • Maltese is a language of Malta. Roughly 93% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Maltese Maltese is the language of Malta. It is a Semitic language, with some of its vocabulary borrowed from Italian and English. It is spoken by at least 440 thousand people in at least six territories. As well as Malta, it is spoken (roughly in order of descending numbers of speakers) in Australia, Italy, Canada, the United Kingdom and Tunisia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Welsh: 482,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • WELSH
      • Welsh is a language of the United Kingdom. Roughly 0.8% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Welsh Welsh is a Celtic language, spoken by roughly half a million people as their first language. The majority of those are in Wales, where an effort has been made to revive the language. There are also thought to be around 200,000 in England, many of them in London or near the border with Wales. There is a Welsh community in the Chubut Valley in Argentine Patagonia, descendents of a group who left Wales in 1865. There are also Welsh speakers recorded in the censuses of the United States, Canada and Australia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Yiddish: 506,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • YIDDISH
      • Yiddish is a language of Israel. Roughly 3% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Yiddish Yiddish has its routes in tenth-century Germany, where Jews from France and Northern Italy established communities, developing a language with elements of German, Laaz, Hebrew, and Aramaic. The language spread and changed as Jews migrated eastward to escape persecution. Before World War II there were 11 to 13 million Yiddish speakers (Jacobs, 2005), but The Holocaust led to a dramatic reduction in the number of speakers. There are now roughly 500,000 people speaking Yiddish as their first language, in at least 15 territories. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Estonian: 958,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • ESTONIAN
      • Estonian is a language of Estonia. Roughly 67% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Estonian Estonian is spoken by approximately 950 thousand people, in at least 9 territories. It is the official language of Estonia, and spoken by the majority of the population there. After Estonia, the largest number of speakers are in Russia. There are also smaller numbers of speakers in Canada, the United States, Finland, Latvia, Sweden and the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Chokwe: 1,057,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • CHOKWE
      • Chokwe is a language of Democratic Republic of Congo. Roughly 1% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Chokwe Chokwe is the language of the ethnic group by the same name in the Central African area of Angola (where it is one of six national languages), south-east Democratic Republic of Congo, North-western Zambia, and a small number in Namibia. Many speakers are bi-lingual, also speaking French, Portuguese or English. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Mandinka: 1,286,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • MANDINKA
      • Mandinka is a language of Senegal. Roughly 6% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Mandinka Mandinka (or Mandingo), is part of a group of languages of West Africa known collectively as Manding. it is the main language of Gambia. It is spoken by roughly 1.2 million people in total; also in Senegal and the central-northern part of Guinea-Bissau. There is also a small number of speakers in the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tibetan: 1,312,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • TIBETAN
      • Standard Tibetan is a language of China. Roughly 0.1% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tibetan Standard Tibetan (or Central Tibetan) is the language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. It is spoken by roughly 1.3 million people in total. Most speakers are in Tibet, but many refugees have settled in India (mostly in the state of Sikkim), Nepal, the United States and Canada, since China took control of Tibet in 1959. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Latvian: 1,324,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • LATVIAN
      • Latvian is a language of Latvia. Roughly 61% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Latvian Latvian is the official language of Latvia, and spoken by around 1.4 million people there. The only other territories where speakers number over 20,000 are Australia and Russia. Other small populations mean that it is spoken in around 12 territories in total. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Soninke: 1,416,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SONINKE
      • Soninke is a language of Mali. Roughly 6% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Soninke Soninke is spoken by just over a million people in West Africa, over half of them in Mali. The remainder, in descending order of number of speakers, are in north-east Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, south-central Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau. Soninke is a national language of Senegal and of Mali. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Afar: 1,521,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • AFAR
      • Afar is a language of Ethiopia. Roughly 1.4% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Afar Afar is spoken by roughly 1.5 million largely nomadic people in the Horn of Africa (Northeast Africa); in Ethiopia (in the regions of Tigray, Welo, and Western Hararghe), Eritrea and Djibouti. There is also evidence of a very small number of speakers in the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Macedonian: 1,752,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • MACEDONIAN
      • Macedonian is a language of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia . Roughly 67% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Macedonian Macedonian is the official language of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It is sometimes considered a dialect of Bulgarian, and was only recognised as a distinct language in 1944. There are nearly 2 million speakers, in around 13 territories. Outside Macedonia, the largest populations of speakers are in Greece, Germany, Australia and Italy, with smaller populations in Canada and the United States. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Domari: 1,785,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • DOMARI
      • Domari is a language of The Islamic Republic of Iran. Roughly 2% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Domari Domari is the language of the Dom people, who migrated from India across the Middle East. The largest group are now located in Iran, where 1.3 million of the total 1.8 million speakers reside. Large groups are also in Egypt, and India, where the Dom are known as 'Domba‘. Comparisons are made with European Gypsies or 'Rom'; both are descended from Indian traders. The names Dom and Rom are related, although the groups are thought to have migrated at different points in time. Due to the region in which Domari is spoken, Arabic now has a large influence on the language. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Slovenian: 1,940,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SLOVENIAN
      • Slovenian is a language of Slovenia. Roughly 91% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Slovenian Slovene (or Slovenian) is spoken by nearly 2 million people in at least 8 territories. The vast majority are in Slovenia, the largest populations elsewhere are in the nearby territories of Italy (around a 100 thousand), Hungary, Croatia and Austria. Smaller numbers have migrated to Canada, the United States, and Argentina. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Brahui: 2,217,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • BRAHUI
      • Brahui is a language of Pakistan. Roughly 1.3% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Brahui According to estimates from Ethnologue, Brahui is spoken by around 2.2 million people, most of them in Balochistan, in west Pakistan, and nearby regions of Afghanistan and Iran, and a much smaller number in Qatar. Andronov (2006) states that the exact number of Brahui speakers is hard to assess as the majority of Brahuis are bilingual in Balochi, and identify themselves as ethnic Balochis. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Aymara: 2,329,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • AYMARA
      • Aymara is a language of Bolivia. Roughly 21% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Aymara There are roughly 2.2 million Aymara speakers, the vast majority in a contiguous area encompassing Western Bolivia, South-east Peru (centering on Lake Titicaca), and north-east Chile. There are also a small number in Salta Province in north-west Argentina. There are similarities with Quechua, although this may have more to do with close proximity than a similar linguistic heritage. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Georgian: 3,579,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • GEORGIAN
