Ideological MovementsRomanticism: is a non-political movement, but it added an emotional passion to the more political movements after 1815
Classical LiberalismIt emphasized on the rights and liberties that individuals should possess: Equality before the law Freedom of speech and press Right of own propertyConstitutions: Governments should be limited by written constitutions.Representative Government: elected assemblies or parliaments which should make laws
Not democratic: not everyone should be allowed to vote (censitary suffrage)Social classes that supported this movement: Business and professional classes Enterprising landownersThey wanted changes, but in an orderly way, by processes of legislation, and not by Revolutions.
Economic LiberalismAdam Smith and David RicardoGovernment should not interfere with business, it should stay out of the economy and let businessess compete.“Laissez-Faire”Law of supply and demandFreedom of trade and abolition of tariffs
Other Ideological MovementsRadicalism (Democrats) Working class leaders They wanted to extend many of the liberal arguments to wider segments of the populationRepublicanism (Democrats) Its the continent version of radicalism They are opposed to royalism and monarchies. They supported “Revolutions” Heirs of the “French Revolution” Democrats: “universal male suffrage” Because of police repression they joined in secret societies.
Utopian Socialism It was previous to marxism They regarded the economic system as aimless, chaotic and unjust. They looked for a fairer and more equal distribution of income among all the members of society. Personalities: − Robert Owen − Saint Simon − Charles Fourier and his phalanstère
Scientific Socialism, Marxism or Communism Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels They wanted to improve the working conditions They believed in progress and in society. All the social classes would disappear and “the proletariat” would create a new society without social classes called “Communist Society” All means of production should be owned by society through the Government Surplus value (plusvalía): the worker creates some benefits, that are taken by capitalists, not by workers.
• Feminism • This movement wanted to expand the rights of women in both public and private life. • Main aims: a better education, reforms in property and divorce laws, the right to participate in public debates and voting rights• Nationalism • It defends the right of a group of individuals to be identified with a political entity called “nation”. • Centrifugal nationalism: it destroys already existing empires or nations • Centripetal nationalism: it creates new nations
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.