Building Vibrant Communities: Community Benefits of Land Revitalization
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Building Vibrant Communities: Community Benefits of Land Revitalization



Building Vibrant Communities: Community Benefits of Land Revitalization

Building Vibrant Communities: Community Benefits of Land Revitalization



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    Building Vibrant Communities: Community Benefits of Land Revitalization Building Vibrant Communities: Community Benefits of Land Revitalization Presentation Transcript

    • Foreword In 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency partners, who we highlight throughout the report. (EPA) launched a small pilot program called The purpose of this report is to help us all rethink, “brownfields” with an initial grant of $200,000 to make new connections, and broaden our idea of the Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Through this pilot, a seven resources available to clean up brownfields properties, acre site was assessed and cleaned up, 141 jobs revitalize our communities, create new economic were created, and two sites were created for healthy opportunities, and improve our nation’s environment new businesses. It also sparked a movement to clean and health.In 1998, EPA awarded its first Brownfields up and redevelop idled, underused, abandoned, andJob Training grants. JFYNetWorks in Boston, vacant properties throughout the country. I understand that in today’s economic conditions,Massachusetts, used this funding to train brownfield tools are needed more than ever tocommunity members to become environmentaltechnicians. Today, the EPA Brownfields Program has changed the clean up and redevelop brownfield properties for landscape of America’s communities and transformed sustainable uses that create local jobs. EPA has to once vacant properties into beacons of hope for many meet that challenge by working and listening to local economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.To date, communities, fostering public-private partnerships, the program has provided more than 2,500 grants and providing flexibility in our resources. I look to totaling more than $600 million in direct funding you to challenge us as to how EPA and the Federal to communities, which leveraged an additional Government can assist you to help revitalize local $12 billion from other sources to assess, clean up communities. and reuse brownfields. This investment has yielded more than 54,000 jobs – many in disadvantaged Mathy Stanislaus communities. While these statistics are impressive, EPA Assistant Administrator for Solid Waste and there is also a broad range of additional community- Emergency Response wide benefits that can result from the redevelopment and reuse of brownfield properties. This report highlights these other community benefits and potential redevelopment opportunities to create more vibrant, healthy, safe, and sustainable communities. Specifically, the report highlights Prepared under: the potential use of brownfields for agriculture and Contract No. EP-W-07-023 food systems, arts and culture, housing and mixed uses, and other community and civic uses such as Prepared for: greenspace, schools, and health care facilities. Of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency course, these benefits and the Brownfields Program Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response itself could not occur without our numerous federal, Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization state, municipal, nonprofit, and private sector Washington, D.C. 20460
    • BUILDING VIBRANT COMMUNITIES: Community Benefits of Land RevitalizationTable of ContentsIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiSection 1: Successful Brownfields Redevelopment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 EPA Brownfields Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Engaging Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Enhancing Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Community Benefits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Health and Environmental Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Economic Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Capacity Building Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Neighborhood Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Section 2: Brownfields Reuse Creates Community Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Agriculture and Food System Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Arts and Culture Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Housing and Mixed Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Community and Civic Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Section 3: Summary and Looking Forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 i
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    • Introduction “A brownfield is a grainAn abandoned factory, a boarded up corner gas Brownfields revitalization has been successful—notstation, a run down mill. In communities across the just at individual properties, but block-by-block and of sand around whichcountry, we see brownfields of every shape and size. beyond. There are hundreds of examples where the the pearl ofIt is hard to miss the graffiti-laced walls, the broken clearing of environmental concerns at one distressed community develops.”windows, the caved in roofs. It is equally hard to property paved the way for the property to return todismiss the unknown environmental contaminants productive reuse. We see dozens of examples where Clark Henry – Brownfields Coordinator,and health hazards brownfields can pose. blight is reversed with regeneration—where one City of Portland, Oregon property’s reuse spurs community-wide revitalization.Degradation often spreads beyond the boundary of Sidewalks and streets are improved. Trees and flowersone property to blight an entire neighborhood or are planted. New lighting is installed. A communitycommunity. Surrounding streets become stagnant center gets refurbished. Businesses and residentsand unsafe. Concerns about safety and crime return to the area. The ripple effects can spreadrates increase. Residents and businesses move through the community—fear and crime rates fall,out. Property values decline. Retirees, residents, access to services and healthcare improves, propertybusiness owners, and employees that remain behind values increase, a tax base is restored.may need to go further to access goods or services.The inspiration and creativity that formed the What is it that distinguishes one property cleanupneighborhood’s original vibrancy can fade away. and reuse success from another, and what stimulates change well beyond its original property lines?Fortunately, more than two decades ago, civic leaders What creates a safer environment and an economicbegan working to reclaim their communities. The resurgence while creating a healthier and morenation embarked on an experiment in environmental sustainable community? Answering those questions is Redevelopment is underway at Portland,protection, involving aspects of environmental justice Oregon’s South Waterfront the next part of the brownfields experiment. Will youand economic development, to address the growing be one of the next generation of brownfield leaders?challenge of cleaning up and revitalizing brownfieldproperties. Environmental justice advocates and We hope this report motivates and inspires citizens,citizen groups rallied to reverse the decline of developers, urban planners, non-governmentalneighborhoods. Cities, states, nonprofit organizations organization (NGO) leaders, academics, policyand tribal nations responded, and public and private makers, business owners, and communitydevelopers saw a market opportunity. EPA began a development, environmental, and health officialspilot program to provide seed money to catalyze this to explore the possibilities. This report highlightsmovement, and other federal agencies retooled their the important, yet sometimes less tangible benefitsfunding and assistance to aid the cause. that brownfields redevelopment can bring to your community. iii
    • Introduction continued... This report provides only a small sampling of the Join those communities that have reinvigorated many brownfield community collaborations— their land and built vibrant, healthy, sustainable through case studies and several anecdotal stories communities. as well as photos and external research—to give you a sense of what is possible. We provide resource links and information about innovative partnerships to spur your imagination. In addition to supporting and becoming involved in brownfields revitalization, you can strengthen your community right now by doing the following: • Participate in a community garden • Use public transportation • Volunteer with a local organization • Celebrate your community’s history • Improve your home’s curb appeal • Work with community leaders on a • Start a new business blighted property • Support your local farmers market • Speak up for your neighborhood • Meet your neighbors • Save a historic building • Organize social activities on your street • Help to create community greenspace • Attend community events and meetings • Participate in cultural activities • Walk to your local park • Support activities at local schoolsiv
    • 1. Successful Brownfields Redevelopment A brownfield is a property affected by real or perceived contamination that inhibitsBrownfield properties are diverse. They come in all As shown in Figure 1, approximately 2,500 grants redevelopment.sizes—from a fraction of an acre to hundreds of have been awarded across the country since 1995.acres. They are located in urban, suburban and rural In addition, these grants total more than $600 Land revitalization refers to the processlocations. Some properties may have little to no million in direct funding to communities, enabling of assessing a property for contamination, cleaning up contamination (if found), andcontamination, while others require cleanup to ensure these communities to leverage an additional $12 returning the property to productive of the community and environmental billion from other sources to assess, clean up andhealth. Contamination at these properties—whether reuse brownfields.perceived or actual—can cause them to lay idle,underused, abandoned or vacant; this can lead In addition to the funding and support provided EPA’s Brownfields Program has enabled:to blight and disinvestment in neighborhoods or by EPA’s Brownfields Program, there are numerouscommunities. state, tribal, local, private and nonprofit partners • Assessment of more than 14,000 properties that provide funding and technical support to assess, • Cleanup of nearly 400 propertiesThis section provides a brief overview of the U.S. clean up and revitalize brownfield properties. • Creation of more than 54,000 jobsEPA’s Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization • Employment of 3,300 Job Training (OBLR) Brownfields Program and the broader graduates2community benefits that can occur from brownfieldsrevitalization. This section also highlights the Data current as of 8/24/2009importance of community involvement and EPA Brownfields Program Grantsincorporating elements of sustainability to ensurethese broader community benefits. 3,000 2,500 2,000EPA Brownfields Program 1,500 GrantsIn many cases, brownfield properties remain vacant 1,000or idle because of a lack of funding to assess or 500 Fundingclean up the property. In response, EPA’s OBLR 0 ($M illions)provides grants to communities, states and tribes to 2009 2003 2005 2007 1995 1997 1999 2001assess and clean up brownfields. OBLR also providesgrants to train local residents in the technical skillsnecessary to become environmental professionals Figure 1: Since 1995, the number of Brownfieldsthat obtain jobs in local brownfields redevelopment grants awarded yearly has increased tenfold.1projects near them. 1
    • As shown in Figure 2, the EPA Brownfields Program Engaging Communities “It offers a sense of and its partners have leveraged almost $12 billion and created 54,000 jobs. Brownfield projects that receive government funding community pride... require public notice and community involvement. if people feel they These communities reach out to and involve have some input and EPA Brownfields Grants stakeholders before, during and after receiving control in a project Leverage Jobs and Funding funding to ensure success. Community members and local stakeholders can learn, share information and like this, that is 60,000 shape brownfields cleanup and redevelopment while planting a seed for 50,000 also fostering a new generation of community leaders.ownership in the future.” 40,000 By creating a dialogue among all stakeholders in a brownfields project, community engagement Tito Molino – West End Community 30,000 Development Council, enhances the final reuse of the property and the Jobs Bridgeport, Connecticut 20,000 long-term success of the project. Individuals and organizations also build lasting working relationships 10,000 Funding and stronger community ties. EPA also recognizes 0 ($Millions) that community engagement is a vital process to help alleviate environmental justice concerns for citizens 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 in economically disadvantaged areas and give them a voice in their community’s future. Figure 2: As more brownfields are redeveloped, more jobs are created for the community.3 Early community engagement may also identify reuses preferred by local stakeholders to fill key Working together, brownfields revitalization partners market gaps or provide needed services. For example, across the country have made a substantial impact residents may identify vital, but overlooked, services in terms of dollars invested and leveraged, properties in the community—such as a full service grocery cleaned up and jobs created. store, park, bank, senior housing or pharmacy that may not otherwise be developed. In addition to these measures of success, a variety of broader community beliefs have been realized. Often, Successful community engagement results in these benefits are linked to brownfields revitalization stakeholders identifying new ideas that gain projects that successfully engage participation of community support, minimize conflict and reduce the community before and during the redevelopment delays in project completion. All these factors can process. save time and money for the property owner and developer, and assure the long-term success of the project for the entire community. 2
    • Participating in the local decision–making process support their project. This builds civic capacity andempowers and inspires residents to continue helps strengthen bonds among neighbors, creating a U.S. EPA CARE Programtheir public participation and address issues in more tightly knit community.their community beyond the original brownfields EPA’s CARE Program helps toproject. A community’s youth is often a huge This increased civic capacity provides the develop community based solutionssource of untapped creativity that may provide a groundwork for future neighborhood collaboration to environmental issues. CARE grant recipients engage all members of thefresh perspective on ways to address brownfields. and revitalization of the community. Learning about community and create local partnershipsFor example, the Girl Scouts of Nassau County, and participating in local decision making can to access a broad range of viewpoints andNew York developed the Brownfields Buster patch, inspire residents to remain engaged and address services so that the entire communitywhich is earned by learning about brownfields in the other important issues in their community. decides how best to deal with itscommunity and suggesting ideas for redevelopment. environmental issues. Find out more at involvement and engagement can also create a The following case study of Market Creek Plaza innew generation of community leaders. San Diego, California highlights a highly innovative community engagement process that included aThe brownfields redevelopment process allows public, community development initial public and private sector stakeholders to forgenew partnerships, and access new resources to Community engagement experts recommend that the process: Through the CARE Program in Marquette, Michigan, volunteers collect e-waste to prevent • Include the promise that the public’s contribution improper disposal or dumping will influence the decision • Communicate the interests and meets the process needs of all participants • Seek out and facilitate the involvement of those potentially affected • Involve participants in defining how they participate • Provide participants with the information they need to participate in a meaningful way The more people and viewpoints represented in the • Communicate to participants how their input brownfields redevelopment process, the more information communities have to identify the best property reuse. At affected the decision4 a Greensburg, Kansas, design charrette, residents work together to develop a site plan. 3