      • Georgian is a language of Georgia. Roughly 71% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Georgian Georgian is spoken by roughly 3.5 million people in at least 15 territories. Outside of Georgia, most of the speakers are in Russia, Iran and Turkey. The Georgian language has many dialects, which are divided into two main groups: eastern and western. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Kirghiz: 3,702,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • KIRGHIZ
      • Kirghiz is a language of Kyrgyzstan. Roughly 48% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Kirghiz Kirghiz (or Kyrgyz) is one of the two official languages of Kyrgyzstan, where the majority of the roughly 3.2 million speakers live. Kirghiz is spoken in at least 8 territories. Most of the speakers outside Kyrgyzstan are in China, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Ewe: 3,735,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • EWE
      • Ewe is a language of Ghana. Roughly 11% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Ewe Ewe is spoken by roughly 3.7 million people, mostly in a contiguous region stretching over south-east Ghana, the southern half of Togo, and a small part of south-west Benin. There are also a small number of speakers in the United Kingdom. Ewe belongs to the Gbe group of closely-related languages. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Bambara: 3,860,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • BAMBARA
      • Bambara is a language of Mali. Roughly 21% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Bambara Bambara is spoken by roughly 3 million people. The majority are in Mali; the other territories with recorded Bambara speaking populations are Senegal, Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. Bambara is closely related to Dioula, which is spoken in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, and Gambia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Maninkakan: 3,910,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • MANINKAKAN
      • Maninkakan is a language of Guinea. Roughly 23% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Maninkakan Maninkakan is the language of the Malinké people. It is spoken by nearly 4 million people, in at least six territories. The majority of speakers are in Guinea, Mali and Senegal, with smaller numbers in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Gambia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Wolof: 3,973,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • WOLOF
      • Wolof is a language of Senegal. Roughly 36% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Wolof Wolof is spoken by nearly 4 million first-language speakers, in at least six territories. The vast majority are in Senegal, and most of those who don't speak it as a first language in Senegal speak it as a second language. Thereafter, the greatest concentration of speakers are in Gambia, where it is popular in the capital Banjul. It is also spoken around the southern coastal regions of Mauritania. It has spread further afield; being spoken in France, the United Kingdom and Canada. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Hebrew: 4,151,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • HEBREW
      • Hebrew is a language of Israel. Roughly 77% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Hebrew Hebrew is notable as a language that was all but dead as a regularly spoken language, but was revived in the 19th and 20th centuries, and Modern Hebrew is now spoken by roughly 5 million people in at least 7 territories. Hebrew is the language of Judaism, and Classical Hebrew is still used for prayer or study in Jewish communities. The vast majority of speakers are in Israel, where it is an official language. Large numbers are also found in the Palestinian territories and the United States. Smaller numbers live in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Norwegian: 4,258,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • NORWEGIAN
      • Norwegian is a language of Norway. Roughly 96% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Norwegian There are two forms of Norwegian, with equal official status in Norway; Bokmål ('book language', modern Norwegian, influenced by Danish) and Nynorsk (based on older Norwegian which survived in rural areas). In total there are roughly 4.4 million speakers of Norwegian, the vast majority being in Norway. There are also Norwegian-speaking communities numbering tens of thousands in the United States, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, and smaller numbers in Canada and Iceland. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Hmong: 4,294,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • HMONG
      • Hmong is a language of China. Roughly 0.2% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Hmong Hmong is the language of the Hmong ethnic group, who live in mountainous regions from southern China, through Vietnam and Laos to Thailand. The two main dialects are White Hmong (Hmong Daw) and Green Mong (Mong Njua). J. Lemoine estimated the total population of Hmong speakers to be between 4 and 5 million, in 10 territories; the largest number (roughly 2.8 million) are in southern China, the remainder are found, in order of descending size, in Viet Nam, Lao People's Dem. Republic, the United States, Thailand, France, Myanmar, Australia, Argentina and Canada. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Slovak: 4,565,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SLOVAK
      • Slovak is a language of Slovakia. Roughly 84% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Slovak There are almost 5 million first-language speakers of Slovak, in at least 130 territories. The vast majority are in Slovakia, around 200 thousand are in the Czech Republic, and the remainder are in other European territories and the United States. Slovak and Czech are mutually intelligible, and might be considered to be dialects of the same language. Their influence on each other predates the creation of Czechoslovakia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Kanuri: 4,975,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • KANURI
      • Kanuri is a language of Nigeria. Roughly 3% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Kanuri Kanuri is mainly spoken in the area around lake Chad, in the territories of Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon and Sudan. The number of speakers is somewhere between 4 and 5 million. Most Kanuri now speak Hausa and/or Arabic as in addition to Kanuri, and the influence of Kanuri is gradually declining due to the expansion of these two languages. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tswana: 5,114,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • TSWANA
      • Tswana is a language of Botswana. Roughly 78% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tswana Tswana (or Setswana) is spoken by roughly 5 million people. The largest concentration of speakers is over an area that covers northern South Africa and southern Botswana (where it is the national language, and spoken by most of the population). There are much smaller numbers of speakers in Zimbabwe and Namibia, and also a small number in the UK. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • SeSotho: 5,140,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SESOTHO
      • SeSotho is a language of Lesotho. Roughly 98% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • SeSotho We estimate that Sesotho (Southern Sotho) is spoken by just over 5 million people. Most of these speakers are in South Africa and Lesotho; it is a national language in both territories. There are also small numbers of speakers in Botswana and the United Kingdom. Sesotho is strongly related to Northern Sotho and Tswana. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Finnish: 5,201,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • FINNISH
      • This small map removes the countries where Finnish is dominant. This map therefore only shows 7.3% of all speakers of Finnish. The territory omitted is Finland.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Finnish Finnish is closely related to Estonian. It is one of two official languages in Finland, and spoken by the majority of the population, and also by a sizeable population in Sweden. It is spoken in total by roughly 5.1 million speakers, in at least 9 territories, the others being the United States, Canada, Russia, the United Kingdom, Norway and Estonia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Armenian: 5,277,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • ARMENIAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Armenian is dominant. This map therefore only shows 47.8% of all speakers of Armenian. The territory omitted is Armenia.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Armenian Although estimates of Armenian are put at just over 5 million speakers, it has spread throughout eastern Europe and the Middle East, and is spoken in at least 32 territories; many speakers are descendents of people forced to flee Armenia after the First World War. Armenian has its own written alphabet, known in the Armenian language as Hayeren. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Danish: 5,356,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • DANISH
