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This is a resource which was created and shared by the City of York strategy team. It was created by Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison Wilcock. It seemed to me that there are many people who have ...

This is a resource which was created and shared by the City of York strategy team. It was created by Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison Wilcock. It seemed to me that there are many people who have not seen this resource and would benefit from it. There have certainly been many derivatives of it shared over the years since it was first produced.
If there is a problem with me sharing this resource, let me know and I will remove it from this location.It is available in several locations online.

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Teacher's Pet Teacher's Pet Document Transcript

  • Teacher’s Pet IntroductionThe aim of Teacher’s Pet is to help you plan effective lessons where pupils’learning and engagement is maximised. Teacher’s Pet is a folder of strategies for you to refer to when you are planning your lessons. These materials draw together all the good ideas from different strands of the Key Stage 3 Strategy into one document. The ideas are not limited to Key Stage 3 and can be easily applied to Key Stage 4 and 5.If you want to plan a structured lesson, organise pupils into different groupsor use peer assessment you just need to flick to the correct section andeverything is laid out in an easy to use style. Every section includes a briefintroduction that explains the teaching strategy followed by lots of examplesof activities to try in the classroom. As you find new teaching activities add these to the relevant sectionUsing the ideas in this folder is part of your professionaldevelopment. Talk to your colleagues about the activities youhave tried and share want went well and what can beimproved. You may want to action plan the furtherprofessional development you would like – pages 30-32 giveyou some suggestions how you can link Teacher’s Pet to yourdevelopment needs.We would be very interested in any feedback on Teacher’s Pet. Phone 01904426614 or e-mail alison.wilcock@york.gov.uk, lucy.Lawrence@york.gov.uk orzoe.crompton@york.gov.uk Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 1
  • Teacher’s Pet Contents Section 1 Effective lesson design • Effective lessons • Lesson plans • Climate for learning • Learning styles Section 2 Assessment for learning strategies • Definition • Making assessment for learning work • Sharing learning objectives and learning outcomes • Helping pupils recognise the standards they are aiming for • Self and peer assessment • Provide feedback which helps pupils to recognise their next steps • Promoting confidence that every pupil can improve Section 3 Starters and plenaries • Purposes • Examples of activities for different purposes • Plenary templates Section 4 Effective questioning • What to ask • Using Bloom’s taxonomy • How to ask Section 5 Literacy across the curriculum • Spelling • Reading • Writing • Group work Section 6 Continuing professional development • Teachers standards framework • Personal action plan • Further training • Further reading Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 2
  • Teacher’s Pet Section 1 Effective lesson design • Effective lessons • Lesson plans • Climate for learning • Learning styles Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 3
  • Teacher’s Pet Effective Lessons There is no one right way to teach a lesson. It depends on the subject you teach. Pupils need a varied diet through the day. There are however some good principles to consider when planning an effective lesson. Scheme of Prior/future work learning Learning What do you want the pupils to learn? How will you know that they have learnt it? Structure • A crisp start • Explain new knowledge/skills and the content of the lesson • Chunk the learning • Apply learning and express in a variety of ways • Review the learning during and at the end of the lesson Activities Climate Teacher’s Pet is full of Is the learning practical ideas. The accessible to all important thing is to pupils? choose the right ones. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 4
  • Teacher’s Pet Lesson designIn an effective lesson pupils are engaged and motivated to carry out a varietyof activities. They know what they are learning and can work independently.The teacher asks questions that challenge pupils’ thinking and encouragesthem to express their own views. Pupils reflect on what they already knowand relate their work to real life. Pupils have the opportunity to apply whatthey learn to new situations and assess their own learning and progress.Flexibility in lesson planningIt is important to chunk the learning into small pieces. For this reason astructured lesson may have many parts (or episodes!) as you build in aplenary activity after each activity.Not all lessons need a separate starter activity. The most important part ofthe lesson is the plenary when you make the learning clear and reviewprogress. Plenary simply means come together to reviewKey elements of good lesson plans Lesson objectives that can be shared Key questions with pupils Brief notes on specific activities A clear structure for the lesson Good lesson Needs of individuals plans or groups (e.g. SEN include: or G & T) How any additional support will be used Reference to subject issues e.g. vocabulary Homework References to set relevant resources Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 5
  • Teacher’s Pet Lesson plan 1Unit: Class:Session/context:Key Skills:WALT We are learning to:WILF What I’m looking for:Timing Activities Resources/Differentiation Starter Main activity Plenary Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison Wilcock Zoe 6
  • Teacher’s Pet Lesson Plan 2Class: Date:Learning objectives:Success criteria:Key words: Resources:Activities (with timings):Plenary strategy/questions:Additional support: Extension:Homework Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 7
  • Teacher’s Pet When are pupils more likely to be engaged in their work? Pupils are more likely to be engaged in their work when: • they are clear about its purpose because the work has been well explained; • the work builds on their prior attainment; they are able to do the work but find it challenging; • they are emotionally, physically and intellectually involved by the tasks set; • the presentation, variety and structure of the work and activities generate curiosity and interest; • they have opportunities to ask questions and try out ideas; • they can see what they have achieved and how they have made progress; • they get a feeling of satisfaction and enjoyment from the work. Emotional state Physical state • Use language to build • Opportunity for self-esteem and movement and talk in confidence lessons • Use humour to relax • Well lit and airy room pupils with useful displaysLearning styles Creating the Big picture• Give pupils a choice right climate • Connect each lesson of tasks or for learning with previous lesson presentation styles and pupils own• Plan for preferred experiences learning styles in • At the beginning of your scheme of Appropriate challenge a unit outline the work • Not too easy and not whole unit too hard • Make clear your expectations Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison Wilcock Zoe 8
