Causes:• Lack of Industrialization: Rural Society (Bad living conditions)• Few Industries: very bad working and living conditions.• Lack of a Representative System: Ancient Regime. The tsar was an absolute monarch. No Parliament (Duma)
Revolution of 1905• The revolution started because Russia was defeated by Japan in the war of 1905.• It is the first time that the Soviets appeared.• The revolution didn’t succeed.• But the tsar gave to the people a Duma (Parliament).
1914• Russia takes part in WWI, with the France and England.• Russia is not prepared for this war and a lot of people is going to die in this war.• Russia is going to lose a lot of territories (Poland, Finland, Ukraine, Baltic Republics…)
1917: February Revolution• It is a Moderate Revolution.• It is going to succeed thanks to the involvement of all the social classes (working classes, peasants, women, soldiers, soviets…)• But it is going to be controlled by the moderates (Liberal politicians)• Liberal System• They had to stop two attempts of coups d’état• They kept Russia in the war. (Decision widely rejected by the lower classes)
1917 - continued• Lenin came from the exile, helped by the Germans.• He was the leader of the Bolsheviks.• He promised all the power for the Soviets, land for the peasants and to abandon the war.
1917: October Revolution• With the help of Trotsky and a special and well trained military unit the Revolution was a success.• Lenin kept his promise and abandoned WWI.• He signed a peace treaty with Germany and had to give Poland, Finland, Ukraine, and the Baltic Republics.• A Civil War started White Russians against the Red Russians. Trotsky created the Red Army, who won the civil war.
USSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics• They created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic and gave this new name to the nation.• They created the Communist Party that is going to have and important influence all around the world.• They also created “The Communist International”
Communist System• The Communist System is established.• It’s the opposite system to Capitalism (exploitation of the proletariat by the factory owners).• All the production, industrial and agricultural will be controlled by the Soviets and the profits will be distributed fairly by the state.• The state monopolized all the raw materials, resources and factories of the country; and was the only one who could exploit them.
Consequences• All the proletariat all around the world is willing to copy this revolution.• All the countries want to stop the spreading of the communist ideas, so they isolate the USSR.• Lenin will die in 1924 and the next leader will be Stalin. He created a cruel and repressive system, killing many opponents and also many civilians. (It’s estimated that 1,2 million of people died because of this repression).
Communism in China• In 1912 China is a Republic. (The emperor abdicated).• New political part: the Kuomintang (1912)(a nationalist party)• In 1921 the Communist party is created by Mao Zedong and fights against the Kuomintang in a civil war that starts in 1927.• During WWII both parties united in order to fight against the Japanese invasion, but after WWII the disputes will start again.• Finally the Communist party will win this civil war.