Writing center projects-interpreting sources-online vers-sum12
Interpreting Sources The Writing Center Student Success Center
Table of Contents Three Types of Sources Successful Quoting Tertiary Sources Integration Tips Primary Sources Block Quotes Secondary Sources Plagiarism Direct Quotes Paraphrasing Hanging Quotes
Presenter: Shelby VincentContent Author: Justine White and Thomasina HickmannRevisions: Thomasina Hickmann and Cheri MullinsDesign: Cheri Mullins, Enrique Dryere, Justine White, Kaley McGillWriting Center Coordinator: Thomasina HickmannCREDITS This presentation was created for the Writing Center at the University of Texas at Dallas. It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0. The University of Texas at Dallas
Three Types of Sources Primary sources offer first-hand information about the subject under discussion. Secondary sources are analyses of primary source material. Tertiary sources provide summaries of or commentaries on secondary sources.Table of Contents
Tertiary Sources Use tertiary sources to gain a general overview and better understanding of your topic to weed through large amounts of information quickly and efficiently Use tertiary sources for research only and not as evidence to support your analysis.Table of Contents
Examples of Tertiary Sources Textbooks The World Almanac Magazines Psychology Today Reference books World Fact Books written for the Encyclopedia general public Britannica
Primary Sources Use primary sources to explore your subject to gather direct evidence for your claim to serve as a basis for the formulation of your argumentTable of Contents
Secondary Sources Use secondary sources to situate your research within a larger context to support your interpretation or refute those with whom you disagree to keep up with current theory, find models for your research, or discover other viewpoints and alternative theoriesTable of Contents
Examples of Secondary Sources Scholarly Journal Biographies Articles Scientific reviews Book-Length Critical Specialized Commentaries Reference Works
Primary vs. Secondary SourcesPrimary Sources Secondary Sources Shakespeare’s “Sonnet Michael Pacholski’s 18” analysis of “Sonnet 18” Three Essays on the Anti-Oedipus by Gilles Theory of Sexuality by Deleuze and Félix Sigmund Freud Guattari Letter written by Marilyn Norma Jean: The Life of Monroe to Joe DiMaggio Marilyn Monroe by Fred Guiles
Source as Both Primary and Secondary Ex: 1850 review of a book published in 1849 The review is a secondary source because it presents an analysis of a primary source (the book). Yet the review is also a primary source because it expresses the cultural perspective of someone living during the same historical period in which the book first appeared.
Secondary Sources - Indirect An indirect source is a concept, analysis, or conclusion expressed by one source but located in another. It is secondhand information. Use indirect sources only when the original source is unobtainable. Use indirect sources sparingly.
Direct Quotes Use a direct quote when you find the wording particularly memorable when you need to present the original wording as evidence when you want to refute specific words or phrases taken from the sourceTable of Contents
Paraphrase and Summary Paraphrase when you want to pay close attention to the author’s reasoning but don’t think the section warrants a direct quote. Summarize when you want to give a general overview or highlight major points of a discussion.
Hanging Quotes The source material must be connected to what you say because without the proper framework, the source’s relation to your argument is unclear it is better to risk overanalyzing the source’s relevance than to leave your reader in doubtTable of Contents
Successful QuotingThe challenge, as college professor Ned Laff hasput it, “is not simply to exploit students’nonacademic interests, but to get them to seethose interests through academic eyes.” To say that students need to see their Elements of Integrationinterests “through academic eyes” is to say thatstreet smarts are not enough. Making students’ Introductionnonacademic interests an object of academicstudy is useful, then, for getting students’ attentionand overcoming their boredom and alienation, but Quotethis tactic won’t in itself necessarily move themcloser to an academically rigorous treatment of Interpretationthose interests. On the other hand, invitingstudents to write about cars, sports, or clothingfashions does not have to be a pedagogical cop- Commentaryout as long as students are required to see theseinterests “through academic eyes,” that is, to thinkand write about cars, sports, and fashion in areflective, analytical way, one that sees them asmicrocosms of what is going on in the widerculture (Graff 204).Table of Contents
Successful Quoting: IntroductionThe challenge, as collegeprofessor Ned Laff has put it, “isnot simply to exploit students’nonacademic interests, but to get The introductionthem to see those interests through Introduce theacademic eyes.” To say that students need to see their speaker.interests “through academic eyes” is to say that streetsmarts are not enough. Making students’ nonacademicinterests an object of academic study is useful, then, for Blend your wordsgetting students’ attention and overcoming their boredomand alienation, but this tactic won’t in itself necessarily with the speaker’s.move them closer to an academically rigorous treatment ofthose interests. On the other hand, inviting students towrite about cars, sports, or clothing fashions does not have Build credibility.to be a pedagogical cop-out as long as students arerequired to see these interests “through academic eyes,”that is, to think and write about cars, sports, and fashion ina reflective, analytical way, one that sees them asmicrocosms of what is going on in the wider culture (Graff204).