    • To find tools for public involvement, Case Study: Market Creek Plaza - San Diego, CAvisit Neighborhood group develops model for community ownership of neighborhood assetsInvolvement.htm. In an area once known as the ‘Four The Community-Development InitialFor more information about the Jacobs Corners of Death’ in the distressed Public Offering (CD-IPO) was launched in Diamond Neighborhoods of San 2006, making it possible for community BenefitsCenter for Neighborhood Innovation, visit Diego, California, an abandoned residents to purchase ownership shares, and for more Market Creek Partners, LLC. To date, the aerospace factory was transformed • Involved 3,000 adults information about the project, go to www. into a community hub called Market community owns 40 percent of Market and youth and Creek Plaza. This mixed use center Creek Partners, LLC; the ultimate goal is design teams in the has become a community focal point, for 100 percent community ownership planning process incorporating cultural traditions, arts of this project. Owning a part of this and entertainment—with a grocery store, innovative project generated a sense of • Filled cultural, retail and restaurants, retail shops and essential pride and accomplishment throughout the grocery market gaps services. community. • Awarded $7.9 million A major component of the project’s The reuse of this brownfield strengthened dollars in contracts to success was its in-depth community community ties and established Market minority- or women- engagement process. Resident working Creek Plaza as a community gathering owned businesses teams partnered with the Jacobs Center place where neighbors can meet and enjoy for Neighborhood Innovation to plan, the fruits of their labor. Market Creek Plaza • 415 community design, build, lease and now own and is now a catalyst for local involvement and members and operate the Plaza. Planning began with other redevelopment projects. This process organizations now own a 800 neighborhood surveys, numerous serves as a model for other communities part of the development living room meetings, and several and demonstrates the value of partnershipNeighbors attend a Market Creek community forums to assess what the and the power of eliminating blight to • Created 200 new jobs; planning meeting community needed. Top on the list was transform a neighborhood. 70 percent of them filled a major chain grocery store, followed by by residents restaurants, entertainment and living- wage jobs. • Restored 1,400 linear feet of wetlands Local residents participated in eight working teams to influence all elements • Generated $42 million of the project, from community outreach in economic activity in to building design. Residents were in 2008 charge of developing and implementing outreach and communication strategies. • Paid a full 10 percent This helped build capacity among annual return to Diamond resident leaders as they mobilized the Community Investors in larger community to participate in the 2007 and 2008 process. 4
    • Enhancing Sustainability For more information on the SustainableEPA supports innovative projects that incorporate is cleaned up. Property that was previously Sites Initiative, please go to their Web site at into brownfields cleanup and underutilized due to the perception or existenceredevelopment. Sustainability is often defined of contamination is restored to a higher and betteras meeting the needs of the present without use. And greenfields that may otherwise havecompromising the ability of future generations to been developed are left untouched. There are alsomeet their own needs.5 However, since the late approaches that can be integrated into brownfields1980s, human resource use has exceeded the earth’s revitalization to improve sustainability.capacity to regenerate those resources.6 This meansthat globally, we are compromising the ability of Many brownfields partners and other organizationsfuture generations to meet their needs. provide technical assistance and guidelines to promote more sustainable designs and featuresTo reverse this trend and live sustainably, we must into redevelopment projects. For example, thereduce our impact on the environment, even as Sustainable Sites Initiative is a joint effort bywe improve our social and economic conditions. the American Society of Landscape Architects,While this may be challenging, it is helpful to the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center and thethink of sustainability as a process and not as an United States Botanic Garden that establishes aendpoint. Many individual decisions to enhance set of guiding principles for sustainability.7 Thissustainability will combine to reduce our impact on framework helps to show sustainability as a process At community gardens across the country, rain catchers improve stormwater managementthe environment and benefit the entire community. for enhancing human welfare while reducing harmful and double as public art. At one communityThe case studies presented throughout this report effects to the environment. garden, children help to install a rain catchmenthighlight sustainable features incorporated into each’s redevelopment. Many communities across the country revitalize Photo courtesy of Ashley Kyber brownfields to remove environmental contaminationCleaning up and revitalizing brownfields inherently and contribute to long-term sustainability. Someenhances sustainability. Through brownfields communities have made their cleanup process morerevitalization, property that was once contaminated sustainable by reusing and recycling construction 5
    • and demolition materials, while others make the • Reusing existing buildings, infrastructure, fixturesDid you know? property’s reuse sustainable by constructing green, and equipment energy efficient buildings. In 2008, EPA initiated • Using renewable and recyclable constructionGreenfields and undeveloped land serve 16 Brownfields Sustainability Pilots to explore ways materialsas a carbon sink, offsetting more than 10 to enhance sustainability by providing technical • Building new structures or retrofitting existingpercent of our nation’s greenhouse gasemissions. Protecting these areas through assistance for achieving greener assessment, structures to be energy and water efficient,brownfields redevelopment is critical for cleanup and redevelopment approaches to these 16 such as those that are Leadership in Energyaddressing and responding to climate communities across the country. and Environmental Design (LEED®) or ENERGYchange.8 STAR® certified There are many ways to enhance sustainability during • Integrating green roofs the brownfield revitalization process: • Improving stormwater management through green infrastructure • Green remediation practices that maximize the • Integrating native landscaping net environmental benefit of the cleanup • Utilizing the property for environmentally • Comprehensive site planning that considers the focused reuses such as transportation oriented best use for the property, given its location and development, renewable energy generation, condition wetlands preservation or organic farming • Recycling construction and demolition debrisBuilt on a former brownfield in Newark, EPA Brownfields Sustainability Pilot Profile:California, Ohlone College Newark Center Houston, Texas - Solar Energy and Green Jobsfor Health Sciences and Technology usessustainable elements such as photovoltaic solar The City of Houston’s EPA Sustainability Pilot helpedpanels, geothermal heating and cooling, and the city transform a former 300-acre landfill into arecycled materials in its eco-friendly campus solar power farm. Not only will this transformation remove blight in a neighborhood just 10 minutes from downtown Houston, it will revitalize the area, meet a portion of the city’s electrical needs, and bring new green jobs. EPA provided a technical, regulatory, and financial analysis of this planned project, which showed the solar farm to be technically and environmentally feasible. This analysis will help Houston make the landfill redevelopment project as sustainable as possible when creating and operating the renewable energy facility. To see how these practices can be translated to your community, visit The proposed solar farm Photo from Google maps 6
    • Community Benefits “To go fast, go alone.As a brownfield is revitalized, a variety of benefits and neighborhood infrastructure. Figure 3 showscan be realized throughout a community. A ripple how the ripple effect from brownfield revitalization To go far, go together.”effect can occur that brings community benefits becomes a catalyst to spread community benefits beyond the original cleanup and property. African Proverbfor health, the environment, the local economy, acommunity’s civic capacity, neighborhood identity, Community Benefits of Brownfield Revitalization: A Ripple Effect In St. Paul, Minnesota, the immigrant Hmong community celebrates the groundbreaking of a Hmong funeral home on a former brownfield. A funeral is one of the most sacred traditional rites in Hmong culture, and this redevelopment project provides the community a place to honor its culture and heritage.Figure 3: The ripple effect of brownfields investment: Communities use brownfields funding to assess andclean up their properties if needed. Through the property’s revitalization, jobs may be created, contaminationmay be reduced, blight may be removed, surrounding property values may increase. This may cause a rippleeffect of additional community benefits. 7
    • trees can reduce energy demand and heat island Health and effects while improving stormwater management and reducing certain air pollutants. Environmental Benefits • Using sustainable construction techniques, equipment or materials to reduce material consumption, water and energy use also improves Cleaning up a contaminated site reduces exposure the community’s environmental health. to contaminants not just onsite, but also offsite by halting the migration of contamination into nearby • Health can be improved if a walking trail, air, soil and water. To date, nearly 400 properties supermarket or community health clinic is located have been cleaned up using EPA Brownfields funding, on a former brownfield site; this can improveFrom brownfields to soccer fields - Atlanta helping to improve the health of the surrounding access to exercise, fresh food or health care andyouth have a new place to exercise. Photo after(above) and before (below) redevelopment. communities and environment.9 The following services that may not have previously existed. highlights the many health and environmental • Turning a former brownfield into some form of benefits that are associated with brownfields projects: greenspace—such as restored habitat, wetlands, • Exposure to contamination is reduced or parks, forests or trails—can improve the aesthetics eliminated. of the area as well as physical and mental health. Residents can have a place for physical movement • Brownfields reuse is a proven smart growth and access to nature, which provides them with approach that has been linked with a reduction in physical and mental health benefits. vehicle miles traveled which in turn improves air quality and reduces associated health risks such • Planting gardens provides access to healthy as asthma.10 Reusing a brownfield in an area with food and reduces stress as they provide a calm, existing development can enhance neighborhood restorative feeling shown to improve health.11 walkability by providing additional services close These less tangible quality of life characteristics to other amenities. are often what define a community as a great place to live. • Reusing brownfield property also eases development pressure on greenfields, which are • Planting trees can improve the feel of critical for maintaining healthy watersheds and communities while absorbing and sequestering providing forestry products. carbon, regulating temperature, and absorbing rain or snow to reduce runoff.12 Trees provide shade for • Pedestrian-friendly developments provide places buildings during the summer, which can reduce for residents to interact, enjoy the outdoors and energy bills by 15 to 35 percent compared to exercise. streets that are not shaded.13 • Sustainable redevelopment projects that include a green building, permeable pavement, or additional 8
    • • Certain types of brownfield reuse can also create green jobs. Architecture, design, engineering, Green jobs are positions in agriculture, Economic Benefits construction, agriculture-related, renewable manufacturing, research and development, energy manufacturing, environmental services and administrative, and service activities aimed at alleviating the myriad environmental consulting, and energy efficiency companies that threats faced by humanity.16 Jobs locate on a former brownfield can all provide green associated with brownfield revitalizationBrownfields cleanup and redevelopment is a primary jobs. (e.g., assessment and/or cleanup) aredriver for attracting investment and business to considered green jobs, as are the jobscommunities that may otherwise be overlooked. With created through the site’s reuse if they are • All types of new jobs create a multiplier effect:environmental uncertainties addressed, property aimed at addressing environmental threats. workers spend more money in the area in whichowners face reduced liability and new incentives they work, further boosting the local economy.for property redevelopment. The successful In addition, numerous studies have shown thetransformation of one property may encourage direct link between property improvement and theinterest and development in the surrounding area. increase in surrounding property values.15 Those who have been invested in the neighborhood forBrownfields redevelopment also demonstrates years can benefit as their homes and businessessignificant potential to generate new green jobs for increase in value. As property values and incomesenvironmental professionals who assess and clean up increase, the local tax base likewise increases,properties. EPA’s investment in communities through potentially translating into improved services forits Brownfields grants helped to leverage more than the community.54,000 jobs related to property assessment, cleanupand reuse.14 The following highlights many of theother economic benefits associated with brownfields Capacity Buildingprojects: Benefits Residents participate in a Winston-Salem, North Carolina Job Training Program funded by an EPA• Some types of brownfield reuse can create jobs Brownfields grant that increase local income and decrease poverty Enhancing the capacity building of individuals and Photo courtesy of Tim Brinkley rates in the surrounding area, thus providing public, nonprofit and private organizations provides financial stability to residents. For example, long-term benefits to the community beyond a single the Johnstown, Pennsylvania Redevelopment brownfield project. Improving social connectivity Authority used its EPA Brownfields Assessment gives neighbors the chance to get to know one grant to transform a former automotive part store another and lays the foundation for future local into a bioscience facility, creating 27 new well- collaboration. Many of these benefits have already paying jobs. Johnstown has been successful in been described on pages two through four of this transforming additional neighboring properties into report. Other benefits include: productive reuses, restoring an entire area and bringing clean industry and jobs back to the city. • Opportunities to foster environmental justice 9