      • This small map removes the countries where Danish is dominant. This map therefore only shows 3% of all speakers of Danish. The territory omitted is Denmark.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Danish Danish is spoken as a first language by roughly 5.3 million people, in at least 11 territories. It is the de facto language of Denmark, and until 2009 was an official language in Greenland, where it is spoken by most of the population as either a first or second language. Danish has many similarities with Norwegian and Swedish; in fact, all three are largely mutually intelligible, and are often considered as dialects of a Scandinavian continuum. There is a community of Danish speakers in northern Germany. There are also Danish speakers in the United States and the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tajiki: 5,378,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • TAJIKI
      • Tajiki is a language of Tajikistan. Roughly 65% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tajiki Tajik (or Tajiki) is a language that has evolved from Persian, and is spoken mainly in Tajikistan (where it is the official language) and Uzbekistan. It is closely related to the Dari version of Persian spoken in Afghanistan, and some would consider the Persian languages of Tajikistan, Iran and Afghanistan to be dialects of one language. There are roughly 5.3 million first-language speakers, in at least 7 territories. Political instability had led to the Tajik people moving into Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Turkmenistan. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Mongolian: 5,634,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • MONGOLIAN
      • Mongolian is a language of Mongolia. Roughly 90% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Mongolian Mongolian is spoken by roughly 5.6 million people, mostly in Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia part of China, although estimates of the Mongolian-speaking population in China vary, partly due to the increasing influence of Mandarin Chinese in the area. Small numbers of speakers are found in Taiwan, the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Albanian: 5,683,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • ALBANIAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Danish is dominant. This map therefore only shows 3% of all speakers of Danish. The territory omitted is Denmark.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Albanian Danish is spoken as a first language by roughly 5.3 million people, in at least 11 territories. It is the de facto language of Denmark, and until 2009 was an official language in Greenland, where it is spoken by most of the population as either a first or second language. Danish has many similarities with Norwegian and Swedish; in fact, all three are largely mutually intelligible, and are often considered as dialects of a Scandinavian continuum. There is a community of Danish speakers in northern Germany. There are also Danish speakers in the United States and the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tigrigna: 5,913,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • TIGRIGNA
      • Tigrigna is a language of Ethiopia. Roughly 6% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tigrigna Tigrinya is a Semitic language, spoken by between 5 and 6 million speakers, most of them in Tigray in northern Ethiopia, and most of the remainder in central Eritrea. There are also some emigrants speakers, including some of the 'Beta Israel' living in Israel, and small numbers in Germany and Canada. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Afrikaans: 6,215,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • AFRIKAANS
      • Afrikaans is a language of South Africa. Roughly 13% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Afrikaans Afrikaans is a language spoken mainly in South Africa (where it is one of the official languages) and the southern part of Namibia. It developed from Dutch, which had been taken there by settlers in the late 17th Century. Afrikaans had developed into a distinct language by the 19th century, although Afrikaans and Dutch are still largely mutually intelligible. There are around 6 million speakers in total, in at least 12 territories. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Turkmen: 6,316,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • TURKMEN
      • This small map removes the countries where Turkmen is dominant. This map therefore only shows 45.4% of all speakers of Turkmen. The territory omitted is Turkmenistan.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Turkmen Turkmen is spoken by roughly 6 million people in around 13 territories. It is spoken by the vast majority of people in Turkmenistan, and also by significant numbers in Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Iraq. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Balochi: 6,625,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • BALOCHI
      • Balochi is a language of Pakistan. Roughly 4% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Balochi Balochi is a language of Balochistan, a region of Pakistan. As well as the 5 million speakers there, there are significant numbers in the neighbouring territories of Iran, Afghanistan, Oman, United Arab Emirates and Turkmenistan. Balochi is spoken by roughly 6.6 million people in at least 11 territories. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Bulgarian: 7,525,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • BULGARIAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Bulgarian is dominant. This map therefore only shows 13.2% of all speakers of Bulgarian. The territory omitted is Bulgaria.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Bulgarian Bulgarian in spoken by roughly 7.8 million people, in at least 13 territories. After Bulgaria, the largest populations, numbering in the hundreds of thousands are found in the Republic of Moldova, Turkey and Ukraine. Bulgarian is closely related to Macedonian; the distinction is as much political as linguistic. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Swedish: 8,285,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SWEDISH
      • This small map removes the countries where Swedish is dominant. This map therefore only shows 4.6% of all speakers of Swedish. The territory omitted is Sweden.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Swedish Swedish is spoken by roughly 8.3 million people, in at least 10 territories. It is strongly related to Norwegian and Danish; in fact, all three are largely mutual intelligible, and are often considered as dialects of a Scandinavian continuum. Outside of Sweden, the largest Swedish-speaking population is in Finland; mainly the coastal areas of the south and west, and the Aland Islands. There are also smaller numbers of speakers in Norway, Iceland, the United Kingdom and Estonia, and further away in the United States and Canada. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Haitian Creole: 8,382,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • HAITIAN CREOLE FRENCH
      • This small map removes the countries where Haitian Creole French is dominant. This map therefore only shows 11.7% of all speakers of Haitian Creole French. The territory omitted is Haiti.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Haitian Creole French Haitian Creole is based on French, and like many creoles it developed from the need for slaves, mainly from west Africa and speaking various languages, to communicate with each other and French-speaking plantation managers. Hence the language is also influenced by African languages including Wolof, Fon and Ewe. It is now one of Haiti's two official languages. The number of speakers is roughly 8.3 million in at least 9 territories. Speakers numbering hundreds of thousands live in Cuba, the United States and the Dominican Republic. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Uyghur: 8,384,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • UYGHUR
      • Uyghur is a language of China. Roughly 0.6% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Uyghur The vast majority of the roughly 8 million speakers of Uyghur are in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China. It is spoken in around 10 territories, with most of the remainder being in Bangladesh, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Shona: 8,467,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SHONA
      • Shona is a language of Zimbabwe. Roughly 75% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Shona Shona (chiShona) is spoken by 8 to 9 million people, the vast majority living in Zimbabwe. There are also Shona-speaking populations in southern Zambia and Botswana. A linguist, Clement Doke, is credited with the recommendation of a unified Shona language from several dialects in a report in 1931. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Romani: 8,824,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • ROMANI
