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Sec 3 northern_ireland



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  • 1. Conflict inConflict in Multi-Ethnic Countries 1
  • 3. In this chapter, you will learn about• Introduction to Northern Ireland• The causes of conflict in Northern Ireland• The consequences of conflict in Northern Ireland• The challenges in resolving ethnic conflict3
  • 4. In 1993• 1 million Protestants, mostly of Scottish and English origin• 600 000 Catholics, mostly descendents of local Irish inhabitants of the island 4
  • 5. HISTORY OF N.I.• United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland• UK : BRITAIN England, Scotland, Wales and N.I.• Let’s tour Britain & London 5
  • 6. the country in conflict 6
  • 7. HISTORY OF N.I.• Before 12th century• In the 12th century• 1690• 1800 7
  • 8. 12TH CENTURY• Before 12th century – N.I. & Republic of Ireland = IRELAND• In the 12th century – Ireland conquered and colonised by England 8
  • 9. 17th CENTURY• 17TH century : England ruled Ireland – English landlords in Ireland – brought in Protestant Scottish and English settlers – To increase Protestant population there – Newcomers – settled in northern part of Ireland – Pushed out many local Irish Catholic farmers – Those Irish Catholics who stayed behind given least fertile lands – Northern part of Ireland thus became mainly Protestant 9
  • 10. 17th CENTURY• The Scots like to wear kilts• What they wear beneath that is censored anybody’s guess! 10
  • 11. 1690 (17th CENTURY)• King James II of England, a Catholic• Forced to flee to north of Ireland. Why?• Because he failed to force Catholicism on the Protestants in England• There, he tried to defeat the locals• New King of England, William of Orange PROTESTANT arrived in north of Ireland and defeated King James• Battle of Boyne• King William remains a hero to Protestants to this day 11
  • 12. BATTLE OF BOYNE 12
  • 13. King William ofOrange,( Protestantking) defeatedKing James (Catholicking) in the Battle ofBoyne 13
  • 14. 19th CENTURY• For years, Catholic Irish fought against Protestant Scottish and English settlers without success• 1800 : Ireland became part of UK• Hostilities between Catholics and Protestants did not end• Late 1800s : some local Irish demanded• HOME RULE (like our concept of self- government)• Fighting often broke out 14
  • 15. 20th CENTURY• 1921 : Ireland divided into two separate parts• Based on majority religion of each part• Northern part PROTESTANT became known as NORTHERN IRELAND – remained part of UK• Southern part CATHOLIC became known as IRISH FREE STATE• Both had own Parliaments• But continued to recognise English monarchy and laws regarding foreign affairs• 1949 : Irish Free State cut ties with Britain• Became the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND 15
  • 16. UNITED KINGDOM Republic Of Ireland Britain Northern Ireland 16England Scotland Wales
  • 17. THE N.I. GOVERNMENT before 1972• Before 1972Own Parliamentat StormontCastle nearBelfast 17
  • 18. THE N.I. GOVERNMENT Since 1972• Since 1972 – Ruled directly by the British Parliament in London – British PM chooses a Secretary of State MINISTER for N.I. – N.I. Government in charge of finance, commerce, health and education – Britain in charge of foreign affairs and defense – Majority of ministers in N.I. Are Protestants 18
  • 20. Causes of the Conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics• Divided Loyalties• Unequal Allocation of Housing• Unequal Employment Opportunities• Lack of Voting Rights• Lack of Opportunities For Social Interaction 20
  • 21. 1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES• In N.I. most Protestants regard themselves as British• Want the country continued as part of UK• Many afraid of union with the Republic of Ireland, a Catholic country• A Catholic government would not be tolerant of Protestant beliefs 21
  • 22. 1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES On the other hand• Catholics in N.I. See themselves as Irish• Want to be united with Ireland• Resent past history of English conquest• Many Catholics massacred or treated harshly• Remembered long struggle for Home Rule 22
  • 23. 1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES• Protestants – celebrate annually of battle of Boyne as a mark of protestant dominance• Usually march through Catholic residential areas• This sense of loyalty to different countries make them intolerant of each other 23