  • Teacher’s Pet Features of different learning stylesTry to give pupils experience of a variety of learning styles during a unit ofwork. Pupils may have a preferred learning style but this does not mean theycan’t learn in other styles and won’t enjoy a different approachKinaesthetic learner Learns best when physically and emotionally engaged in learning. Consequently, enjoys those lessons that provide such opportunities – design and technology, PE and drama. Not a linear, logical thinker, preferring to learn experientially. Particularly likes computer games, because of the opportunities they provide for learning through trial and error and for physical and emotional engagement.Auditory learner A keen participant in whole-class and group discussion, preferring to work with someone rather than alone. Would rather listen to a teacher giving instructions than read written instructions or follow a series of diagrams. One of their favourite school experiences is being read to in English lessons. When preparing for examinations reads notes aloud and makes tapes to listen to before goes to sleep. Has a logical, planned approach to learning and is most successful when teachers help break learning down into a series of incremental steps.Visual learner 1 Has to see things to understand them. Enjoys lessons which use videos, demonstrations and textbooks, which use charts, diagrams and pictures to convey information. When revising, prefers not to produce revision notes, but to use visual forms such as mind-maps, spidergrams or flow charts. Finds lessons more helpful if teachers begin them by connecting their content and focus with previous and succeeding lessons.Visual learner 2 Learns best when it is written down. Enjoys independent study and will frequently follow up lessons by reading the textbook to clarify and reinforce understanding. Tends to be most successful in lessons in which there is a textbook and is allowed to make own notes whilst teachers are talking. Is a logical, linear learner and has a keen eye for detail. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 9
  • Teacher’s Pet Section 2 Assessment for learning strategies • Definitions • Making assessment for learning work • Sharing learning objectives and learning outcomes • Helping pupils recognise the standards they are aiming for • Self and peer assessment • Provide feedback which helps pupils to recognise their next steps • Promoting confidence every pupil can improve Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 10
  • Teacher’s Pet Assessment for learningFormative assessment focuses on identifying the next steps in studentslearning and gives feedback to teachers and students. It helps teachers toplan the next steps and students to improve their work. It is increasinglyreferred to as assessment for learning, as its purpose is to improve standards,not merely to measure them. Formative assessment looks forward. Assessment for Learning – key characteristicsAssessment for learning: • is embedded in a view of teaching and learning of which it is an essential part; • involves sharing learning goals with pupils; • aims to help pupils to know and recognise the standards they are aiming for; • involves pupils in (peer and) self-assessment; • provides feedback which leads to pupils recognising their next steps and how to take them; • involves both teacher and pupils reviewing and reflecting on assessment data (information). Assessment for learning: beyond the Black Box, Assessment Reform Group (1999) Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 11
  • Teacher’s Pet Making assessment for learning workIntroducing techniques such as peer assessment and comment only markingwhen groups are not used to these things might mean that dont appear towork. Dont give up! Its likely to take training and time to make thesebecome part of a normal routine. Some things you might want to considerdoing are: 1. Devote a lesson or large part of a lesson to clarifying with pupils their role in assessment. Explain how different sorts of feedback will help them to improve. 2. Produce a short handbook for pupils explaining assessment for learning and the techniques that will be used. 3. Involve pupils and give them a say - used learning logs or pupil interviews from time to time to get feedback from them on how they are finding the AFL techniques. 4. Use AFL language with pupils - eg feedback, peer assessment, constructive feedback. If used in different subjects this will become part of the daily school vocabulary. 5. Start simple and build up – e.g. research shows that pupils are better at self-assessment when they have been used to using peer assessment first. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 12
  • Teacher’s Pet Sharing Learning Objectives and Learning OutcomesSharing learning objectives is central to assessment for learning. Pupils needto know what they should be learning as well as what they should be doing. How to write learning objectives • Write one or two learning objectives in straightforward “pupil-speak”. Often one objective relates to knowledge and understanding and the other relates to thinking skills, literacy etc. • Use active phrases about what the pupils are learning e.g. We are learning to: Bloom’s Taxonomy Active words and phrases Knowledge Draw Record Identify Describe Explain what Comprehension Sort Decide Discuss Select Present Explain why Application Classify Demonstrate how Calculate Solve Analysis Conclude Analyse Interpret Use the pattern to… Synthesis Design Formulate Plan Predict Explain the differences between … Evaluation Assess Compare/contrast Link/make connections between … Use the idea of … to … Evaluate the evidence for… Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 13