Successful Quoting: InterpretationThe challenge, as college professor Ned Laff has put it, “isnot simply to exploit students’ nonacademic interests, butto get them to see those interests through academic eyes.” To say that students needto see their interests “through The interpretationacademic eyes” is to say that streetsmarts are not enough. Making If necessary,students’ nonacademic interests an explain what theobject of academic study is useful,then, for getting students’ attention author means inand overcoming their boredom and relation to the topicalienation, but this tactic won’t in that you areitself necessarily move them closerto an academically rigorous discussing.treatment of those interests. On theother hand, inviting students to write about cars, sports, orclothing fashions does not have to be a pedagogical cop-out as long as students are required to see these …
Successful Quoting: Commentary…interests an object of academic study is useful, then, forgetting students’ attention and overcoming their boredomand alienation, but this tactic won’t in itself necessarilymove them closer to an academically rigorous treatment of On the other hand,those interests. The commentaryinviting students to write aboutcars, sports, or clothing fashions Analyze yourdoes not have to be a pedagogicalcop-out as long as students are reference to therequired to see these interests source in relation“through academic eyes,” that is, to to your centralthink and write about cars, sports,and fashion in a reflective, argument.analytical way, one that sees themas microcosms of what is going onin the wider culture (Graff 204).
Tips for Successful Integration Blend your words with the source’s, using a tone and language that carefully reflect the original material. Professor Smith criticizes… Critic Robert Black predicts that… Dr. Jones questions the usefulness of… Researcher James Reed complains that…
Integration TipsIn Zen everything has an innateBuddha nature; it only needs to beawakened. Buddha nature is anotherword for the divine connection we allhave to the Godhead or Spirit. Theonly way to awaken ones true nature Mix things up.is to look within. Buddha naturecannot be found outside the body nor Begin by interpreting.can it be discovered throughintellectual study. Huineng the SixthPatriarch reflected that "Deluded, aBuddha is a sentient being /Awakened, a sentient being is aBuddha" (Yampolsky 180). TheBuddha nature is awakened throughenlightenment (White 3). Table of Contents
Block QuotesGrammarian and author Joseph Williamsargues that there are specific guidelines forsentence length and variation: Integration calls for Those who can write individually clear and concise sentences have achieved a the same elements good deal, and much more if they can but a different format. assemble them into coherent passages. But a writer who can’t write clear introduce with a sentences longer than twenty words or so is like a composer who can write sentence followed by a only short jingles. No one can colon communicate complex ideas in short sentences alone, so you have to know begin on a new line, how to assemble a sentence long and complex enough to express complex indent only on the left, ideas, but still clear enough to be read and use no quotation easily. You can do that, if you know some principles of sentence marks except when construction that go beyond SUBJECTS and VERBS, CHARACTERS and including material ACTIONS. (166) quoted by your source Table of Contents
Revised QuoteWhen discussing sentence Ask yourselflength and variation, questions aboutgrammarian and authorJoseph Williams argues that clarity and relevance.“no one can communicate Reduce long blockcomplex ideas in short quotes to the mostsentences alone, so youhave to know how to useful and conciseassemble a sentence long information.and complex enough to Considerexpress complex ideas, but paraphrasing orstill clear enough to be readeasily” (166). summarizing instead.
Paraphrase and Summary Focus on the concepts relevant to your research, synthesizing the material. Reword the source’s language. Refashion the source’s sentence structure. Express the source’s meaning. Enclose any language belonging to the source within quotation marks. Provide a source citation.
PlagiarismOriginal Text PlagiarismOnce civilizations had emerged in As Tom Standage explains, aftervarious parts of the world, food civilizations developed in differenthelped to connect them together. regions of the world, food helpedFood-trade routes acted as to link them together. Food-tradeinternational communications routes served as internationalnetworks that fostered not just networks, facilitating not onlycommercial exchange, but cultural commercial exchange but alsoand religious exchange too. The cultural and religious exchange.spice routes that spanned the Old The Old World spice tradeWorld led to cross-cultural influenced such diverse fields asfertilization in fields as diverse as theology, science, and the finearchitecture, science, and religion. arts (x). Table of Contents
Plagiarism Although the plagiarized version expresses the source’s meaning and includes a suitable citation, it violates the other conventions of paraphrasing. It retains the source’s sentence structure and appropriates language that belongs to the source (signified by the underlined words) without enclosing it within quotation marks.
ParaphrasingOriginal Text Legitimate ParaphraseOnce civilizations had emerged in As Tom Standage explains, foodvarious parts of the world, food served as a link among nascenthelped to connect them together. civilizations. In the Old World, theFood-trade routes acted as trade in food meant expandinginternational communications commercial opportunities, yet itnetworks that fostered not just also meant the interculturalcommercial exchange, but cultural transmission of ideas. Becauseand religious exchange too. The transporting food over longspice routes that spanned the Old distances relied on extensiveWorld led to cross-cultural “communications networks,” itfertilization in fields as diverse as promoted changes in beliefarchitecture, science, and religion. systems as well as developments in the fine arts and scientific thought (x). Table of Contents
Paraphrasing By contrast, the legitimate paraphrase represents an acceptable version of the source. The new version not only credits the source but also conveys its meaning without unfairly appropriating its language or relying on its sentence structure.
Graff, Gerald. “Hidden Intellectualism.” They Say / I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 2010. Print.Standage, Tom. An Edible History of Humanity. New York: Walker, 2009. Print.White, Justine. "An Evolutionary Analogy for Enlightenment." MA Thesis. University of Texas at Dallas, 2009. Print.Williams, Joseph M. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace. 6th ed. New York: Longman, 2000. Print.WORKS CITED
Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2008. Print.Bullock, Richard, Maureen Daly Goggin, and Francine Weinberg. The Norton Field Guide to Writing with Readings and Handbook. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 2010. Print.Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.Fowler, Ramsey F., and Jane E. Aaron. The Little, Brown Workbook. 11th ed. New York: Pearson, 2010. Print.Graff, Gerald, and Cathy Birkenstein. They Say / I Say: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 2010. Print.Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 7th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2007. Print.FOR MORE INFORMATION