  • 24. Protestants celebrating Orange Parade Day at Catholic neighborhood yearly on 12 July inremembrance of King William’s victory over King James. Sometimes riots occur during the celebration. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. A Protestant youth passes a burning bus during a riot in North Belfast, Northern Ireland 26
  • 27. 2. UNEQUAL ALLOCATION OF HOUSING• Grievance : Provision of public housing by city councils to Protestants. HOUSING PARTLY PAID BY GOVT• Councils comprise largely Protestants• Catholics often delayed in getting public housing.• 1968 : 71% of local houses in Dungannon given to Protestants but 53% of the people there were Catholics 27
  • 28. 2. UNEQUAL ALLOCATION OF HOUSING• Catholics frustrated – shortage of houses means they have to wait many years before getting own house• Thus find provision of housing unfair 28
  • 29. Catholics had to wait longer for public housing in Dungannon 29
  • 30. 3.UNEQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES• Competition for jobs• Catholics – feel that they do not have an equal chance of getting the jobs they want, even if they’re as qualified as the Protestants 30
  • 31. 3. UNEQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES• 1971 : Population survey• Catholics males 2 ½ times more likely to be jobless than Protestants males• No of Catholic engineers and civil servants – not proportionate to their numbers in N.I.• Fewer Catholics in senior positions in public and private sectors 31
  • 33. 4. LACK OF VOTING RIGHTS• Before 1969 : Voting rights a problem• Each household – 2 votes• Companies • entitled to more votes • depended on size• Many companies owned by richer Protestants – thus had more votes• Voting districts often drawn to include a larger proportion of Protestants• Catholics were of course unhappy about this and protested against this 33
  • 34. 4. LACK OF VOTING RIGHTS• Since 1968 : Everyone entitled to one vote • Must be a British subject and above 18 years old • Had to be born in N.I. • Or lived in UK for 7 years• Voting districts redrawn to ensure fairness 34
  • 35. 4. LACK OF VOTING RIGHTS• Voting rights no longer a problem today• But conflicts persist because other issues such as housing and employment not addressed 35
  • 36. Since 1969, any British citizen above 18 is entitled to one man one vote 36
  • 37. 5. LACK OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR SOCIAL INTERACTION DUE TO…… EDUCATION SYSTEM• Fully-funded public schools cater to Protestants only• Private schools cater to Catholics only• Mixed schools are not as popular• Result : Protestant and Catholic children rarely get to meet and know each other• Generations grow up to distrust each other• Lack of social interaction makes them hostile to each other 37
  • 38. 5. LACK OF OPPORTUNITIS FOR SOCIAL INTERACTIONPROTESTANT CHILDREN CATHOLIC CHILDREN PUBLIC SCHOOLS PRIVATE SCHOOLS• Taught British • Taught Irish history history • Play Irish sports –• Play British sports – hurling rugby, hockey, • Taught Irish cricket language & culture• Very loyal to Britain • Regard Britain as a (Loyalists) foreign country 38
  • 39. 5. LACK OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR SOCIAL INTERACTION• Today, integrated schools cater for Protestants and Catholics• Not very popular – only taken up by 5% of the school-going population• Private schools that cater for Catholics PARTLY FUNDED BY GOVERNMENT 39
  • 40. Protestant and Catholic kids learn that they havenothing to fear from each other and much to gainby attending the same school together under the Friendship Project 40
  • 41. 5. LACK OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR SOCIAL INTERACTION DUE TO…… SEPARATE RESIDENTIAL AREAS• Catholics and Protestants have been living in separate residential areas• Belfast – 1991 – 63% of the population lived in areas that were either Catholics or Protestants• In 2001 – figure rose to 66%• Less social interaction between the two groups 41
  • 42. The Shankill Road area is mainly working-classand exclusively Protestant. It is divided from the Catholic Falls Road area by a peace line peace line 42
  • 43. A Protestant Neighbourhood 43
  • 44. A Catholic Neighbourhood 44
  • 45. With lack of tolerance and a lot of prejudice, The Catholics and The Protestants continue their conflict with violence 45
  • 46. s- le l ub fu ro ceTh e T ea rch p ma s f rom ights eak il r utbr ce civ o o t … f v io len o OBJECTIVES OF CRM 46