  • Teacher’s PetDifferent ways to share learning objectives • Set the pupils targets for the lesson that you return to at the end of the lesson • Give pupils a Key Question that they will be able to answer by the end of the lesson • Differentiate the outcomes you expect as what pupils must/could/should be able to do • Use WALT and WILF: “We are learning to…” “What I’m looking for is that by the end of this lesson you will be able to…” • Once pupils become used to you using objectives they may be able to come up with their own learning outcomes • For variety ask a pupil to read out the objectives (perhaps they are hidden in the room/under a chair) • Have the objectives written where pupils can easily see them during the lesson or have pupils write their targets/objectives in their booksWhen to share learning objectives • Often at the start of the lesson. Discuss the learning objectives, rephrase them, relate them to work previously covered or pupils lives, ask questions that engage pupils with what it is you want them to learn • If you have planned an engaging starter activity, it may be more appropriate to share the objectives after this • During the lesson refer to the learning objectives “remember, this is why we’re doing this activity, this is what we are learning” • At the end of the lesson refer to the objectives and ask “What have you learned today?” “What have you learnt that is new about...?” or “What really made you think/did you find difficult when you were learning…?” • If you shared the learning objectives as questions ask “How well can you answer these questions?” • Ask pupils to self-assess how well they have met the objectives or achieved the outcomes of the lesson by simply showing thumbs up/thumbs down or holding up a traffic light card: red – not met, amber partly met, green fully met Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 14
  • Teacher’s PetHelping pupils recognise the standards they are aiming for 1. Samples of work o Use an anonymous piece of work – ask pupils to mark it against criteria and make suggestions for how it could be improved – use last years work or download samples from www.ncaction.org.uk o In groups pupils could put a selection of pieces of work in order of standards then give reasons why one is be than another 2. Modelling the process o When setting a task show pupils how you might approach it. Go through an example saying your thinking out loud o Listen in to groups – stop the class when you have noticed several different approaches. Ask pupils to explain to the class how they have got started 3. Interactive use of classroom displays Allow pupils to go and have a look at displays, particularly those who are stuck, lack confidence or who need stretching and should be aiming higher, including: o Work of the week – show how the selected work met the standards o A range of work of different standards annotated to show why they met different levels o Display criteria, for example, pupil speak levels or GCSE criteria, or class targets for the topic Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 15
  • Teacher’s Pet Self and peer assessmentDuring plenaries at the end of every lessonRefer to plenary ideas earlier in Teacher’s Pet. Some simple ideas that can bequickly planned into teaching are: o Post-its – All pupils write down something learnt during the lesson in relation to the objectives, can use different colour post-its for skills or knowledge. Stick post its on a flip chart or board – read some out or use interactively possibly asking volunteers to classify points o Traffic lights – ask pupils to hold up red amber or green cards to show how confident they feel about each objective. Ask pupils to traffic light work in pairs and traffic light each other’s work. o Use grids or prompt questions to encourage reflection on what has been learnt and how o Display a key question poster and select different questions from it during plenaries to encourage reflectionGroup peer assessment o Groups present work and the class ask questions or give feedback against criteria o Mark work of other students in the class and provide constructive feedback – give pupils prompts to begin the feedback. Post-its are useful for adding comments to work. o Ask pupils to write their own questions and or mark scheme.Self-assessment o Pupils mark their own work using criteria before handing it in o Separate comments from grades – pupils can mark their own work and comment after the teachers has marked it and before they receive the feedback. o Give pupils objectives for the whole topic – they traffic light their understanding of each at the beginning of the topic, as the objective is covered and at the end. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 16
  • Teacher’s Pet Provide feedback that helps students recognise their next steps and how to take themGood feedback tells pupils: o What they have done well o What they need to improve o How to go about making that improvementFeedback can be individual or group, written or oral 1. Oral feedback during lessons o Don’t confuse pupils by giving feedback that does not relate to the lesson. Only give feedback that is linked to the learning objectives of the lesson. o Look for common problems or successes and stop the class for a mini plenary to give feedback o Give individual feedback – avoid comparing to others 2. Time to act on feedback in lessons o Repeat task using similar skills to allow pupils to try them again after feedback o Ask pupils to transfer comments or targets from a previous piece of work on to the new one o Stick a comment sheet in the front of books – start the lesson by asking them to transfer your comment on to the sheet and give time for them to respond Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 17
  • Teacher’s Pet Promoting confidence that every pupil can improve o Use “No hands up” questioning – tell the class you expect everyone to have a go, promote a climate where mistakes are OK o Use praise for individual achievements against the objectives o Make use of rewards for good responses to specific performances, answers to specific questions o Use supportive language e.g. I know you can do this… Remember when you did this before… This is a difficult task but you can do it… o Avoid competition, comparison or merit for ability – avoid giving stars or credits for the “best work”. Involving students in reviewing and reflecting on assessment informationMany of the techniques referred to above can allow this to happen duringeveryday lessons o More formally – after tests use grids allowing students to see what questions they lost marks on and to identify specific things to revise more or ask for help on o Plan for individual tutorials with students once a term – ask them to prepare for this by listing points or questions they want ask about their work. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 18
  • Teacher’s Pet Section 3 Starters and Plenaries • Purpose • Examples of activities for different purposes • Plenary templates Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 19