      • Romani is a language of Romania. Roughly 8% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Romani Romani is the language of travelling communities of Indian origin. Due to the nature of the small, travelling communities, data on the number of speakers is considered unreliable. There are around 9 million speakers, in at least 47 territories. The largest numbers of speakers are in many Eastern European territories, and also the United States. There are several major dialects, the largest of which is Vlax Romani, followed by the Balkan, Carpathian and Sinte variants. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Catalan: 8,825,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • CATALAN
      • Catalan is a spoken mainly in Spain and Andorra. Roughly 22% of the Spanish population speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Catalan Catalan is mostly spoken in a region that spans Eastern Spain, Andorra (where it is the official language), South-West France, and the Balearic Islands. It is also spoken in Alghero in Sardinia, Cuba (from 19th-century migration), and by a small number in the United Kingdom. The total number of speakers is just over 9 million, of which the vast majority are in Spain. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Rwanda: 9,136,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • RWANDA
      • Rwanda is a language of Rwanda. Roughly 78% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Rwanda The Rwanda language (or Kinyarwanda) is spoken by between 7 and 9 million people. Most of those people are in Rwanda (where it is an official language), and there are speakers in southern Uganda, and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rwanda is closely related to Kirundi, and they are largely mutually intelligible. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Kazakh: 9,516,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • KAZAKH
      • Kazakh is a language of Kazakhstan. Roughly 45% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Kazakh The Kazakh language is the official language of Kazakhstan. Estimates of the numbers of speakers in that country vary from around 5 million (Ethnologue) to nearly 10 million. The difference may be attributable to the difficulty in classifying first-language speakers - many people in Kazkhstan are bi-lingual, speaking Russian as well as Kazakh. We have put the worldwide number of speakers at around 9.5 million, in around 13 territories, with the largest number outside Kazakhstan in China, Uzbekistan, Russia and Mongolia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Czech: 9,938,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • CZECH
      • This small map removes the countries where Czech is dominant. This map therefore only shows 3.4% of all speakers of Czech. The territory omitted is Czech Republic.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Czech Czech is spoken by roughly 10 million people, in at least 11 territories. After the Czech Republic, the majority of speakers are in Slovakia and other neighbouring territories. There are also speakers in the United Kingdom and the United States. Slovak and Czech are mutually intelligible, and might be considered to be dialects of the same language. Their influence on each other predates the creation of Czechoslovakia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Belarusan: 10,047,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • BELARUSAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Belarusan is dominant. This map therefore only shows 23.1% of all speakers of Belarusan. The territory omitted is Belarus.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Belarusan Belarusan (or 'Belorussian' as it sometimes known) is spoken by roughly 10 million people, in around 15 territories. Outside of Belarus, speakers are generally in neighbouring countries; notably Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Lithuania. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Creole English: 10,153,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • CREOLE ENGLISH
      • A creole English is well-used in Nigeria. Roughly 3% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Creole English This data and map are a collection of English-based creoles. These languages developed during the period of slave trade and British colonization. Many would have begun as a pidgin; a simplified version of English used for communication between groups without a common language. When it develops through generations and becomes a first language for some speakers, it is defined as a creole. Many English-based creoles are spoken in the Caribbean, notably Jamaica. Nigerian Pidgin is used by many millions of speakers, both as a pidgin and as a creole. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Quechua: 10,319,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • QUECHUA
      • Quechua is a language of Peru. Roughly 18% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Quechua Quechua is an indigenous South American language. A version of Quechua was widely spoken across the Central Andes region before the time of the Incas, for whom it became the official language of their empire. There are roughly 10 million Quechua speakers in at least seven territories. The majority are in four of these; around 4.7 million in Peru, also in the south-west of Bolivia, much of Ecuador, and an area of north-west of Argentina. The remainder are in the south-west of Colombia, northern Chile, and a few in the United States. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Nyanja: 10,352,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • NYANJA
      • Nyanja is a language of Malawi. Roughly 59% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Nyanja Nyanja (or Chichewa) is spoken by between 9 and 10 million people in Central Africa. The majority are in Malawi, and other sizeable numbers are found in the east of Zambia, in the in the provinces of Tete and Niassa in north of Mozambique, and in Zimbabwe. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Somali: 10,713,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SOMALI
      • This small map removes the countries where Somali is dominant. This map therefore only shows 19.2% of all speakers of Somali. The territory omitted is Somalia.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Somali Somali is the language of Somalia, and spoken by almost everyone in the country. It is also spoken by people numbering hundreds of thousands in Yemen, Kenya and Djibouti. Due to instability in Somalia, there are also significant communities in territories further afield, mostly in Western Europe. The total number of speakers is almost 11 million, in at least 16 territories. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Zulu: 11,002,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • ZULU
      • Zulu is a language of South Africa. Roughly 24% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Zulu There are roughly 11 million speakers of Zulu (or isiZulu), the vast majority of whom live in South Africa, mostly in the KwaZuluNatal and Gauteng provinces in the east of South Africa. There are also speakers in at least 6 other territories, including Lesotho, Swaziland, Malawi, Mozambique and the United Kingdom. Zulu is widely used in education, government and the media within South Africa. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Hungarian: 11,204,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • HUNGARIAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Hungarian is dominant. This map therefore only shows 25.2% of all speakers of Hungarian. The territory omitted is Hungary.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Hungarian Hungarian is spoken by roughly 12 million speakers in around 13 territories. This includes most of the population of Hungary, and significant numbers in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, the United States and Canada. The Hungarian name for the language is 'Magyar'. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Greek: 12,105,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • GREEK
      • This small map removes the countries where Greek is dominant. This map therefore only shows 15.3% of all speakers of Greek. The territories omitted are Greece and Cyprus.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Greek We estimate that Greek is spoken as a first language by just over 12 million people in at least 31 territories. Outside of Greece and Cyprus, the largest populations are in the United States, Germany, Australia (many in Melbourne), the United Kingdom and Canada. Other smaller populations are spread throughout Europe. Greek is an ancient language; an early form, Mycenaean Greek, has been found on the 'Linear B' tablets dating from around the 13th century BC. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Sinhala: 14,085,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SINHALA
      • This small map removes the countries where Sinhala is dominant. This map therefore only shows 0.6% of all speakers of Sinhala. The territory omitted is Sri Lanka.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Sinhala Sinhala (or Sinhalese) is the language of the Sinhalese ethnic group in Sri Lanka, and spoken by around 74% of the population in Sri Lanka. It is also spoken by tens of thousands in each of Australia, United Arab Emirates, the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Fula: 14,172,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • FULA