  • 47. Peaceful Protest Marches vs Violence Civil Rights movements started in 1960s :• demanded equal rights• protested against unfair treatment of the Catholics• made peaceful demands for basic rights such as housing, jobs, education and voting• Civil Rights Movement in 1968 was a beginning of the period called the ‘Troubles’ 47
  • 48. • How did the Protestants react to these marches?• Protestants reacted with hostility and violence• Saw the movement as an attempt to weaken the government 48
  • 49. THE TROUBLES - From peaceful protest Marches to Violence• Feb 1967 – The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association was formed (NICRA)• Formed by well educated middle-class Catholics who wanted to end discrimination against them• NICRA adopts non-violent methods to protest against discrimination against Catholic• The Civil Rights Movement (CRM) organised by NICRA marked the period known as ‘The Troubles’ 49
  • 50. THE TROUBLES - From peaceful protest Marches to Violence• During these peaceful marches, fighting broke out between the Catholics, Protestants and the police• Aug 1969 – British government sent in British Army to keep order in NI• Catholics welcomed them as their protectors at first 50
  • 51. Youth arrested in the Lenadoon area of Belfast after rioting which immediately marked the introduction of internment 51
  • 52. THE TROUBLES - From peaceful protest Marches to Violence• Aug 1971 – the NI government introduced the ‘internment laws’. This means the British Army has the power to - arrest - interrogate - detain without trial anyone suspected of being involved in acts to weaken the government• As army began searching Catholics homes and arresting suspects, the Catholics soon lost faith in the British Army 52
  • 53. British Army snatch squad in William Street on aSunday afternoon in Summer 1971. Those caught are brought back to be held behind army lines. 53
  • 54. The peaceful civil rightmovements turned ugly…….in 1972…BLOODY SUNDAY…lead to violence…IRA came into the picture….MORE VIOLENCE 54
  • 55. 55 S undaB lo o d y
  • 56. In 1972, Bloody Sunday• A peaceful civil rights march was shot at by the British soldiers• 13 civilians were shot dead and many more were wounded• This incident is called the ‘Bloody Sunday’ incident• It marked the beginning of violent conflict between the Catholics and the Protestants 56
  • 57. The heavily armed British Armyagainst unarmed peaceful protesters 57
  • 58. A British Army sniper hiding at a vantage point.Eye witnesses claimed some snipers fired at the protesters in the crowd below 58
  • 59. Father Daly, later Bishop of Derry, gave the last rites to manyof the dead and severely injured on Bloody Sunday. He also helped some men who tried to carry the mortally wounded 17-year-old John Duddy to safety. “I think he died while we were carrying him,” Father Daly said. DEAD 59
  • 60. Seventeen-year-old Michael Kelly lies on the groundafter being shot. After this picture was taken 20-year-old Michael McDaid, partially visible in the topleft, was also shot and killed. DEAD DEAD 60
  • 61. The coffins of those 13 killed on Bloody Sundaywere laid out in St Marys Chapel in the Creggan before the funerals. 7 killed were unarmed teenagers. Youngest dead was 17 while the oldest was a 59-year old man 61
  • 62. What happened after Bloody Sunday?• More violence between Protestants and Catholics• Catholic homes were petrol-bombed• Catholic families forced to flee, homes looted/robbed by mobs• Catholic shops and pubs were burnt and bombed• Local police who witnessed the violence did not offer help• British Army raided Catholic homes, using force and damaging property 62
  • 64. WHO IS IRA?-THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY- • an illegal terrorist organisation in UK, members mainly Northern Irish Catholics • emerged since 1969 • aim is to use violence to drive out the British Army and the representatives of the British government • wants to convert NI into an Irish state 64
  • 65. WHAT DID IRA DO?• The IRA attacked British soldiers and police• Bombed businesses and shops owned by Protestants, killed innocent Protestants too• More than 3,500 people were killed from 1969-1993• IRA was responsible for two-thirds of the death 65
  • 67. CEASEFIRE??? • On 28 July 2005 the IRA announced an end to its armed campaign, stating that it would work to achieve its aims using "purely political and democratic programmes through exclusively peaceful means” 67
  • 68. 68
  • 71. OVERVIEWThe violence in Northern Ireland has left deep wounds within the country.Many innocent people have died. Affected NI negatively ECONOMICALLYSOCIALLY POLITICALLY 71