  • Teacher’s Pet Starters The purpose of starters 1. To begin a new topic or introduce a new idea 2. To remind pupils what they have learnt 3. To set out the learning for the lesson 4. To find out what pupils already know Pitfalls for starters, they may: • take too long and take over the whole lesson • become a fixed routine and lack variety • lose pace and directionStarters need to be planned and timed, including key questions. Often you willplan a starter and plenary together as activities that wrap round the mainactivity giving pupils the chance to think about what they already know, whatthey are about to learn, then what they have learnt and how they have learnt. Examples of starters for different purposes 1. To begin a new topic or introduce a new idea • Attention grabbers: Bring in a prop e.g. a bicycle, musical instrument, costume prop, mystery object or photograph, “urine” sample, touchy feely bags, indoor sparklers, film clip from Lord of the Rings etc •4Ws (Who, what, why, where): Show the class a picture and ask them to write down questions they would like to ask about the image • What’s in it for me? Make the start relevant to the pupils, “Where did your trainers come from?” Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 20
  • Teacher’s Pet 2. To remind pupils what they have learnt • Odd one out: This simple starter helps develop pupils’ ability to justify their decisions. Give pupils three words and ask them to discuss in pairs - which is the odd one out and why? Chose your words so that there is more than one right answer. This can also be played with photographs. • Card loop: Pupils are given cards with an answer on one side and a question on the other. Begin by asking a question. When they hear the question they have the answer to they read out their answer, turn the card over and read out the next question. Challenge the class to complete 20 questions in 3 minutes. • Venn diagram: Provide cards with descriptions of different processes etc. (some must apply to more than one category) and ask pupils place words in a Venn diagram of overlapping circles • Washing line: Peg items on a washing line to show a scale/spectrum/timeline e.g. household substances on a pH scale, events in history, least developed to most developed country etc. • Sequence statements: Arrange cards in order to describe a process, sequence of events, practical instructions etc. • Who am I? Give pupils clues to a person or object discussed last lesson. Alternatively put stickers on pupils backs/foreheads and they ask each other questions to work out who or what they are. 3. To set out the learning for the lesson • What if…..? Ideally pupils work in groups of three. Give pupils two minutes to come up with immediate and long-term consequences, e.g. What would happen if smoking were banned? What would happen if we all became vegetarians? Etc. • Ask a challenging statement or question: Pupils to discuss in pairs and feedback their opinion after 1 minute, e.g. Are nuclear power stations dangerous? Should we be allowed to make designer babies? etc. • Human continuum: Put opposing views at each end of a washing line – explain that the string represents a continuum between the two extremes. Ask for volunteers to come out and by holding on to the rope show how much they agree with either statement. The middle means that they have no strong views either way, closer to one end or the other represents a level of agreement with that statement. Other pupils can now indicate their position on the issues. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 21
  • Teacher’s Pet 4. To find out what pupils already know Flash cards • Give pupils a set of 10 key words. Read out definitions and pupils hold up a card in response. For some questions they may hold up more than one card. • Give pupils key words and their definitions on card to match up. • Pupils could be asked to sort the cards into groups and justify their decisions or arrange the cards on flipchart paper as a concept map - draw lines joining the key words together and write connecting words along them. • Discuss in pairs and sort statement cards into 3 groups: Agree, disagree, not relevant • The flash cards could just be True on one side and False on the other to hold up when the teachers reads out a set of statements. • Traffic lights are red, orange and green cards. Pupils hold up a colour to represent how confident they feel about a subject/skill or to show if they know an answer to a question. • All these could be used with a few seconds thinking time, then “show me” to encourage all pupils to have a go rather than copy the first person to hold up their card. • Ready, Steady …Teach: Provide groups with a shopping bag of ingredients (modelling clay, string, lollypop sticks etc.) and give pupils 5 minutes to plan an activity in which they use the ingredients to “teach” a process e.g. longshore drift, test tube babies etc. White board activities • Read out a definition and the pupils write down what they think the word is (alternatively the pupils write down a definition to a key word) • Ask pupils to draw a diagram e.g. a circuit diagram (a cell and two bulbs in parallel, then add a switch that will turn both bulbs on and off) • What’s the question? - give pupils the answer (e.g. Hitler) and ask them to write their own question • The teacher describes the story of the graph – pupils draw it. • Ask pupils to write down 5 things they know about a topic • The teacher reads out statements – pupils write down true or false Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 22
  • Teacher’s PetHow to introduce Whiteboards to your classWhiteboards are a very useful way for a teacher to see a response from everypupil in the class. Some pupils will have used whiteboards before but don’tassume they have been trained in using them properly. The strategies/groundrules below may be useful, as they will help pupils focus on their learning 1. Make it clear to the pupils that you want their own ideas – once they have written their idea they could hold the board against their chest 2. Ensure all pupils show their boards at the same time (counting down 3,2,1 “Show me” is one strategy) 3. Make the ‘showing’ time short to reduce the time that pupils have to look at other pupils’ answers 4. Some pupils with poorer literacy skills may be reluctant to write on the boards so stress to the pupils that it is their ideas you are interested in, not the spelling. Sometimes pairing pupils of differing abilities can help build confidence. 5. Always collect in the whiteboards when they are not in use during the lesson – if using the whiteboards as a starter train the pupils to collect the boards as they come into the room. 6. Beware that pupils could write hidden messages on the back of the whiteboards – check by occasionally asking pupils to turn their whiteboards over Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 23