    • by leveraging new investment and jobs in achievement, civic participation and well-being.Community capacity building provides an distressed communities. It also improves the local Brownfields often provide ideal locations toopportunity for all people, regardless of environment and provides a stronger degree of integrate housing options close to other services,culture or income, to have equal access protection from environmental and health hazards. which helps reduce vacancies, improve health andto the decision making process. strengthen neighborhoods. Redevelopment also • Some brownfields redevelopments can provide Engaged communities build the social provides housing opportunities for those providing opportunities for enhanced education. In Shelby,capital to: local goods or services such as teachers, police Montana, a Brownfields Cleanup grant will allow • Reduce crime officers or nurses. • Improve public health a former high school to be redeveloped as a • Improve educational opportunities community center, giving residents a place for • Residential development that is coupled with • Promote prosperity and economic social interaction and education. The basement growth17 public open spaces (e.g., parks, plazas) provides of the building will also serve as a Head Start an opportunity for residents to socialize and share and alternative adult education facility to serve a information and learn about their community. wide range of educational needs. Those who are Simple landscape and building improvements educated and better informed are then able to beautify a neighborhood, generate resident pride contribute back to their community. and make it a more attractive destination for activity and entertainment. Neighborhood Benefits • Decreasing blight and increasing social connections can help improve community safety; there are fewer abandoned buildings where crime The redevelopment of a single brownfield property can take place and there is more monitoring by may be what a community needs to revitalize an those who feel connected to and invested in their entire neighborhood. Physical improvements to a neighborhood.In Greensburg, Kansas, residents plan their redeveloped brownfield property can help redefine anew green city after it was destroyed by atornado neighborhood and re-establish a sense of place. In some cases, brownfields redevelopment can prompt Greensburg, Kansas: Linking Disaster Recovery neighbors to improve their properties and create a and Sustainable Planning positive ripple effect throughout community. Other The City of Greensburg, Kansas (population 1,500) and neighborhood benefits include: Kiowa County were destroyed by a tornado in 2007. Since this tragedy, the state and local government are rebuilding a more sustainable future for the community. As the • Providing market-rate and/or affordable housing community is being reconstructed as a LEED® Platinum City, the entire neighborhood is being revitalized. Learning is crucial to ensuring a stable, healthy and from this example, other communities are linking disaster accessible community. Brownfields redevelopment recovery efforts with the need to create more sustainable has been linked with increased rates of home communities, including several in Iowa and others in Texas impacted by flooding, hurricanes and extreme weather ownership, which has, in turn, been linked to an events. increase in characteristics such as educational 10
    • 2. Brownfields Reuse Creates Community Benefits EPA Brownfields-funded agriculture projects include:Turning an underused property into a community The rising environmental movement in the 1960sasset creates a range of health, environmental and and 1970s saw the beginnings of small localized • Bellow Falls, VT, Farmers Market • Glens Falls, NY, Farmers Marketeconomic benefits. efforts to promote healthy, sustainable, locally grown • New Britain, CT, Urban Farm and organic foods. Many people rediscovered the • Sacramento, CA, Community GardenThis section of the report highlights four major environmental benefits of smaller sustainable farms, • Saginaw, MI, Farmers Marketbrownfield reuse themes that provide widespread organic farming and local gardens. The recent energybenefits to communities. These four categories are: crises also highlight the connection between foodagriculture and food system uses, arts and culture prices and fuel prices because of the fertilizers,uses, housing and mixed uses, and community and pesticides, energy intensive farm equipment, andcivic uses. Case studies for each of these reuses food transportation system needed to support large-illustrate many of the community benefits, and scale agriculture. Today’s agriculture and food systemexamples of organizations or resources that can accounts for approximately 19 percent of all fossilenhance brownfields cleanup and revitalization energy used in the United States.18projects are also highlighted. The growing awareness of sustainability and healthier foods has piqued public interest and created a desire Agriculture and Food to integrate food systems and agriculture back into local communities. This interest is reflected in the Farmers Market in Bellows Falls, Vermont System Uses rising demand for land in urban areas to support local food production, community supported agriculture (CSA) and farmers markets. This movement toPerhaps nothing connects us more to our local support and strengthen local farms and reintroduceenvironment, the seasons and our community than food production into neighborhoods providesthe food we prepare and eat daily. Agriculture and increased demand for land near populated systems have long played a dominant role in Brownfields redevelopment is a prime opportunity toshaping our economy, job opportunities, energy use support agriculture and food systems because manyand where we live. brownfields are small parcels of land within urban areas that can be used as community food or flowerThe emergence of an industrial and manufacturing gardens, urban farms and farmers markets.economy caused dramatic demographic shifts as jobswere created in urban areas. During the post World The need for locally produced food may beWar II economic boom, the number of smaller farms particularly pressing in “food deserts,” wheredeclined greatly as large-scale industrial agricultural physical or economic barriers prevent access tomet an increasing demand to boost crop yields for healthy food.20 In these areas, there are often noexpanding domestic and export markets. full service grocery stores and few healthy food 11
    • choices available to residents. Figure 4 tracks EPA Farming helped turn vacant land into gardens. AfterDid you know? Brownfields, Superfund, Resources Conservation testing the soil to ensure there was no contamination,• Food transportation costs add $113 and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Landfill Methane the Linwood and Gladstone Garden, one of the billion to the cost of U.S. food. Outreach Program sites against food deserts in the largest community gardens in the city, was planted• 120 million tons of carbon dioxide are City of Baltimore that could be potentially used for and is maintained by local volunteers to provide free emitted from transportation of U.S. food food production projects. Several EPA Brownfields vegetables to community members and local food annually.19 grantees used grant monies to assess and clean up banks.• Developing local food, including those properties for use as farmers markets or community There are countless additional examples throughout on former brownfields, reduces the gardens. the country of reusing properties to grow and provide environmental impacts from long Across the country, there are many organizations better access for residents to acquire food locally. distance transportation of food. working to provide access to locally grown food. Another example, “Plant a Row for the Hungry,”22 In Detroit, Michigan, an organization called Urban is one of many efforts to enlist home gardeners in growing additional vegetables for donation to the local EPA-Tracked Sites Present Opportunities food bank. to Address Food Deserts While not every property may be suitable for an agricultural or food systems reuse, many small I-83 urban parcels can serve as community food or flower gardens, urban farms, farmers markets, and provide additional environmental benefits. The following case studies illustrate that brownfields can help improve ! ! the health of a community. ! ! ! ! ! ! I-95 ! ! Soil Sampling is Critical in Food Production Projects ! ! ! ! ! ! All projects involving food production and gardening 895 should conduct Phase I environmental site assessments, ! ! soil sampling, and testing before planting. Tests for pH, ! organic content and key nutrients are needed as well Food Deserts* ! as potential environmental contaminants. Alternatively, Unpopulated Areas and Parks ! ! ! urban and brownfield gardeners may wish to grow above EPA-Tracked Sites ± ground hydroponically or in greenhouses. 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 Major Highways ! Miles It is important to ensure that soils are not only safe, but adequate for growing. Soils can be reconditioned for food production through the addition of organic Figure 4: In Baltimore, Maryland, many EPA- materials, leaf mulch, or food waste compost to increase tracked sites are located in or nearby food deserts. water absorption for better stormwater management soil Redeveloping these sites for a food production or biodiversity, and carbon sequestration. sale may allieviate food desert conditions.21 12
    • Case Study: Urban Oaks Organic Farm - New Britain, CTUrban farm helps to create a safe, livable community “Shopping at Urban Oaks is a social thing. Urban Oaks is likeThe City of New Britain, Connecticut, a scene from decades ago, thelaid the foundation for transformingone of its poorest, most dangerous customers know all the farmers,neighborhoods by revitalizing a everyone greets each other, andbrownfield as an urban farm and the food is fresh and chemicalcommunity garden. Urban OaksOrganic Farm, one of the first urban free—besides, I like supportingorganic farms in the United States the local economy.”and the largest urban organic farm inthe Northeast, was developed in theviolent crime-ridden North Oak Street Local resident andNeighborhood. patron of Urban OaksIn 1997, an EPA BrownfieldsAssessment grant and an EPA Cleanupgrant in 2003 provided the initialfinancial backing to assess and clean space, tools, seeds, water and visit a neighbor.” This multi-yearup the three-acre urban brownfield technical assistance are all provided brownfields revitalization projectproperty. In addition to the EPA at no cost to gardeners. These helped restore the fabric of the cityfunding, the project used funds from activities provide unique educational and improve local safety.the U.S. Department of Housing andUrban Development, the Connecticut opportunities for underserved innerDepartment of Economic and city residents to learn about farming and gardening techniques. BenefitsCommunity Development, the City of • Cleaned up a three-acre New Britain, and local foundations. New Britain Chief of Police and urban brownfieldThe farm serves as a source of life-long resident, William Gagliardi,employment for the local community— explained that, “prior to the cleanup • Provides walking access many of the farm’s six full-time and and redevelopment of the urban to affordable, locallyten part-time employees are residents brownfields located within the North grown organic producein the North Oak Street neighborhood. Oak Street neighborhood, violentAdditionally, each summer, Urban Oaks crime was at an all time high, the area • Provides hands-on invites 10 local teenagers to participate had more gangs per capita then any agricultural trainingin a 10-week, paid position that offers where else in U.S. Many long-time and education to localhands-on organic and sustainable residents left the neighborhood— youth allowing them tofarming educational training. The farm while others stayed locked in their connect with the landprovides ongoing education for residents houses. Today, the gang problemand school groups in organic gardening has been greatly reduced—violent • Catalyzed neighborhood methods, sustainable agriculture, non- crime is approaching zero percent, redevelopment totoxic farming techniques, composting, while overall crime has been reduced reduce crime ratesand other environmentally-friendly by 25 to 33 percent—which hasfarming techniques. greatly changed the character of • Provides a safe the neighborhood. Folk who left the community gatheringTo put this knowledge to practical use, neighborhood are moving back and space that improvesUrban Oaks created a one-acre, 30-plot new people are moving in, residents social connectivityneighborhood garden where gardening feel safe walking to Urban Oaks or to 13
    • “It is one of the ironies of Case Study: Greensgrow Farm - Philadelphia, PA An urban brownfield grows green urban agricultural development that these former industrial Established in 1997, Greensgrow sites, often called “brownfields” opened on a former industrial lot are in fact some of the best in a Philadelphia, Pennyslvania, choices for locating a new neighborhood, which is a mixed use residential-commercial-industrial area. urban agricultural business.” Greensgrow operates on the one-acre brownfield site as a hydroponic garden, starting with growing lettuce for restaurants. Greensgrow has blossomed in the 12 years since its conception, with the property now hosting raised beds of organic soil filled with numerous vegetable and herb plants, a farm stand and a nursery. Shoppers can pick up peppers, squash, figs, eggplants, lettuce, tomatoes and many kinds of herbs just to name a few. Local residents are able to walk to of gardening including composting the garden to purchase fresh and lessons, bee-keeping, organic In the 1980s, a former steel galvanizing locally grown produce and plants, gardening and green roofs. The staff’s plant closed, leaving behind significant creating a true community feel in most recent endeavor was to start soil contamination and health concerns a space which was once tainted by making biodiesel fuel out of old frying in the community. In 1993, the EPA industrial uses. Greensgrow achieved oil retrieved from their local restaurant Superfund program stepped in to their mission of connecting city customers during produce deliveries. address the property. The building and residents with better food options contaminated soils were removed from that are easily accessible and grown BenefitsFlowers for sale at Greensgrow Farm the property, leaving only the concrete locally. Greensgrow not only grows its • Cleaned up a one-acre slab foundation. Greensgrow selected own vegetables and herbs onsite, but brownfield hydroponic gardens help to protect also offers venues for the products human health and the environment from other local growers. Additionally, • Provided access to and preserve the concrete slab a nursery on the property offers a fresh, local, and foundation site cap. Once the local wide range of plants and seedlings affordable produce and Community Development Corporation and their beehives produce fresh plants to low-income bought the property, they rented it to honey for consumers. While community Greensgrow for $150 a month, a rent Greensgrow offers a wide selection they still pay each month. This low of products onsite for community • Provided education rent shows the commitment to provide members, some of the fresh, locally opportunities on necessary beneficial services to the grown produce also is delivered to sustainable agriculture surrounding low-income Kensington local Philadelphia restaurants. community. Now with more than • Demonstrated 10 employees and volunteers at the As the garden has grown over the environmental property, Greensgrow continues to reach years, so has its offerings onsite. stewardship in business more people in the community, as well The staff offers special educational management practices as the Philadelphia region. sessions to teach about many aspects 14