      • Fula is a language of Guinea. Roughly 31% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Fula The Fula language is spoken over a large area of West Africa. The major dialects known as Pular, Pulaar and Fulfulde are considered by Ethnologue to be separate languages, but most linguists consider Fula to be a single language. Wilson (1989) is quoted on Wikipedia stating that "travellers over wide distances never find communication impossible". There are roughly 14 million speakers in 17 African territories. Over a million speakers live in each of Guinea, Senegal, Nigeria, Niger and Mali. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Khmer: 14,734,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • KHMER
      • Khmer is a language of Cambodia. Roughly 90% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Khmer Khmer is the official language of Cambodia, and the language of the Khmer people in Cambodia and elsewhere. There are approximately 14 million first-language speakers, in at least 9 territories. The largest populations outside Cambodia are in Thailand and Viet Nam (both have over a million Khmer speakers), many of these will have been refugees during the mid-1970s. Khmer people were also resettled to Thailand in the early nineteenth century. Other populations are recorded in the United States, France, Australia, Lao People's Dem Republic and the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Kurdish: 15,369,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • KURDISH
      • Kurdish is the language of the Kurdish people; many live in The Islamic Republic of Iran. Roughly 10% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Kurdish Kurdish is spoken by 15 million people, in at least 26 territories. The largest numbers of speakers live in Iran (where Kurdish is an official language), Turkey, Iraq, and Syria, with significant numbers also living in the territories of the former Soviet Union, and Western Europe (notably Germany). Many Kurdish people are concerned about the future of their language, an issue which is related to the lack of a recognised Kurdish state, and restricted use of Kurdish in Turkey and Syria. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Lao: 16,576,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • LAO
      • Lao is a language of Laos. Roughly 55% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Lao Lao is the official language of Laos, and spoken there by roughly 3 million people. It is also spoken by around 15 million people in the Isan (meaning northeast) area of Thailand, where it is called the Isan language. There are also a good number of speakers in the United States, and fewer in Cambodia, Canada and the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Malagasy: 16,798,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • MALAGASY
      • Malagasy is a language of Madagascar. Roughly 98% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Malagasy Malagasy is the language of Madagascar, where the vast majority of the 16 million or so speakers live. It is a member of the Austronesian language family, and not related to African languages. There are also small numbers of speakers in Comoros, the United States, and Reunion. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Serbo-Croat: 17,121,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SERBO-CROAT
      • This small map removes the countries where serbo-croat is dominant. This map therefore only shows 9.7% of all speakers of serbo-croat. The territories omitted are Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Serbia & Montenegro.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Serbo-Croat Serbo-Croat is an umbrella term, used to describe the closely-related languages of Croatian, Serbian and Bosnian. As the former Yugoslavia has broken down into individual states, the name Serbo-Croat is less used, and people now tend to identify each of those languages separately. There is a combined total of roughly 16 million speakers, in at least 23 territories. Speakers are well spread throughout Europe, and there are also significant numbers in Australia and the United States. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Dutch: 17,749,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • DUTCH
      • This small map removes the countries where Dutch is dominant. This map therefore only shows 3.7% of all speakers of Dutch. The territories omitted are The Netherlands and Belgium.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Dutch Dutch is spoken by roughly 18 million people in at least 12 territories. As well as being the primary language of the Netherlands, it is also one of the primary languages in Belgium, where it is often known as Flemish. There are also large communities in the United States and Canada, Germany, France (mainly in the north) and the UK, and Australia and New Zealand. The former Dutch Guiana colony has also left a Dutch-speaking population in what is now Suriname. Dutch farmer settlers in South Africa influenced the development of the language that is now Afrikaans. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Nepali: 19,783,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • NEPALI
      • Nepali is a language of Nepal. Roughly 51% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Nepali Nepali is spoken by nearly 20 million people. It was the language of the Khasa kingdom in what is now Nepal during the 13th and 14th centuries. There are also a large number of speakers in India, mostly in the state of Sikkim, and also in the Darjeeling district in the state of West Bengal. There are a considerable number of speakers in Bhutan, and small emigrant populations in the United States and the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Swahili: 20,410,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SWAHILI
      • Swahili is a language of Democratic Republic of Congo. Roughly 35% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Swahili Swahili (Kiswahili) is spoken over a wide area of eastern Africa that stretches over much of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, the eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo, southern Somalia, and northern Mozambique. The number of speakers is hard to assess, as it is spoken by so many bilingual people, especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our data source puts the number of first-language speakers of Swahili at nearly 18 million, and the world total at around 20-22 million, but other sources claim there are as few as 5 million first-language speakers in total. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Indonesian: 22,120,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • INDONESIAN
      • Indonesian is a language of Indonesia. Roughly 11% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Indonesian Indonesia (or Bahasa Indonesia) is a form of the Malay language, thought to be based on the Riau dialect. Because of divergence with other forms of Malay (mainly due to the Dutch and Javanese influences), Indonesian is now usually considered a distinct language. Most people in Indonesia also speak another local language. Bilingualism makes speakers of Indonesian hard to count. The majority of speakers are in Indonesia. There are also a good number in Timor-Leste, in the Philippines, and the Netherlands. Speakers are also found in the United States and Australia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Amharic: 22,707,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • AMHARIC
      • Amharic is a language of Ethiopia. Roughly 33% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Amharic Amharic is a Semitic language, spoken by roughly 22 million people, the majority of whom live in Ethiopia, where it is an official language. Amharic-speaking communities have settled in the United States, Israel (where they are known as 'Beta Israel'), Canada, the United Kingdom, Egypt and Sweden. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Romanian: 23,013,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • ROMANIAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Romanian is dominant. This map therefore only shows 7.6% of all speakers of Romanian. The territories omitted are Romania and Republic of Moldova.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Romanian Romanian is a Romance language (derived from Latin). It is spoken by roughly 24 million people, in around 25 territories. As well as Romania, it is widely spoken in the Republic of Moldova, and is the official language there (although known as 'Moldovan'). It is also spoken by more than 100,000 people in Ukraine, Israel, Serbia & Montenegro, Greece, Russia, the United States, and Hungary. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Uzbek: 23,358,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • UZBEK