  • Teacher’s Pet PlenariesThe purpose of plenaries 1. To help pupils to understand and remember what has been learned 2. To create a sense of achievement 3. To take learning further and deeper 4. To allow the teacher and pupils the opportunity to assess and to plan accordingly 5. Get pupils into the habit of thinking about their learning Pitfalls for plenaries: • You run out of time and rush it • Pupils think the lesson is over and don’t take them seriously • It’s dull because it’s always the same routine – what have you learnt today? and give out homework • You repeat yourself rather than say anything new If anything a plenary is even more important than a starter – what progress have pupils made? Plenaries are most successful when they are planned Examples of plenaries for different purposes 1. To help pupils to understand and remember what has been learned • Key words: Use flash cards or whiteboards (see starters) • SPLAT! Put key words on the board. Two pupils stand facing each other either side of the words. Members of the class describe a key word and the pupils cover the word with their hand. Winner stays on; the pupil who asked the question becomes the contender or nominates someone else. • Top 10: In pairs agree on the top ten key words for the lesson • Gimme 5: In pairs, pupils agree on 5 things they have learned during the lesson. Alternatively they generate 5 questions they now want answering or 5 questions that would test their understanding • Hot seat: A pupil acts in role as an expert or character from the lesson and invite the class to ask questions Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 24
  • Teacher’s Pet • Plenary cards: Warn two pupils at the start of the lesson that you intend to ask them to report back to the class at the end of the lesson what they have learnt that is new. Give pupils plenary cards to record their thoughts. Then ask for agreement from the rest of the class and other contributions • Post-Its: To involve everyone ask pupils to write on Post-Its one thing they have learnt, one thing they understand better and one skill they have used. Pupils stick their Post-Its to a large sheet of paper at the front of the class. Use this sheet to start the next lesson. • Snowball: Ask pupils to agree in buzz pairs (e.g. a true/false quiz) then combine with another pair to make four, come to agreement again, then two fours to eight and agree again • Freeze frame: Give pupils’ roles to act out e.g. arrival home of a soldier after the war who was believed to be dead. Call “freeze frame” and the pupils hold their pose whilst you ask the class what each pupil is thinking and feeling 2. To create a sense of achievement • Just a minute: A spokesperson from each group to present their findings. The challenge is to talk for a minute without pausing or repeating themselves – encourages the rest of the class to listen carefully, you may like to start off with Just 30 seconds as a minute can be a long time • Drama: Ask groups of three to produce a one minute drama based on the main activity • Targets: Tick off each target or learning objective from the start of the lesson asking pupils to explain how they know they have achieved them 3. To take learning further and deeper • Challenging questions: Plan a sequence of questions that demand progressively higher order thinking based on Bloom’s Taxonomy (see section on questioning) Working in pairs, give pupils thinking time to come up with answers to these challenging questions that apply what they have learnt • What if…..? Ideally pupils work in groups of three. Give pupils two minutes to come up with immediate and long-term consequences, e.g. What would happen if smoking were banned? What would happen if we all became vegetarians? Etc. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 25
  • Teacher’s Pet 4. To allow the teacher and pupils the opportunity to assess and to plan accordingly • Traffic light: Ask pupils to traffic light their understanding of the key vocabulary, processes or learning outcomes. • Self and peer assess each other’s work: Give pupils’ opportunities to talk about what they have learned and what they have found difficult, using the objective as a focus (see section on assessment for learning) • Mind maps: Write the main theme of the lesson in the centre of a large sheet of paper. In pairs pupils show what they have learnt by classifying the information from the lesson into subcategories branching out from the centre. This is easier if you give pupils a suggested list of words to use. • Concept maps: Give pupils a small number of key words or images on cards to arrange in a mind map as above. Now ask pupils to write along each connecting line the reason for the link. This technique quickly identifies misconceptions. • Flashcards: Pupils hold up vocabulary cards in response to questions (see starters) • Sequence statements: Arrange cards in order to describe a process, sequence of events, practical instructions etc. • Whole class questioning: Ask open questions and prompt pupils to extend their answers so you can assess their understanding 5. Get pupils into the habit of thinking about their learning • Golden rules: (see template) Having completed a task, ask pupils to create “golden rules” or tips for others who will carry out the same activity at some point in the future • Bridging: Pupils discuss in pairs then list three ways that the ideas in the lesson could be used in other subjects or outside school • The plenary triangle: (see template) Ask pupils what did you learn from what you saw, what you heard and what you did? • Thinking words: (see template) Identify thinking words for your subject, which are appropriate for your pupils. Display some thinking words and after a suitable activity ask pupils to choose which words match their thinking • Learning logs: Give pupils a separate book or back of their book where they periodically record their thoughts on what and how they have learned Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 26
  • Teacher’s Pet • Plenary questions: To get pupils to think about HOW they learn: (give pupils a minutes thinking time in buzz pairs before they answer) o What really made you think/did you find difficult when you were learning….? o What have you learnt that is new about…..? o What helped you (e.g. a friend, teacher, book, your own thinking) when something got tricky? o How did looking at Kerri’s work help you to do yours? o How did working as a group help you to learn? o How would you change this activity for another class who were learning to……? Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 27
  • Teacher’s Pet Golden Rules for.. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 28
  • Teacher’s Pet What did you learn from what you …. saw What questions I now have… heard did Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 29