    • Community Benefits of Improved Community SpaceAgriculture and Food System Uses Gardens and farmers markets provide community Community or neighborhood gardens gathering spaces and are local economic engines, have been shown to help reverseImproved Access to Nutritious and Healthy Foods allowing residents to interact and enjoy theirCommunity gardens allow residents to grow fresh, local urban decline by: neighborhood, while also helping support localand often organic food, leading to a better diet and farmers and the local economy. Communities • Increasing occupancy rateslifestyle that can improve public health and reduce interested in starting a farmers market may be • Increasing incomedisease. Gardening can also increase physical activity, eligible for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) • Decreasing poverty rates30something of great need in a nation where nearly two grants to assist efforts. In addition, state legislationthirds of urban residents do not have access to a local to support local agriculture has been proposed in apark or open space for recreation.23 Lack of access to number of states to meet market demand. A countynutritious and affordable food is a fundamental public in Iowa has enacted policies to rebate 100 percent ofhealth and quality of life issue that can be corrected real property taxes to farmers who convert to organicthrough brownfield revitalization. production, and to support local and organic foodIncreased Home and Property Values purchases in county institutional settings.Research in Philadelphia concludes that community Improved Access to Local Gardeninggardens and planting trees can increase or stabilize and Food Productionthe value of neighboring properties or rental income.24 Increasing seed sales and membership in gardeningThis provides an additional economic incentive for groups signal growing interest in agriculturalgarden creation and tree planting reuses as well as activities.26 Today, 71 percent of Americancreating produce, flowers and greenspace. In St. households engage in some type of lawn or gardeningLouis, Missouri, areas surrounding gardens experience activity27 and there are an estimated five million Somerville, Massachusetts, used theirincreased home values;25 even those who do not Brownfields Cleanup grant to help create a organic gardeners.28 Web sites such as Sharingdirectly use the property are benefiting from its community garden Backyards link people with unused yard space toeffective reuse. individuals looking for a place to grow food. MoreImproved Retail and Small Business Opportunities information can be found at www.sharingbackyards.In many urban areas across the county, and com.particularly in low-income neighborhoods, many Improved Opportunities to Meet Demand forstudies conclude that there is a lack of full-service Organic Foodgrocery stores with fresh food. Residents in these Since the late 1990s, U.S. organic production hasneighborhoods are less likely to own a vehicle and more than doubled, and organic food sales havemust rely on the food retail locations that are within more than quintupled. More than two-thirds of U.S.walking distance. Instead, residents often go to consumers buy organic products at least occasionally,convenience stores which tend to offer foods of lower and 28 percent buy organic products weekly,quality and lower nutritional value and often at higher according to the Organic Trade Association. Organicprices. Brownfields revitalization can play an important products are now available in nearly 20,000 naturalrole in providing viable locations for grocery stores or food stores and nearly three quarters of conventionalsmall fresh food markets, filling urban market gaps. grocery stores.29 More information can be found at 15
    • Resources* identify whether individual families, the elderlyLynchburg Grows, an urban farm in and communities have access to food that they canLynchburg, Virginia, helps to show the USDA Assessment and Soil Testing Resources afford. Communities interested in improving foodimportance of sustainable agriculture and Communities looking to start community gardens can security in concert with brownfield revitalizationa healthy lifestyle. On the farm, successes benefit from the tools and resources available through efforts can find information at since 2006, they harvested the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, Browse/view.aspx?subject=FoodNutritionAssistance.1,500 pounds of fresh produce of which and Extension Service. It can provide information700 pounds was donated to a local soup Sustainable Food and Agriculture Guidelines on agriculture, natural resources, community andkitchen; and they have seen annual The Eat Well Guide, an online tool developed by therevenues increase from $8,000 in 2004 to economic development, soil testing services, and Kellogg Foundation and diverse organizations working$250,000 in 2009. crop recommendations. Find your local office at www. to advance sustainable agriculture practices and food systems, can be found at EPA Targeted Brownfields Assessment (TBA) Funding Communities can seek TBA funding and community Quantifying the Benefits of Farmers Markets Brownfields grants to support property assessment Communities can quantify the economic benefits of and cleanup before gardening or farming. Further their farmers markets by using a tool called SEED information can be found at (Sticky Economy Evaluation Device) developed by brownfields/tba.htm. Market Umbrella, a New Orleans-based nonprofit organization. SEED and other tools that may be of Community Food Assessments (CFAs) interest to communities seeking to expand local food Many urban and rural areas have conducted CFAs to systems and support small, local producers can be determine access to healthy and affordable foods. A accessed at CFA may prove useful to identifying redevelopment opportunities in brownfields communities. To Supplemental Nutrition Assistance ProgramLettuce grows in one of the many Lynchburg learn more, visit This program helps low-income people and familiesGrows greenhouses buy the food they need for good health. More EFAN02013/. information at USDA Agricultural Marketing Service The Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service administers The Center works to develop and communicate several grant programs for local organic initiatives information about the interrelationships among diet, and starting farmers markets. Identify grant food production, environment and human health. opportunities at One of the Center’s current projects is the creation of a geographic information system (GIS) Food System Food Security Guidelines Map of Maryland. Additional Resources can be found Food security and food insecurity are the terms at used to describe a multi-disciplinary approach to *The resources presented throughout this report are provided to supplement the content of the report. The information provided is not meant to infer or imply any endorsement or sponsorship by EPA. The list of resources is by no means exhaustive, but is intended to provide further assistance and information to brownfield communities. 16
    • reflected in restoring historic properties and Arts and Culture Uses abandoned buildings close to the urban core. EPA Brownfields-funded Brownfields redevelopment can provide a prime arts and culture projects include: opportunity to support and strengthen arts andArts and culture play an integral part in shaping a cultural activities since many properties are located • Baltimore, MD, American Visionary Artcommunity’s identity. Passed down from generation within urban areas. Museumto generation, a community’s culture is woven into • Charlotte, NC, Design Center • Louisville, KY, African Americanits social fabric and reflected through its stories, Municipalities across the country have also enacted Heritage Museumdance, food, language, literature, art, film, festival ordinances that require a certain percentage ofand religious practices. Cultural locations and historic building costs be used for public art, showingbuildings serve as places to connect, interact and the important link between incorporating art inreflect. redevelopment projects. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the first city to do so, requires that no less than oneCities across America are now reexamining and percent of a building’s construction budget be usedreinvesting in arts and culture as an additional for art. The City of Philadelphia is also one of thestrategy to revitalize communities and neighborhoods. largest employers of artists, due in part to its muralBy creating cultural hubs, art businesses are helping arts program which created 2,800 murals on thecities redefine themselves, draw tourists and attract vacant walls of buildings through the city—enlistingpublic and private investment. In 2008, 81 million community arts in the re-envisioning of theirAmericans participated in an art or culture event.31 neighborhoods.33The nonprofit arts and culture industry supports5.7 million U.S. jobs and generates $29.6 billion Community-based arts and cultural activities fosterin government revenue.32 Cultural resources are creativity, self-expression and discovery of different cultures, and a new way of experiencing community The Museum of Glass in Tacoma, Washington,considered an important reason why businesses was built on a former brownfieldrelocate to new communities, and a presence of and building social and civic capital. Severalstrong arts amenities can help recruit employees. Brownfields grantees have helped preserve historicalCommunities that recognize the importance of public properties and prepare them for reuses such asart and support their local art and craft community venues for festivals and performances, work spaceto create or restore attractive spaces help build for local artisans, and museums that express andcommunity character and a sense of aesthetic celebrate a community’s heritage. The following caseappreciation. studies highlight several brownfield communities with successful arts and cultural development.Increasing interest in revitalizing distressedcommunities through arts and culture can be 17
    • The National Park Service is coordinating Case Study: Mary Meachum Freedom Crossing - St. Louis, MOthe preservation of Underground Railroad Community preserves ties to the Underground Railroadsites across the country to educate thepublic about their significance. The Mary The Mary Meachum Freedom Crossing themselves and each other. As part Located in North St. Louis CityMeachum Freedom Crossing is a former was an under-used city-owned property of their efforts to improve community along the Mississippi River onbrownfield, and is now recognized that was accepted into the National Park health and wellbeing, they used the Riverfront Trail, the propertyas a major historical treasure. Service’s Underground Railroad Network $50,000 in EPA Targeted Brownfields encompasses roughly 11 acres. This to Freedom Program in 2001. The Assessment funding to conduct an area provides ample space to develop Meachum property is the approximate environmental site assessment at the an experience for visitors that evokes gathering point of nine enslaved African Mary Meachum Freedom Crossing in the potential peril of the crossing for Americans seeking freedom by crossing hopes to develop the property into a the slaves. the Mississippi River from Missouri to tourist destination. The environmental This unique, engaging, community Illinois in 1855. This crossing represents site assessment revealed no resource will transform the riverfront one of several notable escapes through significant contaminants of concern into a cultural destination and a the Underground Railroad along the on the property, allowing development community center, allowing for Mississippi. As the first nationally plans as a tourist destination with a community engagement, education, recognized Underground Railroad site in riverfront trail and visitor center to interaction, and growth. Underground Missouri, the area is a major historical move forward. Railroad Route treasure and source of cultural pride for To learn more about the The new Meachum Visitor Center the state. Underground Railroad routes, visit serves as a community gathering Grace Hill Settlement House in place for celebrations and events, St. Louis, Missouri, was awarded a and an educational center to learn underground/detailedroutes.htm. 2005 EPA CARE grant. Grace Hill’s about St. Louis’ unique history. It will mission is to work in disadvantaged also teach visitors about the history Benefits neighborhoods, creating strong, healthy, of the Underground Railroad and the • Assessment of 11Brownfields redevelopment helps to honor the helpful communities by encouraging historic events that took place at this acre site revealed noimportance of Underground Railroad routes and supporting neighbors as they help crossing. contamination of concern • Revitalized key historic property in a disadvantaged neighborhood as a thriving community center • Creates a cultural and tourist destination for individuals interested in learning more about the Underground Railroad Network • Enhances the St. Louis Riverfront Trail and a park for runners and bikers along the river 18
    • Case Study: Essex Historical Society and “The greatest benefit is a stepShipbuilding Museum - Essex, MA in stewardship of the historicEssex celebrates its history as an important center for shipbuilding shipbuilding site. Stewardship,The small town of Essex, being a large part of theMassachusetts, located on the Essex [EHSSM’s] mission, having theRiver, has a population of just afew thousand people. It holds a site be cleaned for visitors andunique place in maritime history as a not pose a threat to ecologicalshipbuilding hub. By the 1850s, over habitat is a very good thing to50 vessels a year were being launched have done.”from 15 shipyards making Essex,North America’s center for fishingschooner construction. One out of David Brown – Essexevery 28 wooden vessels that flew the Historical SocietyAmerican flag was built in Essex, andits shipyards probably launched moretwo-masted vessels than any other townin the world. The shipbuilding industry from EHSSM, the cleanup of the Photo courtesy of Len Burgessaccounted for most of the small town’s property began in November of 2007;revenue, embedding shipbuilding during some of this time portions ofinto the town’s cultural heritage. the museum were closed. FollowingEventually, the inability to keep up with cleanup, the museum reopened on Benefitstechnological advances in the industry May 15, 2008.lead to several shipyard closures around • Cleanup of long-time soil World War II. The museum now receives hundreds contamination at historic of visitors annually. The success of shipbuilding propertyIn 1976, the Shipbuilding Museum the cleanup follows with the EHSSM’swas opened in conjunction with the mission of stewardship. The society’s • Project success allowed town’s celebration of the American 520 members believe in preserving Essex, Massachusetts, celebrates its the EHSSM to continue toBicentennial. The property adjacent the town’s historical industry while shipbuilding history through brownfields tell the story of the town’sto the Shipbuilding Museum had a remaining conscious of its ecological revitalization impact on the shipbuildinglong history of maritime shipbuilding surroundings. The reopening of industry and maritimeactivities. The fear of contaminants the museum gave residents and Photo by Anthony Aneese Totah Jr heritage worldwidefrom the historic shipbuilding yard tourists access to the community’sleaching into the river basin prompted deep historical roots of shipbuilding • The museum educates the museum to apply for a grant from culture that once was so prominent hundreds of visitors per yearEPA’s Brownfields Program. The Essex in Massachusetts and New EnglandHistorical Society and Shipbuilding and boosted the town’s economy by • Stewardship and outreach Museum (EHSSM), a nonprofit attracting new visitors. The project’s activities are conducted inorganization, received $133,000 in success allowed the EHSSM to the communityTargeted Brownfields Assessment continue to tell the story of the town’sfunding and a $200,000 EPA impact on the shipbuilding industryBrownfields Cleanup grant in September and maritime heritage worldwide.2005 to address soil contaminationon property it owned. Using the EPA Find more information atgrant and a $250,000 contribution 19
