Navigation Systems That Changed Aviation


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Navigation Systems That Changed Aviation
Report I did for my Aviation History class

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Navigation Systems That Changed Aviation

  1. 1. Navigation Systems That Changed Aviation Gene Bush
  2. 2. Early Navigation <ul><li>No Navigational Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Used Visual Aids (Rivers, Roads, Rail Road Tracks) </li></ul><ul><li>Used Dead Reckoning </li></ul><ul><li>The process of estimating your position by advancing a known position using course, speed, time and distance to be traveled. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Airmail Service <ul><li>Ultimate goal was to establish transcontinental airmail service </li></ul><ul><li>Pilots flew during the day time </li></ul><ul><li>Mail was transferred to rail cars at night </li></ul><ul><li>Airmail service lost money ever since its introduction, President Harding threatened to veto any additional money for the airmail service. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilots demonstrated that it was possible to fly at night safely. </li></ul><ul><li>Navigated using bonfires, torches, burning oil drums. </li></ul><ul><li>Saved the airmail program </li></ul>
  4. 4. Airmail Service
  5. 5. Lighted Airways <ul><li>Army Air Corps developed rotating beacons and fixed course lights. </li></ul><ul><li>Installed on the transcontinental route. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1927, over 4,000 miles of airways had lights. </li></ul><ul><li>Airmail could be delivered in 1/3 the time of a train. </li></ul><ul><li>Beacons were cost-effective, and an enormous aid for nighttime navigation. </li></ul><ul><li>No value in bad weather </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lighted Airways
  7. 7. Lighted Airways
  8. 8. Four Course Radio Range <ul><li>Developed in 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Series of four towers set in a square that transmits Low Frequency radio waves </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful 1,500 watt transmitters </li></ul><ul><li>200 miles apart on the transcontinental airway </li></ul><ul><li>Enabled radio approach landings under adverse weather conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Signals easily distorted </li></ul><ul><li>Giant leap forward in navigation, pilots simply listened to a radio receiver and followed these radio beams from station to station along the route. </li></ul><ul><li>This system had a total of 378 stations before becoming phased out during the 1950s </li></ul>
  9. 9. 4-course radio range
  10. 10. VOR <ul><li>Developed after WWII (1950’s) </li></ul><ul><li>HF Radio beacon, transmits a signal that is divided into 360 degrees (radials) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a long range (30nm-250nm) </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive to produce & operate </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for many users at once </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for voice communication with associated FSS </li></ul><ul><li>Provides reliable signals day and night </li></ul><ul><li>Freed the pilot from strictly operating under VFR </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate and Predictable </li></ul>
  11. 11. VOR <ul><li>Combined with the glide slope allows super-accurate precision approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Combined with DME tells the pilot how far they are from the runway, also provides groundspeed </li></ul>
  12. 12. VOR
  13. 13. Global Positioning System (GPS) <ul><li>Dates back to 1957 when the Soviets launched Sputnik. </li></ul><ul><li>Sputnik used a radio beam to transmit telemetry </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Scientists discovered that they could locate their exact position on earth by listening and measuring Sputniks radio signal. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Satellite navigation program began </li></ul>
  14. 14. Global Positioning System (GPS) <ul><li>1960s – US Navy/AF/Army all had independent versions </li></ul><ul><li>1973 – Combined to create one system operated by the AF </li></ul><ul><li>1983 – KAL 007 is shot down by Russian fighters, President Reagan declassifies GPS makes it available for civilian use. </li></ul><ul><li>1994 – 29 Satellites in orbit, 24 for use and 5 spares </li></ul><ul><li> – FAA declares GPS operational for civil operations. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Global Positioning System (GPS) <ul><li>Offers highly accurate 3-D navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Enables more direct flight routes </li></ul><ul><li>Saves time and money! </li></ul><ul><li>Eventual replacement for VOR </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced separation minimums resulting in increased system capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>All weather coverage </li></ul>
  16. 16. Global Positioning System (GPS)
  17. 17. Global Positioning System (GPS)
  18. 18. Global Positioning System (GPS)
  19. 19. VOR and GPS changed aviation <ul><li>VOR: Allows very accurate, dependable all weather 3-D navigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GPS: Offers even more accuracy, flexibility, capacity and safety </li></ul>
  20. 20. The End Any Questions?