  • Teacher’s Pet Thinking wordsAdapt Evidence PredictAnalogy Examine PrioritiseAnalyse Experience RealisationApply Experiment RecallAssess Explain RecogniseAssumption Extrapolate ReconstructAttitude Formulate RefineBelief Hypothesise ReflectClarify Identify ReorganiseClassify Image ResponseCombine Imagine ScanCompare Implement SequenceCompose Interpret Short-term memoryConsider Interrelate SkimContext Judge SpecificationContradict(ion) Justify StereotypeContrast Juxtapose StimulateConvert Link StimulusDecide Long-term memory StructureDecode Meaning SummariseDefine Metaphor SymbolDesign Model SynthesiseDevelop Negotiate TransformDifferentiate Organise TranslateDistinguish Paraphrase TriggerEvaluate Plan Visualise Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 30
  • Teacher’s Pet Section 4 Effective questioning • What to ask • Using Bloom’s taxonomy • How to ask Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 31
  • Teacher’s Pet QuestionningPlanning questions – What to askUse Blooms taxonomy to make sure questions provide challenge – RememberNC level 5 requires thinking at Application or above!Blooms Taxonomy Example – Goldilocks and the three bears!Knowledge What happened in the story?DescribeIdentifyWhen Where WhoComprehension Why did Goldilocks like little Bear’s bed best?TranslatePredictWhy?Application What would have happened if Goldilocks had comeDemonstrate how to your house?SolveTry it in a new contextAnalysis Which parts could not be true?ExplainInferAnalyseSynthesis Can you think of a different ending?DesignCreateComposeEvaluation Was Goldilocks good or bad? Why?AssessCompare/contrastJudge Tips for planning questioning into a lessonTip 1 Tip 2 Tip 3 Tip 4 Tip 5Share Sequence the Stop during Warn pupils. Make time forlearning questions the lesson. a plenaryobjectives in getting “Have we “Later in the which givesthe form of harder answered lesson I’m pupils chancekey questions through the these yet? going to ask to think aboutand say that lesson Discuss with you….” whether theythey will be a partner can answerable to what else you the questionsanswer them need toby the end know” Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 32
  • Teacher’s Pet Thinking time – Phone a friend – ask count to ten before one pupil to answer you take an answer then let them choose someone else to add a further point Word challenge – No Hands rule –Preview – tell pupils you are not allowed train the class tothe question and to answer in less know that thisgive them time to than 15 words means you will beplan an answer choosing people to answer – announce when the rule is in force How to Ask 10 Tips for Listening in – listen to pair/group getting discussion and plan Conscripts and everyone to ask specific volunteers involved groups Vary questioning between choosing people and asking for hands up Begin the lesson by giving pairs a question to answer from last lesson – write it on the board or cut up past exam papers Use speaking Ask pairs to plan prompts – “A good two questions for way to start an another pair to answer might be like answer this…” Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison Wilcock Zoe 33
  • Teacher’s Pet Section 5 Literacy across the curriculum • DARTs activities • Spelling strategies • Using connectives • Reading • Writing Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 34
  • Teacher’s PetLiteracy introduction:Literacy isn’t something that you need to add to your lessons, as you shouldfind that it is an inherent part of your subject. Think of all the language youand your students use in any lesson and how the quality of pupilunderstanding and the means by which they express their understandingcould be improved. The following few pages provide you with ideas that youcould use in your lesson to develop your pupils’ literacy skills.DARTs activities (directed activities related to texts) are really useful forhelping your pupils to work through the text you give them and also to findspecific pieces of information. You may find that if you use these, that ratherthan having to simplify the text you give pupils you will be able to providethem with quite difficult text but they will have the strategies to decipherthem.Try using the following yourself as you read through the section aboutliteracy:• First skim read the text to find any references to your subject.• Secondly, see if you can find the main idea in each section and underline it.• Now read through the literacy section of Teacher’s Pet and annotate anything that you have queries about with a big question mark; continue reading, but when you have got to the end go back and try to find yourself some key questions which you can find the answers to from your literacy co-ordinator.• Have a go at restructuring the section about literacy: you could restructure it as a flow chart, diagram, grid, list and so on; you will find by doing this that you often understand the information much better. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 35
  • Teacher’s Pet Spelling Strategies Break it into sounds (d-i-a-r-y) Break it into syllables (re-mem-ber) Break it into affixes (dis + satisfy) Refer to words in the same family (muscle - muscular) Use a mnemonic (necessary – one collar, two sleeves) Say it how it sounds (Wed-nes-day) Refer to etymology (bi + cycle = two + wheels) Apply spelling rules (does the word end with –ible or –able? The word ends in –able if without the suffix the root word is still clear (e.g. horrible, drinkable)) Learn by sight (look – cover – write – check) Visual memory (parallel – one road, two lanes) Calligram (the style of writing shows the words meaning: Freezing) Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 36
  • Teacher’s Pet Connectives as signposts Use connectives to link ideas together in a sentenceAdding Cause and effectand becausealso soas well as thereforetoo consequentlySequencing Qualifyingnext howeverthen althoughfirst, second, third,… unlessfinally exceptmeanwhile ifafter as long as apart fromEmphasising Illustratingabove all for examplein particular such asespecially for instancesignificantly as revealed byindeed in the case ofComparing Contrastingequally whereasin the same way instead ofsimilarly alternativelylikewise otherwiseas with unlikelike on the other hand Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 37