    • Case Study: Durango Discovery Museum - Durango, CO Former power plant will be transformed into an interactive science museum Durango, Colorado is home to the oldest remaining alternating current (AC) steam generated, coal fired power plant in the world. Built in 1893, the Durango Powerhouse provided AC power to the city during its early development. The plant operated until the mid 1970s, when it ceased operations and wasCleanup underway at the Durango Powerhouse boarded up with much of its originalin Durango, Colorado equipment still in place. After sitting idle for more than 20 years, the City of Durango took ownership of the property. The unknown contamination in this historical building posed a challenge to asbestos and soil removal, was hands-on environment for young the city. completed in 2005. children, making interactive science fun for all ages. Meanwhile, the Children’s Museum The new museum is expected to open of Durango (now called the Durango phase II in the fall of 2010 and will In addition to educating visitors, Discovery Museum) was outgrowing its incorporate sustainable design and the museum serves as an important current space. They contacted the city in showcase alternative energy systems. tourist destination for the city. 2002 with an interest in relocating to the To make the building environmentally It will help to catalyze a larger Powerhouse building along the riverfront. friendly, the museum also hopes to redevelopment of the city’s riverfront The two entered into an agreement in run on 100 percent green power by and downtown areas. which the museum would raise funds phase III of the project expansion. to pay for cleanup and redevelopment Moving to this larger facility will allow of the property, while the city would Benefits the museum to expand its science, provide administrative and technical technology, engineering, and math • Contribute $3 million per assistance and lease the property to (STEM) education outreach across year to the Durango/La the Museum for $1 per year. In order to the “Four Corners” region; the new Plata County economy initiate cleanup, the city turned to one building will include a classroom or of its partners, the Colorado Department learning lab dedicated to educational • Purchase 100 percent of Public Health and Environment programming. The museum exhibits “green power” to operate (CDPHE). The city accessed CDPHE’s will celebrate the history of the the facility Section 128(a) State Response Program power plant through displays of funding to conduct site assessments. original power plant equipment • Educate approximately These and previous assessments showed and information that highlights 65,000 visitors annually the presence of asbestos, pigeon waste, the facility’s historic role in energy at phase III completion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), innovation. The museum will also and mercury left over from historic site examine the future of power, allowing • Redevelopment has operations. Additionally, uranium mining visitors to operate a hydrogen- preserved a structure waste had migrated from an adjacent site powered race car and explore building listed on the State and and also required cleanup. Cleanup of techniques that result in low utility National Registers of the three-acre property, which included bills. The museum will provide a Historic Places 20
    • Community Benefits of Arts addition to the cost of admission. Nonlocal audiencesand Culture Uses spend twice as much as their local counterparts.34 “The arts and culture is a Thus, valuable commerce is generated for nearby vibrant part of the real economy,Preserves National and Cultural Heritage merchants. contributing billions ofCelebrating history and heritage brings a senseof pride and accomplishment to a community. Increases Social and Civic Capital dollars of economic activityPreserving historic buildings can be a way to maintain Community-based arts and cultural activities promote per year; $166 billion based onthe character of a neighborhood, so that future social interaction, create a sense of community the nonprofit sector alone.”generations understand local history. These and other identity, build social capital, and support other localrevitalization efforts pay tribute to the community’s organizations. Research found that individuals that Jeremy Nowak - President of The participate in art events are more likely to volunteer Reinvestment Fund in his 2009history while paving the way for further community and serve on community boards. Regardless of a testimony before Congress, available atimprovements. person’s education level, gender or age, performingSpurs Community Revitalization arts attendance increases the likelihood ofStudies show that artists are often early market volunteering by 25 percent.35entrants whose search for work space can helpstabilize neighborhoods. Local communities assist Creates Jobsthem by transforming abandoned buildings and In 2008, the National Park Service approved morevacant lots into studio and retail space for theaters, than 1,000 historic preservation projects, whichmuseums, galleries and cultural venues, spurring created a total 67,705 jobs.36revitalization beyond the brownfield property. Several Helps At-Risk Youthcommunities, such as New Orleans, Louisiana; Research shows that art prevention programs for at-Seattle, Washington; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and risk youth offer an effective and affordable alternativeParkersburg, West Virginia have created arts and to juvenile detention and police-centered crimecultural districts. These districts attract business prevention. One such program is the communityinvestment and tourist infrastructure, reverse arts program at Manchester Craftsmen’s Guild in Fayetteville, North Carolina used its Brownfieldsurban decay, and stabilize and revitalize struggling Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It offers art programs funding to help create the Airborne and Specialneighborhoods. to hundreds of children each year—90 percent of Operations Museum, which is open to the public free of chargeDrives and Sustains Local Economies whom get high school diplomas and enroll in college,Arts and culture venues leverage additional event- compared with the 20 percent of the community’srelated spending by their audiences which is known non-participating youth.37 Another art preventionas a “multiplier effect”—and refers to how many program, STARS in Fort Meyers, Florida, realized atimes money spent by a tourist circulates through a 27 percent decrease in juvenile crime just three yearscommunity’s economy. For example, when patrons after the inception of the program.38 Art programs forattend a performing arts event they may park their at-risk youth decreased involvement in delinquentcar in a toll garage, purchase dinner at a restaurant, behavior, increased academic achievement, andand eat dessert after the show. The typical arts improved youth’s attitude about themselves and theattendee spends $27.79 per person, per event, in future.39 21
    • Resources National Trust for Historic PreservationDid you know? The Trust helps preserve the nation’s historic places Arts and Culture Indicators Project and make sure they are properly integrated within• There are more than 12,000 historic The Urban Institute’s Arts and Culture Indicators new developments. It also promotes preservation districts across the country, and most are Project (ACIP) helps policymakers make better and revitalization within communities. Learn more at located in areas with high poverty rates.40 decisions for neighborhoods and cities by providing• A federal tax credit for the rehabilitation of historic buildings provides an information about the presence and role of arts and National Assembly of State Arts Agencies incentive for historical and cultural culture in communities. ACIP develops quantifiable NASAA is a membership organization that restoration and preservation.41 measures of arts and culture that contribute to quality strengthens state arts agencies, serves as a• Revitalizing brownfields in historic of life; the measures are available at districts can restore a community’s clearinghouse for data and research about public projects/culturalvitality-indicators/about.cfm. culture and heritage where it is needed funding and the arts, and facilitates the transfer most. of ideas and information. Learn how art impacts Center for Creative Community community development at The Development Evaluation Toolkit allows cultural organizations to show the economic and social National Endowment for the Arts and benefits they provide to their community. Find the National Endowment for the Humanities toolkit at These public agencies provide grants and resources to bring arts and humanities into local communities. Learn more at and Shifting Sands Initiative Community arts organizations can use their educational programming to help build bonds between neighbors and strengthen communities. Learn more about the role of arts and culture in neighborhood development and capacity building at php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid =41. YouthARTS Handbook Americans for the Arts developed this handbook in an effort to document the benefits of arts programs on youth development. The handbook shares best practices in implementing effective youth arts A local artist paints a mural that will be displayed on a former brownfield in Winsted, Connecticut programs. To access the handbook, visit www. Photo courtesy of Judy Griesedieck 22
    • In recent decades, new development has often been Housing and Mixed Uses located far from urban centers, surrounded by vast Brownfields grant recipients report plans to parking lots, and disconnected from public transit address their community’s housing needs or even sidewalks. Figure 5 shows how almost 60 as part of their brownfields redevelopment at nearly 300 properties across the country.As Winston Churchill noted, “We shape our dwellings, percent of our housing stock is composed of single-and afterwards our dwellings shape us.” There is family detached homes. EPA Brownfields-funded housingprobably no other place that garners our attention and projects include: Nationwide, household size is decreasing and moreimagination as much as our home. Our home may be people are seeking alternatives to the traditional • Elizabeth, NJ, Marina Village Housinga city or town, but as a physical dwelling and family • Emeryville, CA, GreenCity Lofts suburban lifestyle. In addition, as the generalresidence, it becomes a fundamental building block • Milwaukee, WI, King and Hadley Property population grows in environmental awareness, greenof neighborhoods and communities. Over the past • Swanton, VT, Habitat for Humanity homes are increasingly popular with home buyers andcentury, housing demographics shifted dramatically Housing renters.—first from farms to urban centers, and then fromurban centers to suburbs. Underlying this changing demand is great opportunity: it is estimated that by 2030, about half EPA Brownfields-funded mixed useBy the 1950s, several major forces introduced an of the buildings in which Americans live, work and projects include:era of suburbanization, which changed where we shop will have been built after 2000.42 With so much • Hennepin County, MNlive in America. The Federal Housing Administration space yet to be built, there is a great opportunity to • Lakewood, CO, Villa Italia Mallwas created and its mortgage insurance programs reshape our communities right now. • Salt Lake City, UT, Gateway Districtincentivized single-family home construction insuburban areas. The post World War II economic boom Types of Housing in the U.S.spurred a dramatic increase in automobile productionand large suburban developments. Rising incomesfueled the “American Dream” of a bigger home in thesuburbs requiring a car for travel. Zoning was createdto separate incompatible land uses. The nationalhighway system was constructed, opening up newareas for development. Figure 5: The majority of residential buildings available in the U.S. are single-family homes.43 23
    • To meet changing preferences and demographics, As brownfields are revitalized for housing and mixedWhat is affordable housing? a greater variety of housing choices will be uses, it will be important to ensure that people who needed: homes that are all shapes, sizes, levels of already live in the area are not displaced. At theThere is a critical shortage of affordable affordability, levels of accessibility and location. same time, brownfield revitalization may create newhousing because housing prices have opportunities for homeownership and wealth creationincreased since 1990, while incomes have Expanded housing variety also strengthens while expanding transitional housing and shelters fornot. Finance professionals recommend communities by allowing people of all different those without homes, including veterans and otherthat people spend 30 percent or less than backgrounds, educational levels and income levelstheir income for housing. Nearly one in five vulnerable populations. to live among one another. Incorporating affordableAmerican households now spends more housing and units that meet universal design Instead of being a place people avoid, a brownfieldthan half their monthly income in rent ormortgage payments. standards ensures accessibility by all community revitalized for housing and mixed uses can become a members, and allows residents to ‘age in place’ place people call home. And that may be the biggest where their family or social networks remain. transformation of all. The following case studiesWhy do we need diverse highlight the creation of sustainable housing options Brownfields revitalization can help address ourhousing options? that make communities truly livable. housing challenges because many brownfields are located in historic, older or historically low-incomeAn array of safe, decent and affordablehousing options provides opportunities neighborhoods. Located near existing services andfor people at all income levels to stabilize infrastructure including transit, brownfields may offer Annual U.S. Energy Consumptiontheir income and create a home for their prime locations for residential construction, higherfamilies. Stable housing can improve density housing, transit oriented development andschool performance, work and social mixed uses.behavior, and allow a family to invest inits health, neighborhood and future. Communities that locate housing close to other services provide opportunities for residents to walk or bike to access services, reducing the need to drive and its associated environmental and public health impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise, traffic injuries). New homes may be more resource efficient and can reduce energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions. As shown in Figure 6, 22 percent of national energy consumption comes Figure 6: Commercial and residential buildings from residential properties. account for 40 percent of national energy Housing and mixed uses can further enhance consumption. Energy efficient buildings sustainability by integrating green buildings that represent a tremendous potential to reduce are energy and water efficient, using permeable national energy consumption.44 pavement for parking lots and sidewalks, or integrating green infrastructure such as rain gardens to reduce the impacts of stormwater. 24
    • Case Study: The Watershed at Hillsdale - Portland, ORDiverse housing and mixed uses are provided to local residents in need “The units have been filled by a mix of seniors withThe Watershed is located in the specifically for formerly homeless central hot water boiler, durable ties to the neighborhoodHillsdale area of southwest Portland, veterans, and 40 units available building envelope materials, highly and those who are nowOregon. From the turn of the century to those with incomes at or below energy-efficient windows, and an establishing new roots inuntil the 1950s, the property was part 50 percent of the median. To innovative heat-recovering ventilationof the Fulton Park Dairy. In addition, a provide additional benefits to the system. Storm water is detained onsite the neighborhood.portion of the property served as a rail community, the project includes a and is naturally pretreated to improve For the surrounding area,stop, followed by an auto wrecking yard, 2,000-square foot community center water quality in nearby watersheds. the residents have addedand gas fueling station, before being and approximately 3,200 square The project received a LEED® silvervacant for nearly 20 years. In 2005 an feet of market rate office/commercial rating. vibrancy. New volunteerEPA Brownfields Cleanup grant allowed condominium space. This project opportunities have emerged forCommunity Partners for Affordable knits together development in the Benefits those who seek contact withHousing (CPAH) to address petroleum Hillsdale Business Center with an • Cleaned up ancontamination on the property. After expanding commercial node on the underutilized community seniors, and many of the seniorsentering the Oregon Department west side of Bertha Boulevard and gateway property are volunteering.”of Environmental Quality Voluntary helps neighborhood residents to cross and connected theCleanup Program and excavating all a busy intersection to board buses neighborhood’s residential Sheila Greenlaw-Fink – Communitypetroleum contaminated soil necessary and reach local businesses with the and commercial features Partners for Affordable Housingfor redevelopment, the revitalized incorporation of a full-block crossing through mixed usebrownfield now provides affordable signal. developmenthousing for veterans and seniors. The Watershed project incorporates • Multi-year communityThe Hillsdale neighborhood, involved several innovative green building engagement processand supportive of the Watershed techniques and building materials fostered personalproject since 2001, worked with that minimize life-cycle costs. connections and pride inbusiness leaders in naming the Innovations include a high-efficiency the communitybuilding and raised funds for lightingthe sign and tower and installing a • Met a demand forpublic water fountain. It was named increased diversity inWatershed because it is located housing including seniorbetween the Tualatin and Willamette housing, veteran housingRiver watersheds, at the headwaters and affordable housingof Stephens and Fanno Creeks. It is unitsalso designed to sensitively handlestormwater onsite. And finally, its name • Community centerreflects the “watershed moment” in the provides central gatheringneighborhood, as the property was one area for local residents toof the last pieces of buildable land and connectnow serves as a community gateway. • Green building featuresThe Watershed is a smart growth, offer energy efficiencymixed use, sustainable redevelopment and lower utility bills forconsisting of 51 affordable senior residents, while enhancinghousing units, eight units designated local sustainability 25