      • This small map removes the countries where Uzbek is dominant. This map therefore only shows 20% of all speakers of Uzbek. The territory omitted is Uzbekistan.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Uzbek Uzbek is the official language of Uzbekistan, where the vast majority of its native speakers live. It is spoken by roughly 23 million people in at least 14 territories. There are significant numbers of speakers in the neighbouring countries of Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Sindhi: 23,973,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SINDHI
      • Sindhi is a language of Pakistan. Roughly 14% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Sindhi Sindhi is spoken by approximately 24 million people, in at least 9 territories. It is spoken mainly in the Sindh region of Pakistan, and in western parts of India, where many people migrated around the time of the establishment of the modern state of Pakistan in 1947. Smaller number of speakers are found in the Philippines, Qatar, Canada, the United States, Singapore and the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tagalog: 24,739,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • TAGALOG
      • Tagalog is a language of The Philippines. Roughly 28% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tagalog Tagalog, or Filipino, is the national language of the Philippines, and is the most used language in Manila, the capital. It has a lot in common with Malay. There are 24 million speakers in at least 10 territories. As well as the Philippines, there are large populations in the United States, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Australia and the United Arab Emirates. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Persian: 30,079,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • PERSIAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Persian is dominant. This map therefore only shows 9.7% of all speakers of Persian. The territories omitted are The Islamic Republic of Iran and Afghanistan.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Persian Persian (Farsi and Dari) is spoken by 30 million people, in at least 26 territories. Farsi and Dari are the local names in Iran and Afghanistan respectively. The language is also closely related to Tajik. There is debate about to what extent Tajik, Farsi and Dari should be considered separate languages, or dialects of a Persian language continuum. The majority of the population of Persian-speakers are in Iran and Afghanistan, with significant numbers also found in Pakistan, Turkey, the United States, Iraq, Canada and Saudi Arabia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Azerbaijani: 30,338,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • AZERBAIJANI
      • Azerbaijani is a language of Azerbaijan. Roughly 90% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Azerbaijani Azerbaijani (or Azeri) is spoken by roughly 30 million people, in at least 16 territories. The largest number of speakers are in Iran, mainly in the northwest. There are also large numbers of speakers in Azerbaijan, Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Iraq and Armenia. It is closely related to Turkish and Turkmen. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Malay: 31,650,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • MALAY
      • Malay is a language of Indonesia. Roughly 8% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Malay Malay is spoken by roughly 30 million people in at least 13 territories. Most of the speakers are in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam. Indonesian is often considered as part of the Malay group of languages, but we consider it separately here. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Malayalam: 33,832,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • MALAYALAM
      • Malayalam is a language of India. Roughly 3% of the population there speak it as a first language.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Malayalam The vast majority of Malayalam speakers live in the state of Kerala, in south-west India. Malayalam is closely related to Tamil. There are roughly 34 million speakers, in at least 11 territories. After India, the largest number of speakers are in the United Arab Emirates. There are also smaller numbers in Malaysia, Bahrain, Singapore, Israel, Qatar, the United States and the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Burmese: 35,089,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • BURMESE
      • This small map removes the countries where Burmese is dominant. This map therefore only shows 6.4% of all speakers of Burmese. The territory omitted is Myanmar.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Burmese Burmese is spoken as a first language by roughly 35 million people, the vast majority of whom live in Myanmar (Burma). It is also spoken, in roughly descending order of population size, in China, Thailand, Bangladesh, the United States, Malaysia, Singapore and Australia. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Pashto: 35,552,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • PASHTO
      • This small map removes the countries where Pashto is dominant. This map therefore only shows 0.8% of all speakers of Pashto. The territories omitted are Pakistan and Afghanistan.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Pashto The majority of Pashto speakers are in Afghanistan (where it is one of two official languages) and northwestern Pakistan. It is the language of the Pashtun ethnic group. Pashto is spoken by roughly 35 million people, in at least 11 territories. It is also spoken in the United Arab Emirates, Iran, Qatar, India, Tajikistan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Hausa: 36,682,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • HAUSA
      • This small map removes the countries where Hausa is dominant. This map therefore only shows 2.3% of all speakers of Hausa. The territories omitted are Nigeria and Niger.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Hausa Hausa is a Chadic (Afro-Asiatic) language spoken by roughly 36 million people as a first-language, in at least 10 territories. The largest numbers of speakers are in Nigeria and Niger, and there are also significant numbers of first-language speakers in Sudan, Chad, Cameroon and the Central African Republic. Hausa is also used as a lingua franca over much of West Africa, and as such its use continues to grow. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Ukrainian: 41,092,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • UKRAINIAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Ukrainian is dominant. This map therefore only shows 18.8% of all speakers of Ukrainian. The territory omitted is Ukraine.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Ukrainian Ukrainian is closely related to neighbouring Slavic languages, including Russian, and the resulting similarities between dialects either side of national boundaries makes counting speakers difficult. There are roughly 41 million speakers, in at least 26 territories. As well as in Ukraine, there are large numbers of speakers in the nearby territories of Russia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Hungary and Belarus. Ukrainian speaking communities are also present in Canada and the United States, a result of migration there in the late 19th century to work in the construction and mining industries. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Polish: 43,485,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • POLISH
      • This small map removes the countries where Polish is dominant. This map therefore only shows 13.7% of all speakers of Polish. The territory omitted is Poland.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Polish Polish is spoken by roughly 43 million people in at least 50 territories. There was a big wave of emigration in the late 18th century, and for various political and economic reasons Polish people have tended to emigrate ever since, including another large wave after the Second World War. Polish is spoken by most of the population of Poland, and by sizeable populations in Ukraine, the United States, Belarus, Lithuania, Germany, Canada, the United Kingdom, Israel, Russia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Australia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Brazil, Argentina, Austria and Hungary. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Gujarati: 48,171,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • GUJARATI
      • This small map removes the countries where Gujarati is dominant. This map therefore only shows 2.7% of all speakers of Gujarati. The territory omitted is India.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Gujarati The Gujarati language is centred on the state of Gujarat in western India. Mahatma Gandhi was born in this part of India, and spoke and wrote in Gujarati. Gujarati is spoken by roughly 48 million speakers in around 18 territories. Outside of India, there are significant numbers of speakers in United Republic of Tanzania, the United States, the United Kingdom, Uganda, Pakistan and Malaysia, and smaller numbers in several countries in southern and eastern Africa. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Thai: 61,301,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • THAI