  • Teacher’s PetConnectives – games you can play:Connectives are words that help link ideas within the same sentence; they areextremely important tools for communication and thinking in all areas of thecurriculum.If your pupils can use these words it will help them: • Think clearly and see connections • Express their thoughts clearly • Make their writing more fluent and mature • Will make their writing more precise and explicitTo get pupils into the habit of using these words effectively, you could try thefollowing: 1. Provide pupils with two phrases, for example: “William was a good king” and “he united the country” and ask pupils to find a connective which links the two phrases and ask them to explain the impact it has upon the meaning. 2. As the teacher you begin the discussion of a topic, for example: “Developing countries are poor because....” and around the class pupils, alternately, have to give a reason or provide a phrase with a connective to link the ideas given. 3. Provide pupils with two sentences and ask them, in a minute, to join them in as many different ways as possible. 4. Give pupils the list of connectives and ask them to organise them into groups of similar types, for example: next, then, first, etc are connectives which give an idea of time and the order in which things happen. See if they can classify the rest. 5. Ask pupils in groups to decide which the most useful connective for your subject and then ask them to defend their choice with a few relevant examples. 6. Give pupils a piece of writing from your subject with all the connectives removed and ask them to add the most appropriate ones which enhance the meaning of the text. 7. Ask pupils to mark each other’s work for the use of appropriate connectives. 8. Do quick fire sentence combinations – join pairs / threes of simple sentences to form one whole sentence, in a variety of ways, without using and, but or so. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 38
  • Teacher’s Pet ReadingDifferent subjects use different sorts of texts. You can plan to use activereading strategies that help pupils to approach these independently.Active reading strategies also help pupils to understand what they arereading.Some strategies to try: • Sequencing: putting a text back together which has been cut into chunks; this helps pupils hunt for the logic in text by putting it back together, for example in chronological order. • Text marking: this would involve underlining, annotating or numbering a text; this is especially helpful in encouraging pupils to decide what is relevant information in a text and from there be able to distinguish what are the main ideas. • Text restructuring: this involves reading and then producing the information in another format. For example, flow charts, diagrams, Venn diagrams, grids, lists, maps, charts, concept maps or rewriting in a different style. This is useful as it helps pupils summarise and prioritise what they have read and also is highly effective in ensuring that they have understood what they have read. A useful group work activity. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 39
  • Teacher’s Pet Writing • These are the main types of non-fiction writing you could introduce to your pupils: o instructions – recipes, giving directions o recount – science experiment write-up, match commentary o explanation – the rain cycle, how erosion occurs o information – food in Roman Britain o persuasion – advertisement, manifesto o discursive writing – ‘discuss’ essays, magazine article o analysis – literary criticism, analytical essay • Each text type has what are called its conventions, these are the “ingredients” you would always expect in that particular type of writing. The following examples give you some idea of these conventions:Text level (what the piece of writing looks like overall)For example the conventions of layout, sequence and organisation in a recipe: • title • list of ingredients • step-by-step numbered instructions • serving suggestion.Sentence level (this is how exactly the piece is written-the languageused and how it is structured)For example the conventions of writing directions for getting to a place: • voice – ‘you’ • prevailing tense – present • active/passive voice – active, directing......”You should continue up the street and turn left” Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 40
  • Teacher’s Pet A sequence for teaching writing 1. Establish clear aims. Tell pupils why they are writing and who for. 2. Provide example(s). Good models of writing are needed for them to work from. 3. Explore the features of the text. You need to explain to them what is needed in that particular type of writing and discuss this with them. 4. Define the conventions. 5. Demonstrate how it is written. You are the expert writer in your subject and so they need to see you write, this is the thing which makes the most significant difference in their writing. 6. Compose together. From having seen you write, you need to then open up your writing to their suggestions. 7. Scaffold the first attempts. Provide writing frames. 8. Independent writing. 9. Draw out key learning.You could now have a go at: • Identifying the main types of writing expected from pupils in your subject, and define the conventions for each one. • Compile a portfolio of successful annotated work in the subjects, so that pupils can see and understand what is required. • Use the strategies mentioned in the teaching sequence when you introduce pupils to new kinds of writing. • Identify a writing assignment in the near future for which you will teach the process of generating and organising ideas – e.g. using a ‘mind map’ or a card sorting activity. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 41
  • Teacher’s Pet Group Talk Group talk is essential for pupils to gain a deeper understanding of what they are learning. However…. much research suggests that when children are placed in groups for discussion productive, high quality talk does not just naturally happen.As a teacher you can make high quality group talk happen by following thesesimple tips: • Students need to understand what constitutes productive talk, here are some things they need to be able to do: support others’ suggestions by building upon them; be able to reason or justify ideas; analyse their own and others’ ideas. • Some examples of golden rules for teachers using group work: all talk activities need clear and explicit outcomes; groups need to know how long they have for the task. • Plan to use different types of grouping:pair talk – ideal for quick fire reflection and review;pairs to fours – helps to explain and compare ideas;listening triads – pupils work in groups of three, with each pupil taking onthe role of talker, questioner or recorder; the talker explains something, thequestioner prompts and seeks clarification and the recorder makes notes andgives a report at the close of the conversation;jigsaw – a topic is divided into sections; pupils in their home groups of fouror five give each of themselves one of the sections of the topic, they then gointo their expert group of others who also have their section and then returnback to their home group to discuss their findings; this is very effective as itensures the participation of all pupils. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 42