    • Case Study: Rheingold Brewery - Brooklyn, NY Former industrial center becomes home for hundreds of families The Rheingold Brewery, founded in 1883, operated from 1890 until 1976 in the Bushwick neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. Along with 13 other breweries, Rheingold Brewery helped turn the area into a center for American brewing for nearly 30 years. Once the official beer of the New York Mets, Rheingold supplied roughly 35 percent of New York City’s beer from 1920 through the 1940s. The restructuring of American brewingThe Rheingold Brewery was once an important business prompted the closure ofpart of Brooklyn’s commercial activity neighborhood breweries in Bushwick community space includes a senior in the late 1970s. The neighborhood center. Benefits continued to decline for decades • Revitalized a 6.7-acre until an affordable housing developer, To ensure this new development brownfield in the heart of an local nonprofit organizations and the further benefited the community urban neighborhood federal government began investing in by enhancing sustainability, Bushwick’s revitalization. the developer chose to use • Engaged city and state environmentally-responsible building officials and local residents A design workshop in 2000 joined materials. Also, solar panels installed in the planning process to international architects and planners on the roofs of the apartment develop a reuse plan that with local community leaders to develop buildings provide electricity to the met community needs a design concept for the property. common areas and there is a green Remediation and redevelopment began roof on top of the rental apartment • Provides affordable housing in 2002, and contaminated soil was building. for first-time homebuyers removed from the property. With the and a diversity of housing help of a host of partners, this property The ripple effect from this options was successfully redeveloped as housing redevelopment became evident as and mixed use spaces, which was much storefronts were cleaned up, new • Spurring ongoing community needed in this working class community. trees were planted and property reinvestment and values of local property owners revitalization The first phase of development focused increased across the community. The on homeownership, and was one of project received the Phoenix Award • Enhances sustainability the first neighborhood redevelopment for brownfields redevelopment in through renewable energy projects to do so. The finished project 2005 and the John M. Clancy Award generation, the use of green consists of 272 rental units, 88 co- for Socially Responsible Housing building materials, and ops, 30 condominiums, 58 two-family in 2009; these awards recognized a green roof to improve houses, and four three-family houses, all both the successful brownfields stormwater management of which are affordable. An additional revitalization, and the services 50,000 square feet of office and provided to the community. 26
    • Case Study: Cedar Grove Apartments - Sanford, FL Did you know?Transforming a vacant eyesore into a home for independent seniors By 2030, one out of five people in the U.S. will be age 65 or older.46 As they age,After Seminole County, Florida, saw many will experience illness and changesan approximately 50 percent increase in their sight, hearing and physicalin residents 75 years or older between abilities which may require adaptation in1990 and 2000,45 the Center for their physical environment to live safely.Affordable Housing recognized theserious need for senior rental housing. Homes and public spaces that adoptWorking within their mission to develop Universal Design principles can supportsafe and affordable housing for the seniors and residents of all ages tolower-income residents of Central navigate space safely.Florida, the Center sought a property topurchase for senior housing units. In2006, the Center identified the formerFreeman property in Sanford, Florida, asan affordable option which fit the zoningneeds of the project. The propertywas a former laundry facility, whichsat vacant for nearly 30 years. Theovergrown, vacant property stood out asan eyesore in the mixed use, residential-commercial neighborhood.With EPA State and Tribal ResponseProgram funding, the FloridaDepartment of Environmental Protectionconducted site assessment and sourceremoval activities to assist the Center Benefits Creating safe and affordable housing for seniorsfor Affordable Housing in developing offers more options to a growing retirement • Redeveloped a contaminated parcel that was vacant and neglected for populationaffordable housing options for the senior nearly 30 years in the middle of a mixed use neighborhoodcommunity. Completed in 2008, CedarGrove Apartments contains single floor Photo by Gary T Alton • Created safe and affordable housing, designed specifically with units, two of which are handicapped seniors in mindaccessible, and the remaining unitsare designed for seniors (e.g., roll in • Increased the local diversity of housing options to meet the needs of showers, no tubs). Seven single elderly changing community demographicsresidents currently occupy the property. • Increased the independence of seniors by locating housing near other By creating a safe and affordable basic serviceshousing option through this project,seniors in the area were finally offeredan alternative to assisted livingfacilities. 27
    • Adaptive reuse of well-located and Case Study: Falstaff Brewery Apartments - New Orleans, LA Abandoned brewery is transformed into housingculturally or historically important sitescan yield neighborhood, environmental,economic, and community benefits, as The Falstaff Brewery operated in the The Regional Planning Commission renewing the City of New Orleans.shown by the revitalization of the former Mid-City area of New Orleans since used EPA Brownfields funding to Nearly half of the 147 apartmentsFalstaff Brewery. the early 1900s. The property laid idle conduct an environmental site are reserved for households that fall for nearly 30 years since its closure in assessment on the eight-acre property below the city’s median income. 1978. Although it was deteriorating, in August 2005. The developer, Residents began moving into the this seven-story building still bore its Falstaff Associates I LLC, then building in March 2008 and it is neon “Falstaff” sign – a neighborhood purchased the property and addressed now 95 percent occupied. The landmark. asbestos, lead-based paint, and solid project is spurring redevelopment waste throughout the building. The of the surrounding area, as In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, Falstaff site received clearance from the construction of additional apartment New Orleans residents faced daunting Louisana Department of Environmental complexes is underway throughout challenges in rebuilding their city. To Quality following cleanup of the historic the neighborhood. This is one of make the city strong once again, the facility. the first redevelopment projects Regional Planning Commission for the to be completed in New Orleans New Orleans metropolitan area and local The developer converted the building since Hurricane Katrina. Residents developers are investing in traditionally into one-, two- and three-bedroom enjoy a rooftop terrace and retail low income areas to build affordable apartments. By preserving the courtyard, and a beer garden is in and environmentally-friendly housing. A structure and the iconic “Falstaff” the works, paying tribute to the former brownfield was cleaned up with sign, the redevelopment was able to property’s past use. EPA’s help and brought back to life as celebrate the neighborhood’s history, affordable housing. while making critical strides in BenefitsThe weather beacon atop Falstaff’s tower • Eight-acre property wasprovided local weather forecasts by using assessed and had hazardouscolored and flashing lights building materials removed • Provides 147 apartments for low- and moderate-income families • Enhanced site sustainability by using existing structures to minimize waste created by demolition • Helping to enhance and strengthen the community fabric of New Orleans • Retained local culture through adapative reuse of commmunity landmark 28
    • Community Benefits of spaces, encouraging more sustainable communitiesHousing and Mixed Uses and minimizing environmental impacts because Economic Impacts of New residents can walk to commercial areas instead of Housing ProjectsIncreased Variety of Housing Options driving to them. These walkable communities can The estimated one-year local impactsProviding a variety of housing options within a generate both environmental and public health of building 100 single-family homes incommunity brings a range of benefits. It allows people benefits as people choose to walk rather than drive. a typical metro area, according to theof all income levels to live in the same neighborhood, Households in city centers not only have shorter National Association of Home Builders, commutes, but drive less for non-work activities.47 include:which allows for a more diverse population. Morehousing options provide opportunities for people to • $21.1 million in local incomemaintain their community ties as they move through Enhanced Sustainability • $2.2 million in taxes and other revenuedifferent life phases of life. For example, with enough Residential buildings themselves may incorporate for local governments, and 324 local jobshousing diversity, someone could live in the same energy efficiencies, store and manage stormwaterneighborhood when they are single, part of a couple, runoff, or generate power through solar panels on In contrast, the estimated one-year local the roof to reduce electricity use and help save impacts of building 100 rental apartmentsraising a family, downsizing after having a family, in a typical metro area include:and possibly aging in place. Without housing choice, homeowners money on their utility bills. Residentialpeople are pushed into leaving a neighborhood in redevelopments planned on a larger scale can follow • $7.9 million in local incomewhich they have close social ties. smart growth principles that encourage residents to • $827,000 in taxes and other revenue for live environmentally sustainable lifestyles. local governments, and 122 local jobsProviding Homes to Those in Need For more information, go to the NationalCommunities require an adequate stock of affordable Improve Healthy Housing Stock Association of Home Builders Web site tohousing to ensure that residents can afford to The National Center for Healthy Housing estimates see a recent report on the local economicown or rent a home. Redevelopment projects that 5.7 million families live in substandard housing, impact of home building at the needs of low-income, elderly or special which cause significant illness, injury and deaths.48 fileUpload_details.aspx?contentTypeID=3&needs individuals can build more interconnected A range of public health problems, including lead contentID=35601&subContentID=219188.communities and create new opportunities for poisoning and asthma has been linked to oldergroups that are often disenfranchised. Brownfields housing in poor condition. Cleaning up brownfieldredevelopment projects across the nation have areas can improve the value of and income generatedincreased affordable housing to reach low- or from the reused site as well as adjacent and nearbymoderate-income residents. properties. In addition to strengthening the tax base, this provides additional incentives and resourceMixed Uses Improve Health and Quality of Life opportunities for local government, public and privateIn addition to creating affordable or senior housing, property owners to improve their property conditions,brownfields can be used to site mixed uses. For leveraging economic and public health benefits forexample, larger residential complexes or brownfields owners, residents and neighbors alike.located at infill sites can be developed as mixed use 29
    • Resources The Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access and the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Community Development Block Grant Center on Universal Design at Buffalo This U.S. Department of Housing and Urban The Research Center on Universal Design at Buffalo Development (HUD) program gives grants to cities makes environments and products more usable, across the nation to assist communities with all safer and healthier in response to the needs of an the challenges addressed earlier in this section— increasingly diverse population. For links to a variety affordable housing, vulnerable populations, and of development-oriented tools and organizations, visit viable urban centers. For more information, visit programs/index.cfm. EPA’s Smart Growth Program The program seeks to “expand economic opportunity, Habitat for Humanity protect public health and the environment, andUsing EPA and HUD funding, a deteriorating Founded in 1976 as a nonprofit organization seeking create and enhance the places that people love.”building in Miles City, Montana wastransformed into affordable housing to eliminate poverty and homelessness, Habitat has The EPA Smart Growth Program provides research, provided affordable housing for more than 1.5 million grants, technical assistance, and information to help people around the world. Volunteers help construct or local communities employ smart growth principles as rehabilitate homes for low-income families that apply they shape the communities of tomorrow. For more for the program, and Habitat plans to build 5,000 information, visit green homes for low-income families. Habitat’s experience building new structures on idle land or Smart Growth America refurbishing dilapidated structures in low-income Member organizations share the common goals of neighborhoods makes it an excellent resource for historic preservation, revitalization, and maintaining Brownfields grant recipients. For more information, affordability in our nation’s communities. Smart visit Growth America provides various resources to coordinates development, transportation, Rebuilding Together revitalization of older areas and preservation of open This nonprofit helps preserve communities through space and the environment. To learn more and find safe and affordable housing. The organization focuses resources, visit on properties that are most affected by our nation’s housing challenges, such as seniors, veterans, the Policy Guide on Smart Growth disabled or victims of natural disasters. With a focus The American Planning Association offers on revitalization and green building, Rebuilding recommendations for planning transportation and Together is making a difference across the country. To land use, social equity and community building, learn more, visit and environmental protection and land conservation. Find the recommendations at 30