  • 73. 1) SOCIAL SEGREGRATION• Protestants and Catholics have been segregated/separated because of the tension and violence• They school, live and work separately• Possible for young people to grow up not having met someone from the other community• Result in lack of understanding between Protestants and Catholics 73
  • 74. I would mix but I don’t get a chance…If you mix…you don’t only expect trouble from the other side – Catholics – but you also expect some from your own people that live in the same street as you. Because they may hit you for playing with a Catholic. Maybe you’d get hit by other Catholics. It’s the same for the other person if he mixes with them. I’d like to mix, but I find it easier if you don’t mix andA Protestantteenage boy keep to yourself. 74
  • 75. Protestant children playing at Protestant neighbourhood.No social interaction with Catholic children. 75
  • 76. Catholic children play behind the peace walls with Catholic children. No social interaction with Protestant children 76
  • 77. The Belfast ‘peace walls’ is one of the many walls built to segregate Protestants and Catholics neighbourhoods. British troops erected the first one in 1969. Residents added more. peace wall segregates the 77 two communities
  • 78. 2) DECLINING ECONOMY• The conflict discouraged domestic and foreign investments in NI.• Foreign investors have to close down when violence increased operating costs – repairing etc.• The constant threat of bombings and high- cost drove away manufacturers• The violence also kept away tourists from visiting NI 78
  • 79. Foreign-owned factories burn down when protesters throw petrol bombs 79
  • 80. A factory owner lost a truck to violence in the streets 80
  • 81. 3) POLITICAL REFORM• The NI government passed anti-discrimination measures• The NI government agreed to abolish the unfair voting system• They also reviewed the schemes for allocating government-owned houses 81
  • 83. TIME FOR PEACE 1970s-1990s - British government made attempts to bring peace - Protestants, Catholics, IRA and representatives from British government met to resolve conflict 83
  • 84. Good Friday Agreement 1998 The Good Friday Peace Agreement was signed by British and Irish governments. 84
  • 85. The journey for PEACE was not asmooth one – THE OMAGH BOMBING • Twenty-nine people were killed and hundreds injured by the explosion in Omagh, County Tyrone, on 15 August 1998. • The bomb was planted by the Real IRA 85
  • 86. The Order Parade always provide hostilities between Protestants and Catholics. It usually leads to violent clashes 86
  • 87. 87
  • 88. CAUSES FOR CONFLICT SRI LANKA NORTHERN IRELAND Racial Differences Religious & Political Sinhalese vs Tamils Differences Protestants vs Catholics Conflict over Conflict over Citizenship rights Divided Loyalties‘Sinhala Only’ Policy The Education SystemUniversity Admission Employment Resettlement of Housing Allocation Population Voting Rights 88
  • 89. CONSEQUENCES & IMPACTS SRI LANKA N IRELAND• Social Consequence • Social Consequence- Tamils driven out of - Social Segregation their homeland - Peaceful Protests to• Economic Consequences Violence- Declining economy • Economic Consequences - fall in foreign - Declining economy investments - fall in foreign - fall in tourist visits investments - unemployment - fall in tourist visits - unemployment • Political Consequences• Political Consequences - Political Reform- Armed Conflict - Foreign intervention- Foreign Intervention 89
  • 90. CONCLUSIONSRI LANKA AND N IRELAND• Important for people of different races and religions to live in harmony• Conflict destroys lives, homes and property• Everyone suffers• Need to be sensitive to one another’s needs• Failure to understand and respect other’s rights will harm the country in many ways 90
  • 91. CONCLUSION• Weakens development of the country• Provides excuse for stronger neighbours to interfere• Conflicts in Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland cannot be resolved overnight• Consequences of fighting and destruction still exist• Will continue to exist until a solution is arrived at 91
  • 92. Lessons Learnt : Singapore WE ARE A MULTI-RACIAL SOCIETY• should be sensitive to one another’s needs• understanding and respect• peace and unity are the best defense against foreign interference / intervention 92
  • 93. “If we are to teach real peacein this world, and if we are to carry on a real war against war, we shall have to begin with the children.” - Mahatma Ghandi -Teaching slides prepared by Mdm Azizah 93 Pictures sourced from internet