      • This small map removes the countries where Thai is dominant. This map therefore only shows 0.5% of all speakers of Thai. The territories omitted are Thailand and China.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Thai Thai is the national language of Thailand. It is spoken by roughly 61 million people in around 13 territories. After Thailand, the largest number of speakers is in China. There are also significant numbers in the United States and the United Kingdom. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Italian: 61,815,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • ITALIAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Italian is dominant. This map therefore only shows 11.7% of all speakers of Italian. The territories omitted are Italy, Holy See and San Marino.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Italian Italian is spoken by roughly 62 million people in at least 30 territories. Due to a harsh economic climate, many Italians migrated to the Americas in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, resulting in large Italian-speaking populations in the United States, Canada, and much of South America, notably Argentina and Brazil. Within Italy, a large number of dialects continue to thrive. Friulian and Sardinian are generally recognised as distinct languages, with large numbers of speakers . (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Turkish: 66,277,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • TURKISH
      • This small map removes the countries where Turkish is dominant. This map therefore only shows 6.7% of all speakers of Turkish. The territory omitted is Turkey.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Turkish Turkish is spoken as a first language by around 66 million people in at least 34 territories. It has spread widely across Europe, especially in countries that were part of the Ottoman Empire, such as Bulgaria, Cyprus and Greece. There are around 2 million speakers in Germany, many of whom moved to West Germany in the 1960s and 1970s to fill a labour shortage during the Wirtschaftswunder (German for 'economic miracle'). (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Urdu: 66,764,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • URDU
      • This small map removes the countries where Urdu is dominant. This map therefore only shows 5% of all speakers of Urdu. The territories omitted are India and Pakistan.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Urdu Spoken Urdu is very similar to Hindi. Urdu is spoken as a first language by roughly 67 million speakers in at least 24 territories. It is the official language of Pakistan, although only spoken as a first language by around 7% of the population there. There are large numbers of speakers in the northern states of India, and also significant populations in Bangladesh, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Afghanistan. Emigration to North America and Europe, especially the UK, has meant that there are also a good number of speakers in those territories. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tamil: 68,437,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • TAMIL
      • This small map removes the countries where Tamil is dominant. This map therefore only shows 3.3% of all speakers of Tamil. The territories omitted are Sri Lanka and India.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Tamil Tamil is spoken by most of the population of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is spoken in total by roughly 68 million people, in around 16 territories. There are roughly 4.7 million speakers in Sri Lanka, and over a million in Singapore. Other speakers are spread far and wide, in Asia, Africa, Europe and the United States. Tamil is an ancient language; cave inscriptions in Tamil are dated to somewhere between third and first centuries BC. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • French: 69,053,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • FRENCH
      • This small map removes the countries where French is dominant. This map therefore only shows 30.3% of all speakers of French. The territories omitted are France and Monaco.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • French French is spoken as a first language by around 70 million people in at least 46 territories. It is derived from Latin, the language of ancient Rome, and by the seventeenth century French was the dominant language of Europe in politics and culture. It also moved further afield, to the Caribbean, and with European settlers in Canada, where it remains a major language, most notably in the province of Quebec. There was also a large French empire in Africa in the nineteenth century, and hence is still used there as an official language in some countries, and by an educated elite. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Javanese: 72,468,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • JAVANESE
      • This small map removes the countries where Javanese is dominant. This map therefore only shows 0.7% of all speakers of Javanese. The territory omitted is Indonesia.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Javanese Javanese is spoken by around 72 million people, the vast majority of them living around the central and eastern parts of the Indonesian island of Java. Outside of Indonesia, the largest populations are in Malaysia and Suriname (where Javanese people were taken by the Dutch as plantation workers). Speakers are also present in smaller numbers in the Netherlands, France, Singapore, the United States. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Vietnamese: 72,533,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • VIETNAMESE
      • This small map removes the countries where Vietnamese is dominant. This map therefore only shows 3.2% of all speakers of Vietnamese. The territory omitted is Viet Nam.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Vietnamese Vietnamese is spoken as a first language by approximately 73 million people in around 12 territories. It is spoken by nearly 90% of the population of Viet Nam, and by more than a million people in the United States. It is also spoken in large numbers in Australia, Canada and Cambodia (where it has similarities to the official language, Khmer). (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Korean: 74,174,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • KOREAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Korean is dominant. This map therefore only shows 5.9% of all speakers of Korean. The territories omitted are Republic of Korea and DPR Korea.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Korean Korean is spoken by roughly 74 million people, in at least 21 territories. It is spoken by almost everyone in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). It is also spoken by around 1.9 million people in China, mostly in the North-East of the country. There are also large numbers of speakers in the United States (especially in Los Angeles' Koreatown district), and Japan, where Koreans make up the largest ethnic minority group. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Panjabi: 96,342,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • PANJABI
      • This small map removes the countries where Panjabi is dominant. This map therefore only shows 1.1% of all speakers of Panjabi. The territories omitted are India and Pakistan.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Panjabi Panjabi means 'the language of the Punjab', a state in northern India. There are roughly 96 million speakers, in at least 14 territories. The vast majority of these are in India and Pakistan, although Panjabi has no official status in Pakistan. There are also significant numbers of speakers in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The language is sometimes known in English as 'Punjabi', but this is generally accepted to be a mispronunciation of 'Panjabi'. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • German: 96,910,000 native speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • GERMAN
      • This small map removes the countries where German is dominant. This map therefore only shows 11.1% of all speakers of German. The territories omitted are Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Liechtenstein.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • German As well as Germany, German is the main (or one of the main) languages in Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Belgium. There are roughly 97 million first-language speakers, in at least 44 different territories. It has the most first-language speakers in Western Europe. There are sizeable populations in the United States, France, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Namibia, Poland, Canada, Hungary, and Argentina. The variety of German dialects is ranging from High German (Hochdeutsch) in South Germany and Austria, to Low German (Plattdeutsch) in North Germany. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Japanese: 126,736,000 speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • JAPANESE