    • and even public health. Brownfields revitalization Community and enhances sustainability by enabling the creation of EPA Brownfields-funded community Civic Uses more sustainable and energy-efficient cities, towns and civic projects include: and neighborhoods.While street boundaries can physically define a • Culver City, CA, dog park Community and civic uses may also include transit • Lancaster County, PA, Grace Lease Parkneighborhood, it is the shared places for community centers for buses, trolleys, subways, light rail or other and Roberto Clemente Parkand civic engagement that can actually create a forms of transportation. Transportation currently • Marrero, LA, Progressive Church Familysense of community. These places can be created contributes about 28 percent of the United States’ Life Centerwhen a property’s new use expands greenspace for total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions—and emissionsnew community and civic uses such as parks, trails from transportation are growing faster than otherand picnic areas; or for new civic amenities such as sectors, representing almost half of the increase in Did you know?libraries, schools, hospitals, health clinics, tourism, total GHGs between 1990 and 2006.49 We can slowmass transit, job training centers and even places EPA provided supplemental grant funds and even reverse this trend by shifting travel fromof worship. The creation of simple, clean and safe between the late 1990s to 2003 for automobiles to transit. In fact, reducing the daily use Brownfields Assessment grantees withpublic open space or a neighborhood civic building of one low occupancy vehicle and using public transit greenspace components in their reusefrom a brownfield can dramatically alter community can reduce a household’s carbon footprint between 25 plans. These incentives led to nearly 400perceptions and generate positive momentum that and 30 percent.50 brownfields redeveloped to include aleads to area-wide transformation. greenspace component. Moreover, community and civic uses such as schools,Redevelopment options that link community and health facilities, libraries and places of worship cancivic destinations to citizens can create more provide essential physical space where residentssustainable neighborhoods that reduce the need for meet one another and find common ground. Thesecars. For example, trails, sidewalks, bikeways and spaces often provide a network of connectionsroads that create better linkages across a community among residents that enable the social glue of aprovide a multitude of options for people to use to community to form. In addition, brownfields located in“run” their everyday errands. neighborhoods that are underserved by critical humanAdding greenspace in the form of parks, playgrounds, services, such as health care, can be redeveloped toathletic field, trails or vegetation—such as native provide these needed services. Incorporating thesetrees, shrubs and other plants—can improve uses into larger redevelopment plans not only makesstormwater management, reduce the ‘heat island’ a project more successful, but can lead to broadereffect, improve air quality, and provide recreation community benefits. It can increase pedestrian trafficspace for residents. It can also provide a venue for to other nearby services, promote commerce andincreasing physical activity through more exercise economic development, and spur increases in adjacentand recreation. property values, which leads to greater tax revenue.Today, there is a growing recognition of the role The following case studies highlight the possibilitiesthat land use plays in many pressing issues, from for sustainable brownfields redevelopment to enhancewater quality, to greenhouse gas emissions, sprawl, community and civic life. 31
    • Case Study: Fredrickson Park - South Bend, IN “At the edge of a former From garbage to gorgeous: reusing a landfill as park space landfill, the new Morris – 1st Source Scout center willcreate an enduring legacy that highlights the importance of environmental stewardship and nurtures young people to become the future leaders of our community.”Stephen Luecke – South Bend Mayor This former landfill in South Bend, An EPA Brownfields Revolving Indiana, was revitalized as a park and Loan Fund grant awarded to the Benefits as a community center. Fredrickson city in 2004 helped to remove Park is now a favorite location within contamination and prepare the • Consolidated contamination at the community, particularly with the property for reuse. However, rather this former landfill, making it area’s youth. University of Notre Dame than opting solely for commercial or safe again for local residents students use the facilities to teach residential redevelopment, the city • Provides new recreational and kids about environmental issues, act opted to set aside the majority of the community space in an inner- as Den Leaders for boy scout troops, property—nearly two acres—as a new city area with high poverty and and conduct field trips that teach park. Native grasses and flowers were unemployment rates elementary school children about planted on the property, and walking the park’s flora, fauna and overall trails and a stormwater pond were • Transformed the property ecosystem. Community reception to incorporated into the park’s design. aesthetically, increasing area the new park has inspired similar area property values and generating plans, including an adjacent, 2.5-acre Two student teams from Notre Dame momentum leading to adjacent parcel of land designated as a future designed a community center for the redevelopment as public space picnic area. park that used recycled materials in • Created a much-needed its construction and is now powered facility for the local Boy Located just a few blocks from the in part by solar energy. In 2007, Scouts and a community University of Notre Dame campus, the boy scouts opened their new environmental education this 2.65-acre, former landfill sat idle headquarters. This $1 million facility center for years. After acquiring the property, includes an environmental education South Bend funded assessments that center, classrooms, a new library and • Enhanced sustainability by revealed the presence of polyaromatic public meeting space. adding greenspace and native hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other metals vegetation to the community in the soil. 32
    • Case Study: The Old Santa Fe Railyard District - Santa Fe, NMFormer local civic center is restored after decades of abandonmentBack in 1880, the first train rolled and a local, nonprofit organization. opened to the public. Art studios,into Santa Fe, New Mexico on a spur The city emphasized the need to restaurants and shops provide newline from the Atchison, Topeka and protect adjacent neighborhoods. shopping and dining opportunities forSanta Fe Railway Company, its arrival The community also weighed in the residents of Santa Fe. The Districtcelebrated by colorful speeches and a on what they wanted the property also hosts a farmers market thatgrand parade. With that train, an era of to become—thousands of citizens has become a big draw to the newlyeconomic and social change began that participated in planning meetings redeveloped area; Santa Fe residentsis still evident in the life of Santa Fe over the thirteen years it took to can purchase local and seasonaltoday. redevelop the property. An EPA produce from New Mexican farmers Brownfields Assessment grant throughout the year. The redevelopedThis new train line brought tourism awarded to the City of Santa Fe in District also offers multiple parks andand new business opportunities to 1996, and Targeted Brownfields new greenspace for the downtown Shoppers visiting an outdoor market at thethe young town, and the Santa Fe Assessment funding received in area. The 10-acre Railyard Park has Old Santa Fe Railyard DistrictRailyard District remained a cultural 1999, were used to characterize soil gardens, walkways and gatheringand social center until the 1940s. Older contamination. spaces for residents to enjoy, as wellneighbors still living next to the Railyard as a children’s playground with slidestoday remember afternoons picking and climbing equipment.wild lettuce and swimming along theirrigation canal that flows through the Sometimes aproperty. However, as cars became a revitalized brownfieldpreferred method of transportation, therailyard was abandoned, even as trains can not only benefit acontinued to pass through. By the mid- community, but become1980s the entire Railyard District had Benefits its greatest asset.become an eyesore, like other railyards • Cleaned up and redevelopednationwide that fell into disuse. The a large, long-idle brownfieldtown deemed it a blighted area and in the center of downtowninitiated a process to redevelop it. Santa Fe The residents of Santa Fe ultimatelySometimes a brownfield reuse can not decided that a mix of transportation, • Rejuvenated a cultural andonly benefit a community, but become park area, restaurants, local historical center of the cityits greatest asset. This happened in businesses and a new arts and • Created a diverse use areaSanta Fe, New Mexico, when the 50- cultural district would provide that draws the community toacre, abandoned railway property was the best reuse for this property. new resourcesrevitalized to become one of the area’s The town worked with the Trustprized retail, arts and outdoor recreation for Public Land for financing and • Created jobs and enhancedareas. redevelopment assistance over the the city’s economy next decade, and construction began • Provided park space, inIn 1995, the city of Santa Fe on the Railyard District in 2005. addition to mixed uses, topurchased the 50-acre property and create a thriving communityredevelopment plans began through a In September 2008, the and civic destinationcollaboration of city officials, architects redeveloped, historic Santa Fe Railyard District was officially 33
    • Case Study: Health Care Facilities Land revitalization improves public health in more ways than one Healthcare is an important national services for children of all ages, and is issue. Several communities and one of the only two children’s hospitals developers see brownfields revitalization in Los Angeles County. The hospital as a way to provide or enhance health is home to one of the largest neonatal care access in their communities. Not intensive care units in California, and only does the brownfield revitalization treats more than 60 high-risk neonates process improve the environmental daily. The $600,000 grant from EPA health of a community, it can serve enabled the hospital to undertake a to expand the care system within the $151 million expansion project onto community. The following profiles formerly contaminated land. The newWilla Carson Health Resource Center is a highlight different ways that brownfields building will include seven operatingnonprofit clinic in Clearwater, Florida revitalization can be used to meet rooms, 48 neonatal intensive care community health care needs. beds, and 24 pediatric beds for critically ill children. Willa Carson Health Resource Center - Clearwater, FL Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Tribal The Willa Carson Resource Center Health Center - Reno, NV offers immunizations, physicals, Reno-Sparks Indian Colony (RSIC) tests and screenings, flu shots, and is transforming a former industrial Photo of the Providence North Portland counseling services to residents in North property into Three Nations Plaza, Health Clinic in Portland, Oregon Greenwood, one of Clearwater’s poorest future home of a Wal-Mart, which neighborhoods. The center is staffed will generate jobs and significant by professionals who volunteer their tax revenues. RSIC will use the tax brownfields program in the late time to work at the nonprofit clinic. As revenues from this development to 1990s. The Oregon Department part of the city’s environmental justice fund police, healthcare, education and of Environmental Quality (DEQ) plan, North Greenwood representatives economic development for the tribe. conducted oversight during the participated in redevelopment planning Specifically, revenues will be used to redevelopment of the property which and voted unanimously for the city repay bonds issued for the construction found a total of 600 cubic yards of to lease the property to the nonprofit of a recently completed, $20 million soil contaminated with gasoline. In clinic. The Brownfields grant recipient tribal health center that provides 2003, this brownfield became the conducted environmental assessments services to more than 9,000 Native focus of a design charrette at the at this former gas station, and the state Americans in the Washoe County area. National Brownfields Conference that funded $200,000 for the removal of included local stakeholders and the underground storage tanks and soil Providence North Portland Health property owner. The owner sold the cleanup. Clinic - Portland, OR property to Providence Health Systems The Providence North Portland in 2006. Miller Children’s Hospital - Health Clinic provides access to Long Beach, CA six family medicine physicians and Miller Children’s Hospital is the first two obstetricians in this previously children’s hospital in the nation underserved North Portland to receive a federal Brownfields neighborhood. This property is a Cleanup grant. The hospital provides former vacant gas station that received comprehensive inpatient and outpatient assessment funding from the Portland 34
    • Case Study: The Meeting Street National Center Meeting Street School allows childrenof Excellence - Providence, RI with and without disabilities to learnState-of-the-art facility serves the educational needs of children of all abilities side-by-side in a fully inclusive facility.The Meeting Street National Centerof Excellence educates children ofall abilities through its three schools,early intervention programs, andoutpatient therapy. The facility alsoserves as a resource center for familiesproviding information on medicalissues, educational curricula andtreatment options. Meeting Street,a nonprofit organization, purchasedthe eight-acre property, which islocated in an economically distressed Photo courtesy of Jennifer Kohanskineighborhood, for reuse as three schoolsand an outpatient therapy center. The LEED certification, the first school ® development, as well as stabilizecleanup and reuse of one of the many in Rhode Island to be certified. the area and provide much neededunderutilized lots in the neighborhood Three acres are dedicated to much greenspace. The facility will alsohas helped to improve community needed greenspace and recreational benefit from its central location,image. Meeting Street conducted fund use. The facility was developed to accessible by public transportationraising activities to raise more than $20 allow for 90 percent of all interior and across the street from the newmillion to help relocate the school to spaces to be lit by natural light. medical building. It is anticipatedthis central location. Additional sustainable features of the that the National Center for development included use of low- Excellence will help attract additionalThe property has a variety of past uses VOC (volatile organic compounds) jobs.including residential, an iron works paint. Materials placed in thefacility, an automobile service facility, building are of high-recycled content, Benefitsa furniture warehouse, and a produce including the carpet throughout thedistributor. Several deteriorating facility. • Cleaned up an eight-acrestructures were located on the property brownfieldsand it was contaminated with lead, The development project included • Provides access toarsenic and other hazardous substances. recycling all construction programming for all children,In 2004, Meeting Street applied for and demolition materials and including those with specialand received a $200,000 Brownfields incorporated a white roof, and needsCleanup grant to address property advanced heating and coolingcontaminants. Completed in June 2006, systems. Another unique design • Informs families of medicalcleanup also included removing old, feature of the building includes issues, treatment options anddeteriorating buildings and two storage incorporating ramps, in addition educational curriculatanks. to stairs and elevators, throughout • Incorporated sustainable the building to ensure interactionIn January 2007, the Meeting Street design elements into of students and staff of all physicalNational Center of Excellence opened redevelopment abilities.its doors to begin serving more than • Property values have been3,000 children in the community each The new facility is expected to shown to increase in areasyear. Meeting Street has been awarded stimulate additional investment, with better schoolsthe U.S. Green Building Council’s redevelopment and economic 35