  • Teacher’s PetIdeas for group talk / speaking and listening:Here are some practical suggestions for group talk activities: • Discussion: Provide preliminary research or thinking time so that pupils can bring some knowledge to the discussion. • Discussion: If you are discussing a complex idea which has a variety of viewpoints, give pupils roles with different attitudes towards an issue (you could put relevant information on a card, to ensure that they are familiar with the likely stance of that role and the reasons why). This approach means that pupils are more likely to have points to make and are less likely simply to agree with each other. • Discussion: Give pupils a range of statements (on pre-prepared cards) in relation to the controversial issue that they will then discuss. This helps to introduce some more controversial views that a group with immediate consensus may not be considering. Once you have an idea of the points being made, comments could be made to encourage pupils to modify their views. The original issue itself could be modified / extended. • Using drama: Take a character from history or a famous scientist and put a pupil or yourself in the “hot-seat” as the famous person and the class have to ask questions to find out more about their life and motivations. • Using drama: Think of a historical figure, scientist etc who faces a moral dilemma and ask pupils in groups to offer advice at this critical moment. Ideas for evaluating group talk and presentations: • Provide observers with talk frames to structure their observations, reflections and evaluative feedback: Was the speaker interesting? Did they include relevant facts? • Use a wall poster: “How to work well in a group” or “How to do a good presentation” as the basis for shared criteria for assessment of speaking and listening.If you’d like more ideas on how to manage group talk go to Section 8 of theLiteracy Across the Curriculum file. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 43
  • Teacher’s Pet Section 6 Continuing Professional development • Teachers standards framework • Personal action plan • Further training • Useful websites and further reading Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 44
  • Teacher’s Pet Using Teachers Pet for Continuing Professional Development Set in the context of the Teachers Standards Framework: Target Planning and Teaching Managing own Managing audience setting and performance and Suggested uses of Teacher’s PET expectations Managing and developing pupil development other staff learning and adultsInduction • Use as a basis for discussion with mentor • Choose aspects as a focus for lesson observations2-5 years • Self studyexperience • Trialling activities in lessons and share ideas at department meetings. Discuss ideas with colleaguesThreshold • Self study • Trialling activities in lessons and share ideas at department meetings. Discuss ideas with colleaguesSubject leaders • Use as a basis for discussion at department meetings. Establish peer observations linked to a focus in Teacher’s Pet. • Set up a central store for sharing resources developed as a result of Teachers Pet • Identify next steps for colleagues who have successfully developed techniques in Teacher’s Pet e.g. work with consultant, department training using KS3 materials, classroom research, being coached. Contact LEA KS3 consultants to discuss available materials or supportHeadteachers • Provide new staff with a copy of Teacher’s Pet as part of their induction • Create time at staff meetings for teachers to discuss Teacher’s Pet in cross-curricular groups and run “show and tell” sessions • Set up a teaching and learning group – use Teacher’s Pet as a focus • Encourage staff to attend Network groups and to make use of LEA KS3 consultants for further support Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison Wilcock Zoe 45
  • Teacher’s Pet Writing a personal development planGOAL STRATEGIESThis is what I will be doing differently I will therefore do this….. By….MONITORING SUPPORTI will know and the school will know that I am getting I will receive the following money, time, people…there because…. Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 46
  • Teacher’s Pet KS3 Strategy Cross Curricular Training Units Assessment for Learning Literacy across the curriculum 1. Assessment for Learning in 1. Writing non-fiction every day lessons 2. Writing style 2. Formative use of summative 3. Spelling and vocabulary assessment 4. Active reading strategies 3. Objective led planning 5. Reading for information 4. Oral feedback 6. The management of group talk 5. Written feedback 7. Listening 6. Self and peer assessment 8. Making notes 7. Curricular target setting 9. Using the library/learning centre 8. Setting targets for pupils 10. Marking for Literacy 9. Standards and progression “Literacy in…..” – Subject specific 10. Closing the learning gap training on writing, reading, speaking and listeningNumeracy across thecurriculum 1. The importance of All units last 75- Learning Schools numeracy across the 90 mins 1. Running a network in curriculum Ideal for use in school 2. Maths through other department or 2. Capacity Building subjects subject leader 3. Coaching 1 and 2 3. Using calculators in KS3 meetings 4. Handling Data in KS3 Subject Leader Development Teaching and Learning Programme 1. Planning lessons 1. Subject Leadership at KS3 2. Questioning 2. Analysing and interpreting pupils’ 3. Explaining attainment data and reviewing their 4. Modelling progress 5. Starters 3. Sampling pupils’ work and views 6. Plenaries 4. Evaluating the KS3 Schemes of work 7. Challenge 5. Reviewing planning , teaching and 8. Engagement learning 9. Principles for Teaching thinking 6. Agreeing targets and developing a 10. Thinking together –group talk strategy for improvement 11. Reflection 7. Improving the quality of teaching Schools Facing Challenging Circumstances – self study KS3/4 T&L units Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison Wilcock Zoe 47
  • Teacher’s PetUseful Websites • www.webstore-ed.net/eds City of York Council website – click on Transforming KS3 link. Lots of practical ideas for activities and resources • www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/keystage3 National KS3 Strategy website • www.ncaction.org.uk for levelled pieces of work • www.teachit.co.uk resources for lesson planning • www.learn.co.uk resources for lesson planning • www.ngfl.gov.uk links to lots of internet resources • www.qca.org.uk follow the link to assessment for learningUseful Reading • The teachers toolkit – Paul Ginnis, Crook House Publishing Ltd 2002 • Working inside the black box – Paul Black et al, Kings College London 2002 • Strategies for closing the learning gap – Mike Hughes, Network Education Press Ltd 2003 • Thinking through Geography – David Leat, Chris Kingston Publishing 1998 Zoe Crompton, Lucy Lawrence and Alison WilcockZoe 48