      • This small map removes the countries where Japanese is dominant. This map therefore only shows 0.9% of all speakers of Japanese. The territory omitted is Japan.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Japanese Japanese is spoken by roughly 126 million people in around 18 territories. Around 99% of first-language Japanese speakers live in Japan. Most of the remainder live in the United States (notably California and Hawaii), and Brazil (mostly in the states of São Paulo and Paraná). The history of Japanese is something of a mystery, partly because its relationships with other languages remains poorly understood. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Russian: 152,000,000 speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • RUSSIAN
      • This small map removes the countries where Russian is dominant. This map therefore only shows 19.8% of all speakers of Russian. The territory omitted is Russian Federation.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Russian Russian is spoken as a first language by around 154 million people, in at least 41 territories. It was the language of the former Soviet Union, and still has significant numbers of speakers in former Soviet states, and further afield across Europe and Asia. It was the first language to be spoken in space (by Yuri Gagarin in 1961). Russian uses the Cyrillic alphabet, which was based on the Greek uncial script. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Portugese: 186,846,000 speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • PORTUGESE
      • This small map removes the countries where Portuguese is dominant. This map therefore only shows 2.9% of all speakers of Portuguese. The territories omitted are Portugal and Brazil.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Portugese Portuguese is spoken by roughly 188 million people in around 31 territories. It is derived from Latin, and shares many similarities with Spanish. The territory with the largest number of Portuguese speakers is Brazil, which was a Portuguese colony until 1822. Portuguese is also the official language of Mozambique, although it is only spoken as a first language by around 8% of the population. It is also spoken by significant numbers in Paraguay, South Africa, the United States, India, Canada, France and several other West European territories. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Bengali: 207,648,000 speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • BENGALI
      • This small map removes the countries where Bengali is dominant. This map therefore only shows 0.3% of all speakers of Bengali. The territories omitted are India and Bangladesh.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Bengali The name Bengali (or Bangla) is derived from the area of Bengal, which is made up of what is now Bangladesh, and also West Bengal in India. It is believed to have evolved from the Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit languages, becoming a distinct language around 1000 CE. There are around 208 million speakers, in at least 11 territories. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Arabic: 260,895,000 speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • ARABIC
      • This small map removes the countries where Arabic is dominant. This map therefore only shows 4.5% of all speakers of Arabic.
      • The territories omitted are Bahrain, Kuwait, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Jordan, Tunisia, Gaza Strip & West Bank, Syrian Arab Republic, Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, Yemen, Mauritania, Iraq and Western Sahara.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Arabic Arabic is a collection of distinct dialects, spoken largely in the Middle East (northern Africa and western Asia), but also by smaller numbers in territories throughout the world. It is spoken as a first language by around 260 million people in at least 65 different territories. Standard Arabic is widely use in education, business and the media, and bridges the gaps between the various dialects that may not always be mutually intelligible. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • English: 347,118,000 speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • ENGLISH
      • This small map removes the countries where English is dominant. This map therefore only shows 2.6% of all speakers of English. The territories omitted are Australia, Canada, United States, Ireland, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Barbados and Trinidad & Toba.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • English English has grown and spread to become the most widely-used language in the world. There are around 350 million first-language speakers in nearly one hundred territories, and there are probably a similar number of people for whom it is a second language. This spread, starting from Britain, has happened over the course of 400 years, and English has become the main language of the United States, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. English is a member of the West Germanic family of languages. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Spanish: 360,441,000 speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • SPANISH
      • This small map removes the countries where Spanish is dominant. This map therefore only shows 0.4% of all speakers of Spanish.
      • The territories omitted are United States, Spain, Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Uruguay, Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Puerto Rico.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Spanish Spanish is a Romance language (derived from Latin), and there are roughly 362 million first-language speakers in at least 39 territories. As well as being the primary language of Spain, it has been established since the 16th century as the dominant language of most of southern and central America, and there are also 28 million first-language speakers in the United States. Modern Spanish originated from the region of Castile, hence the alternative name of Castilian. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Hindi: 424,168,000 speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • HINDI
      • This small map removes the countries where Hindi is dominant. This map therefore only shows 0.5% of all speakers of Hindi. The territory omitted is India.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Hindi The majority of Hindi speakers are in India, where it is the official language, and especially popular in northern and central India. The 2001 Indian census puts the number of first-language speakers of Hindi at 422 million, although this is a broader definition of Hindi than is used elsewhere, and includes dialects that would be considered by many linguists to be distinct languages. The Indian figure, plus speakers numbering hundreds of thousands in South Africa, Fiji, the United States, Bangladesh, Yemen, Nepal and Malaysia, makes the total around 424 million people. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Chinese (total): 1,261,883,000 speakers Basemap modified from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
    • CHINESE (TOTAL)
      • This smaller map removes the countries where Chinese is dominant. This map therefore only shows 1.4% of all speakers of Chinese. The territories omitted are Hong Kong, Singapore, China and Taiwan.
      (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Chinese (total) Chinese is a collection of languages that are mutually unintelligible, but use a common written form. By far the largest of these is Mandarin. Also shown in subsequent maps on the worldmapper website are Yue Chinese (Cantonese), Min Chinese, and Hakka Chinese. These varieties tend to be spoken in regions of the south and south-east of China. Chinese has spread far and wide; the largest numbers of speakers outside of China are in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. Chinese belongs to the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • ADDENDUM
      • The preceding maps are only a fraction of the nearly 7000 languages that are spoken in the world. The languages that we have not mapped tend to be confined to just a few often neighbouring countries; many are spoken by members of just one tribe.
    • The 1,036,218,000 people we missed India, Indonesia, The Philippines, and much of Africa all have many people speaking languages that are not widely spoken outside their own country. Some of the largest of the languages included here are Telugu and Marathi, both have high numbers in speakers in certain regions of India; the Sunda language, spoken by around 27 million people on the Indonesian island of Java; and Yoruba and Igbo, both spoken in and around Nigeria. (c) www.worldmapper.org
    • Images courtesy of...
      • Front slide: Painting by Lucas Van Valckenborch
      • Taken from Wikimedia Commons
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tour_de_babel.jpeg
      • Language Families Map: Wikimedia Commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Language_Families_%28wikicolors%29.png
      • All other maps: Worldmapper http://www.worldmapper.org
      • Special thanks go to John Pritchard for his work on the language data and all the related graphics!
      • Slides created by Benjamin Hennig