Developing Enquiry Skills Alan Parkinson Secondary Curriculum Development Leader Geographical Association Tony Cassidy Kirk Hallam Community Technology College
“ But why ?” <ul><li>Questioning is part of basic human curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>It starts early... </li></ul>
“ A curriculum, to be truly educational, will lead the students to unanticipated, rather than predicted, outcomes” John McKernan
Enquiry: more than just curiosity about what’s out there...
“ If the curriculum is a cake, then enquiry is the baking powder that makes it rise...” John Widdowson
ask geographical questions justify conclusions creative ways of using and applying geographical skills plan enquiries solve problems and make decisions essential skills and processes in geography that pupils need to learn to make progress QCA (2007a) Programme of study : Geography key stage 3 http://www.qca.org.uk/secondarycurriculumreview/subject/ks3/geography/index.htm National Curriculum (Geography)
Enquiry? ‘ In my opinion geographical enquiry is poorly understood but is at the heart of geographical thinking. For me it is the framework that geographers use to understand the complex world’ Tom Biebrach ‘ To me the point of an enquiry is to find an answer that you don't yet know. You can only have a worthwhile enquiry if you have a worthwhile question that is capable of being answered’ Ian Murray ‘ Finding out why and how‘ Head of Humanities Harry Carlton School … enquiry must be part of every lesson…
Famine : Google Images : Wikipedia A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any faunal species, which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional malnutrition , starvation , epidemic , and increased mortality . Famines in modern time are typically linked to overpopulation , as the number of humans exceeds regional carrying capacity . Historically, famines have occurred among the poor because of agricultural problems such as drought , crop failure, or pestilence . A famine can be made worse by increased human population , war, or economic policies which place the poor at a disadvantage.  Epidemics can reduce available labor. Changing weather patterns, the ineffectiveness of medieval governments in dealing with crises, wars, and epidemic diseases like the Black Death helped to cause hundreds of famines in Europe during the Middle Ages , including 95 in Britain and 75 in France.   In France, the Hundred Years' War , crop failures and epidemics reduced the population by two-thirds.  Although most famines coincide with regional shortages of food, famine infrequently has occurred amid plenty or on account of acts of economic or military policy that have deprived certain populations of sufficient food to ensure survival.
Enabling global learning.... Questioning the world G2: two enquiry based articles in recent weeks...
QCA <ul><li>Geographical enquiry </li></ul><ul><li>requires the development of a range of investigative skills both inside and outside the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>emphasises the importance of geographical questions as a focus for teaching and learning activities </li></ul><ul><li>requires pupils to undertake sequences of enquiry, as well as learning to develop their own enquiry sequences </li></ul><ul><li>emphasises the need for pupils to develop a range of subject-specific skills , together with more general personal, social and study skills </li></ul><ul><li>requires pupils to become skilled at communicating and presenting geographical ideas in a variety of ways to different audiences </li></ul>
Liz Taylor – Homerton College, University of Cambridge ENQUIRY QUESTIONS TG Article: Summer 2008 (delegates have copy)
1. Question must have ‘pith’ and ‘rigour’ 2. Sufficient knowledge-building must take place to be able to provide a good answer 3. Over time, pupils should develop enquiry sequences, as their research skills develop
Some possible enquiry questions... The ‘HOOK’ (Animoto.com) FREE account for educators...
Starting it simple… asking questions. Every lesson should involve enquiry- students are presented with key questions to be answered as they ‘travel’ through a lesson. http://transl8it.com/cgi-win/index.pl How did Hurricane Katrina form? whch areas did it fx? wot impact did it hav? wot lessons cn b learnt frm Hurricane Katrina?
Adding comments/thoughts with speech bubbles in PowerPoint. Starting it simple… asking questions. Adding comments with the record sound tool in PowerPoint. A soundscape can be produced. Surrounding the image with questions- on paper, IWB, or by PowerPoint. Using these questions and comments to produce creative writing/presentations or as a starter for ‘formal’ enquiry. Hot seating the character. Using my senses.
Toilet roll First Aid kit Paper work Insect Repellent Host Gifts Sun cream Starting it simple…asking questions. Which country and why?
Starting it simple…asking questions. Which country and why?
Starting it simple…asking questions. How’s school different?
Starting it simple… validating sources. Find me - Weather Events How many trees were felled in the Great UK Storm of 1987? <ul><li>Teacher generates questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Students asked to find the answers, but validate them through a number of sources. </li></ul>
Starting it simple… developing presentation techniques. Linking home, school and the global.
Leading through the cycle… <ul><li>Teacher leads students through the process of enquiry. </li></ul><ul><li>New techniques are introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping of good and bad management. </li></ul><ul><li>Annotating photos taken with their mobile phones! </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental audits. </li></ul>How well managed is our lake?
Connecting to the global… <ul><li>Links with Toyota City. </li></ul><ul><li>Students and teachers both go on yearly exchanges. </li></ul><ul><li>Students and teachers follow the curriculum during their visits. </li></ul><ul><li>In Geography we ask them about school life! </li></ul><ul><li>We have also developed email links. </li></ul>Would we like schooling Japanese style?
A more complex approach… Key Stage 4 Students write to Wanda Lust, who’s planning to lead an expedition to Antarctica, she asks their advice.
A more complex approach… Andrew Cooney, the youngest person to walk to the South Pole works with students for an afternoon. http://www.andrewcooney.co.uk/
The audience… students produce a presentation . Students are given six lessons to produce a response to Wanda. They are supported with Internet links via our Intranet and external blog. Andrew is also happy to have questions emailed to him .
A more complex approach… Wanda reappears later asking whether Coke is an ethical company. Students like the continuation of character. With thanks- Raise my Voice- Fickr www.flickr.com
Using the Net… We sometimes take the opportunity to encourage staff to contribute to our enquires, via the department blogs. This may also encourage a wider response from a global audience.
Deciding on appropriate formats… One aspect of developing a successful enquiry is the range of presentation options that can be used to enthuse students. Formal writing Presentation Movie Website Newspaper article Letter… Citizenship Project- What’s special about our area?
Enquiry and actions... Tying enquiry to participation: investigation Student-centred enquiries...
With thanks to: David Rogers, Priory School, Portsmouth for slides 8, 9 and 10 Liz Taylor – Teaching Geography article – Summer 2008 http://www.geography.org.uk/projects/gtip/thinkpieces/geographicalenquiry - Gill Davidson Margaret Roberts & GA colleagues