Napoleon crossing the Alps
• French Consulate (1799-1804)
• Consul for life (1802-1804)
• The Empire (1804-1814)
• Exile in Elba (1814-1815)
• The Hundred Days (1815)
• Exile in Saint Helena (1815-1821)
• He was born in Corsica (1769). (He spoke
Corsican language when he came to France)
• His family was not wealthy and he was one of eight
• He went to the military school and became an
• He supported the revolution.
• When he was 24 years old he became a general.
• He was a very intelligent person, with leadership
skills and a deep understanding of politics.
• Very Ambitious.
• Almost all his brothers and sisters became
kings, queens, or nobles:
Joseph Bonaparte: King of Naples and later King of Spain
Lucien Bonaparte: Minister of Interior and Ambassador
Luois I: King of Holland
Elisa Bonaparte: princess of Piombino and Lucca, then grand duchess
Pauline Bonaparte: imperial French Princess and the Princess consort
of Sulmona and Rossano.
Caroline Bonaparte: Queen consort of Naples.
Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte: French Prince, King of Westphalia
FRENCH CONSULATE (1799-1804)
• He took part in the coup d’etat of Brumario.
o He became “First Consul” (the most powerful man in
• Political Measures:
• Reorganized the Government
• Centralized administration
• Created new schools
• Reorganized the country’s finances and tax system
• Bank of France
• New Legal System: The Napoleonic Code
• He made peace with the Catholic Church (Concordat)
• But freedom of speech and press was limited
The Empire (1804-1814)
• In 1804 Napoleon crowned himself emperor and France
became an Empire.
Building an Empire
• Main Victories:
1805→ Austerlitz; he defeated Austrians and
1806 → Jena; he defeated the Prussians
1807 → Friendland; he defeated the Russians
Treaty of Tilsit with Russia and Prussia
• Main Defeats:
1808 → Spanish Campaign (tremendous
weakening). 1808, Battle of Bailen.
1812 →Campaign of Russia (450.000 people died)
He controlled almost all Europe
• Direct Possessions:
– Holland, Belgium, some States of Germany and
• Indirect Possesions:
– Spain, Sweden, Duchy of Warsaw
• Allied States:
– Austro-Hungarian Empire
– Russian Empire
• Only Britain remained undefeated
• Great Rivalry between France and Britain
• Napoleon tried to invade Great Britain:
Disaster of Trafalgar -1805- (Nelson destroyed
the French and the Spanish fleet)
• Napoleon tried an economic blockade (he
forbade the countries in his empire from trading
The Fall of the Empire
• It started with the defeats in Spain (1808) and in
• This encouraged the Sixth Coalition: Austria,
Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, Portugal, Spain,
• Battle of Leipzig (1813) (90.000 casualties)
• March 1814: Paris was captured by the Coalition
• Napoleon abdicated (1814)
• Exile to Elba (April 1814 – February 1815)
• The Hundred Days (March 1815)
– He came back to France
– The battle of Waterloo (June 1815)
• Exile to Saint Helen (1815-1821)
The main achievements
• He consolidated the revolution in France.
• He spread the revolutionary ideas through
– Suppression of the Privileges of Nobles
– Establishment of Liberty and Equality
– Birth of Nationalism
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