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Navigation Systems That Changed Aviation
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Navigation Systems That Changed Aviation


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Navigation Systems That Changed Aviation …

Navigation Systems That Changed Aviation
Report I did for my Aviation History class

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  • 1. Navigation Systems That Changed Aviation Gene Bush
  • 2. Early Navigation
    • No Navigational Aids
    • Used Visual Aids (Rivers, Roads, Rail Road Tracks)
    • Used Dead Reckoning
    • The process of estimating your position by advancing a known position using course, speed, time and distance to be traveled.
  • 3. Airmail Service
    • Ultimate goal was to establish transcontinental airmail service
    • Pilots flew during the day time
    • Mail was transferred to rail cars at night
    • Airmail service lost money ever since its introduction, President Harding threatened to veto any additional money for the airmail service.
    • Pilots demonstrated that it was possible to fly at night safely.
    • Navigated using bonfires, torches, burning oil drums.
    • Saved the airmail program
  • 4. Airmail Service
  • 5. Lighted Airways
    • Army Air Corps developed rotating beacons and fixed course lights.
    • Installed on the transcontinental route.
    • By 1927, over 4,000 miles of airways had lights.
    • Airmail could be delivered in 1/3 the time of a train.
    • Beacons were cost-effective, and an enormous aid for nighttime navigation.
    • No value in bad weather
  • 6. Lighted Airways
  • 7. Lighted Airways
  • 8. Four Course Radio Range
    • Developed in 1929
    • Series of four towers set in a square that transmits Low Frequency radio waves
    • Powerful 1,500 watt transmitters
    • 200 miles apart on the transcontinental airway
    • Enabled radio approach landings under adverse weather conditions.
    • Signals easily distorted
    • Giant leap forward in navigation, pilots simply listened to a radio receiver and followed these radio beams from station to station along the route.
    • This system had a total of 378 stations before becoming phased out during the 1950s
  • 9. 4-course radio range
  • 10. VOR
    • Developed after WWII (1950’s)
    • HF Radio beacon, transmits a signal that is divided into 360 degrees (radials)
    • Provides a long range (30nm-250nm)
    • Inexpensive to produce & operate
    • Allows for many users at once
    • Easy to use
    • Can be used for voice communication with associated FSS
    • Provides reliable signals day and night
    • Freed the pilot from strictly operating under VFR
    • Accurate and Predictable
  • 11. VOR
    • Combined with the glide slope allows super-accurate precision approaches
    • Combined with DME tells the pilot how far they are from the runway, also provides groundspeed
  • 12. VOR
  • 13. Global Positioning System (GPS)
    • Dates back to 1957 when the Soviets launched Sputnik.
    • Sputnik used a radio beam to transmit telemetry
    • U.S. Scientists discovered that they could locate their exact position on earth by listening and measuring Sputniks radio signal.
    • U.S. Satellite navigation program began
  • 14. Global Positioning System (GPS)
    • 1960s – US Navy/AF/Army all had independent versions
    • 1973 – Combined to create one system operated by the AF
    • 1983 – KAL 007 is shot down by Russian fighters, President Reagan declassifies GPS makes it available for civilian use.
    • 1994 – 29 Satellites in orbit, 24 for use and 5 spares
    • – FAA declares GPS operational for civil operations.
  • 15. Global Positioning System (GPS)
    • Offers highly accurate 3-D navigation
    • Enables more direct flight routes
    • Saves time and money!
    • Eventual replacement for VOR
    • Reduced separation minimums resulting in increased system capabilities
    • All weather coverage
  • 16. Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • 17. Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • 18. Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • 19. VOR and GPS changed aviation
    • VOR: Allows very accurate, dependable all weather 3-D navigation
      • Increased safety
      • Increased capacity
    • GPS: Offers even more accuracy, flexibility, capacity and safety
  • 20. The End Any Questions?