    • Community Benefits of Increased Home and Property Values “Public spaces play a vital Community and Civic Uses Research in a number of communities shows that role in the social life of aesthetic improvements to public greenspace, such Enhanced Sense of Community as new community gardens and tree-lined parks, communities. They act as Public spaces make people feel connected. They can increase the value of neighboring properties, shared resources in which can be a place to gather and celebrate a successful providing an economic (as well as aesthetic) incentive experiences and value are brownfields transformation. In Bridgeport, for such reuses.53 Even those who do not directly take created…people make advantage of this new space benefit from its effective Connecticut, a 10-acre industrial area adjacent to places, more than reuse. two schools and notorious for drug use and other places make people.”51 criminal activity was redeveloped into a recreational Increased Private Investment and Economic The Social Value of Public Spaces park featuring basketball courts, softball fields, Development playgrounds, a public pavilion and an amphitheater. The creation of community and civic spaces and Within a couple of years, a space that had previously their associated aesthetic improvements increases been a source of crime and fear in the community local property values and may also attract private became a valuable recreational asset. investment and generate momentum for area-wide Reduction in Crime transformation. Enhancements attract more people For those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods to the area, increase sales and property taxes, and accustomed to crime, poverty and living side- lead to continued infrastructure improvements by-side with idle brownfields of unknown risk, and redevelopment. In Gardena, California, the revitalization signals change and can eliminate the redevelopment of a brownfield into a public source of neighbors’ real and perceived fears of drug transportation facility brought in $25 million in manufacture or sales, robberies, waste dumping, federal transit funding, created 75 jobs, and created arson, vandalism and other illegal activity. A study by economic momentum that turned a $3.1 millionFalls Park is part of a 26-acre redevelopment Dr. Frances Kuo52 found lower crime rates on public budget deficit into a $3 million reserve in less thanproject in Sioux Falls, South Dakota housing blocks that also have vegetation. Beyond five years.54 that, a dramatic, positive change in a single property can initiate bigger neighborhood changes and renew a city’s commitment to a disadvantaged neighborhood and collaboration with the community in shaping improvements—eliminating crime and decay, and creating spaces that becomes a source of community pride. 36
    • Resources properties, and present general planning and process considerations. The report can be accessed at www.Project for Public Spaces in 1975, Project for Public Spaces is a Revitalization_Turning_Contaminated_Properties_nonprofit organization dedicated to helping people Into_Community_Assets.pdfcreate and sustain public spaces that build strongercommunities. For more information, visit www.pps. Land and Peopleorg. The Trust for Public Land produces a semi-annual free magazine which documents the activities byU.S. EPA Greenscapes people to protect land. Access it at offers resources to help communities make cost- freemag.efficient and environmentally friendly solutions forlandscaping. Access the resources at Increasing Physical Activity Through The Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Tribal Health Centerwaste/conserve/rrr/greenscapes/index.htm. Community Design The National Center for Bicycling and Walking Photo courtesy of Dave HodgesGreenspace Planning Toolkit published a report which focuses on how to makeCommunities can receive guidance on planning communities more bicycle-friendly and walkable.greenspace from the University of Georgia. A toolkit Download the report at the evaluating of land parcels for greenspace IPA_full.pdf.planning can be accessed at The State Role in Urban Land Redevelopment State legislation and programs can boost capacity toThe Excellent City Park System: What Makes redevelop vacant and abandoned properties. Find theIt Great and How to Get There Brookings Institute study outlining these initiativesA resource developed by the Trust for Public at which proposes seven measures of city park leighvacant.pdf.excellence. See if your community measures up Local Initiatives Support Corporation The Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC)Ecological Revitalization: Turning Contaminated is dedicated to helping community residentsProperties Into Community Assets transform distressed neighborhoods into healthy andThis report is designed to support ecological sustainable communities of choice and opportunity—revitalization, address technical considerations good places to work, do business and raise children.of ecological revitalization at contaminated Access additional information at 37
    • 3. Summary and Looking Forward “The momentum from our brownfields project has Our grantees and brownfield revitalization partners sustainable reuse presents the opportunity to build spilled over into the rest of the have created a wealth of examples that demonstrate intergenerational bridges with our senior citizens, our community. Our Brownfields the many environmental, economic and other youth and future generations. Sustainability Pilot has opened community benefits that can spring from the the door for us to establish revitalization of brownfields and other contaminated Another core element of sustainability is diversity. partnerships to redevelop our lands. Two things are apparent from the examples Just as biodiversity is an indicator of a healthycommunity and create the type of presented in this report: the benefits of brownfields ecosystem, what Jane Jacobs called “vibrant jobs our citizens need. If we can reuse are not confined to the property’s boundaries diversity” is a sign of a community’s health. The four create these jobs, we can give and they are not only about the environment or job reuse themes featured in the report—agriculture andpeople hope for their future here.” creation. The examples presented also illuminate food systems, arts and culture, housing and mixed two key components that are often present when uses, and community and civic spaces—can create Jim Jones – City of Valley, Alabama brownfield revitalization helps to create more livable the variety and diversity needed for a flourishing, communities. healthy community. First, we see that enabling robust community With vigorous community involvement and strong conversations among those affected by brownfields sustainability goals, brownfields revitalization offers helps to place the property into the context of the the chance to rebalance the scales of environmental, neighborhood, the community and the region to social and economic injustices. There is much poetry inform the best possible reuse. We can nurture to recycling land in a way that mends the social the collaborative spirit of the community, create fabric of our communities. As the Native American capacity to talk about other pressing issues, and proverb goes: “Treat the earth well. It was not given give voice to community members who have been to you by your parents. It was loaned to you by your underrepresented in community decisions. children.” Second, we see that setting our sights on We will continue to provide additional examples and sustainability is also a critical characteristic for resource updates on the EPA Brownfields Web site: success. Communities must balance several, In the meantime, we hope sometimes competing, factors—such as economic this report serves as a catalyst to make new ideas and opportunities, the environment, culture, public connections to improve the environment, health and health and other community priorities. The equitable quality of life in your community. What path will you balance of these factors also implies consideration take to help revitalize your community? of both short- and long-term timeframes as truly 38
    • There are many paths to take with new partners and growing resources to make new connections, and enhancecommunity benefits through brownfields cleanup and revitalization... 39
    • 4. References 1 Data from EPA’s Assessment Cleanup and Revitalization Exchange System (ACRES), a reporting tool for EPA’s Brownfields Program. Data was accessed on August 24, 2009. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Creighton, James L. The Public Participation Handbook: Making Better Decisions through Community Involvement. International Association for Public Participation, 2005. 5 EPA Sustainability Program Basic Information. Available online at 6 Living Planet Report 2008. Fig. 2: Humanity’s Ecological Footprint, 1961-2005. World Wildlife Federation, 2008. Available online at www. 7 Guidelines and Performance Benchmarks Draft 2008. The Sustainable Sites Initiative, 2008. Available online at 8 Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007. U.S. EPA. 2009. Available online at emissions/usinventoryreport.html. 9 Data from ACRES. 10 Asthma and the Environment: Policy Approaches. Policy Link. Available online at C81D/Policy.htm. 11 Ulrich, Robert S. Effects of Gardens on Health Outcomes: Theory and Research. In Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. Ed. Clare Cooper Marcus and Marni Barnes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999. P.27-86. 12 Twenty-Nine Reasons for Planting Trees. Tree Link. Compiled from various sources by: Glenn Roloff, USDA Forest Service - Northern Region Missoula, Montana. Available online at 13 Burden, Dan. 22 Benefits of Urban Streets. Glatting Jackson and Walkable Communities, Inc., May 2006. Available online at les/pubs/22Benefi tsofUrbanStreetTrees.pdf. 14 Data from ACRES. 15 Wachter, Susan. The Determinants of Neighborhood Transformations in Philadelphia -Identification and Analysis: The New Kensington Pilot Study. The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, July 12, 2004. Available online at GreeninGStudy.pdf. and Whitmire Study. Gateway Greening. Available online at 16 Green Jobs: Towards Decent Work in a Sustainable, Low-Carbon World. United Nations Environment Programme, 2008. Produced by Worldwatch Institute with technical assistance from Cornell University Global Labor Institute. Available online at environment/features/greenjobs-report.asp. 17 Rogers, Ben and Emily Robinson. The Benefits of Community Engagement: A review of the evidence. Active Citizenship Centre. 2004. Available online at 18 Walsh, Bryan. Getting Real About the High Price of Cheap Food. Time Magazine. 21 Aug 2009. Available online at health/article/0,8599,1917458,00.html. 19 Fuels and Emissions from Industrial Agriculture. Food & Water Watch. Available online at dairy-and-meat-factories/climate-change/greenhouse-gas-industrial-agriculture. 20 Food Deserts Web site. Available online at 21 Garden Writers Association. Available online at 22 This map was created by the Johns Hopkins University Center for a Livable Future. It shows EPA-tracked sites within Baltimore, Maryland. Geographical data for EPA-tracked sites was gathered from the following sources: Brownfields properties from the ACRES database queried July 2008; RCRA sites from the RCRA 2020 Universe Inventory from July 2007; Superfund sites from the EPA OSWER Cross-Program Revitalization Measure (CPRM) universe as provided by the Superfund Office July 2008; and landfill sites from Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) provided March 20, 2009. This analysis defines food deserts as block groups that are more than ¼ mile from a major supermarket and have 40 percent or greater of their population with an income below 125 percent of the poverty line. 23 Sherer, Paul. The Benefits of Parks: Why America Needs More City Parks and Open Space. The Trust for Public Land, 2006. Available online at 24 Wachter, Susan. The Determinants of Neighborhood Transformations in Philadelphia -Identification and Analysis: The New Kensington Pilot Study. The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, July 12, 2004. Available online at GreeninGStudy.pdf. 25 Whitmire Study. Gateway Greening. Available online at:
    • 26 Zimmerman, Janet. Community gardens growing in popularity amid rising food prices, health scares. The Press-Enterprise, July 27, 2008. Available online at 2008 Annual Report. National Gardening Association. Available online at, p. 6. Back cover photo: Artist Vickie Jo Sowell28 Garden Market Research: How Many Organic Gardeners are There? National Gardening Association. Available online at www. created sculpture for a community garden in Emeryville, California29 Organic Food Facts. Organic Food Association. Available online at Whitmire Study. Gateway Greening. Available online at Photo courtesy of EPA files31 Arts Participation 2008: Highlights from a National Survey. 2009. National Endowment for the Arts. Available online at research/research_brochures.php32 Arts & Economic Prosperity III: The Economic Impact of Nonprofit Arts and Culture Organizations and Their Audiences. Americans for the Arts. Available online at Written Testimony in Support of FY10 Appropriations for the National Endowment for the Arts Submitted by Jeremy Nowak President and CEO, The Reinvestment Fund House. Appropriations Subcommittee on Interior, Environment & Related Agencies. “Arts, Culture, and Community Renewal.” March 31, 2009. Available online at Arts & Economic Prosperity III: The Economic Impact of Nonprofit Arts and Culture Organizations and Their Audiences. Americans for the Arts. Available online at The Arts and Civic Engagement: Involved in Arts, Involved in Life. National Endowment for the Arts, 2006. Available online at arts.endow. gov/research/research_brochures.php.36 Federal Tax Incentives for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings: Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2008. National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior, 2009. Available online at Strickland, Bill. Make the Impossible Possible. New York: Doubleday Broadway Publishing Group, 2007.38 Arts Programs for At-Risk Youth: How U.S. Communities are Using the Arts to Rescue Their Youth and Deter Crime. Americans for the Arts, 1998. Available online at les/9209/Arts%20Programs%20for%20Youth%20At-Risk_Pamphlet. pdf.39 Ibid.40 Federal Rehabilitation Tax Credits. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Available online at rehabilitation-tax-credits.41 Incentives! A Guide to the Federal Historic Preservation Tax Incentives Program for Income-Producing Properties. National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. Available online at Nelson, Arthur C. Toward a New Metropolis: The Opportunity to Rebuild America. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. A Discussion Paper Prepared for The Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program, December 2004. Available online at www.brookings. edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2004/12metropolitanpolicy_nelson/20041213_RebuildAmerica.pdf.43 2001 Statistical Abstract of the United States. U.S. Department of Commerce U.S. Census Bureau. Table No. 952. Housing Units— Characteristics by Tenure and Region: 1999. Available online at Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2008. Table 2.1a Energy Consumption by Sector, 1949-2008. U.S. Department of Energy, June 26, 2008. Available online at U.S. Census Bureau. Available online at .html and The Benefits of Public Transportation: Mobility for the Aging Population. American Public Transportation Association. Available online at Nelson, Arthur C. Toward a New Metropolis: The Opportunity to Rebuild America. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. A Discussion Paper Prepared for The Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program, December 2004. Available online at www.brookings. edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2004/12metropolitanpolicy_nelson/20041213_RebuildAmerica.pdf.48 State of Healthy Housing. National Center for Health Housing. Available online at aspx.49 Moving Cooler: An Analysis of Transportation Strategies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Prepared for Moving Cooler Steering Committee. July 2009. Available online at Davis, Todd and Monica Hale. Public Transportation’s Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Reduction. SAIC, September 2007. Available online at The Social Value of Public Spaces. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Available online at les/jrf/2050-public-space- community.pdf.52 Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan, W.C. (2001). “Environment and crime in the inner city: Does vegetation reduce crime?” Environment and Behavior, 33(3), 343-367.53 Whitmire Study. Gateway Greening. Available online at In Gardena, Good Things are Growing on Cleaned-up Soil. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, August 2006. Available online at www. 41
    • Solid Waste EPA-560-F-09-51742 October 2009 and Emergency Response (5105T)