Ideological movements

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Ideological movements

  1. 1. Ideological Movements Romanticism: is a non-political movement, but it added an emotional passion to the more political movements after 1815
  2. 2. Classical Liberalism It emphasized on the rights and liberties that individuals should possess: Equality before the law Freedom of speech and press Right of own property Against Absolutism. They defended separation of powers and National Sovereignty (Through Constitutions, Elections and Parliaments). Constitutions: Governments should be limited by written constitutions. Representative Government: elected assemblies or parliaments which should make laws.
  3. 3. Not democratic: not everyone should be allowed to vote (censitary suffrage or census suffrage) Social classes that supported this movement: Business and professional classes Factory owners Enterprising landowners They wanted changes, but in an orderly way, by processes of legislation, and not by Revolutions.
  4. 4. Economic Liberalism Adam Smith and David Ricardo Government should not interfere with business, it should stay out of the economy and let businessess compete. “Laissez-Faire” Law of supply and demand Freedom of trade and abolition of tariffs
  5. 5. Other Ideological Movements Radicalism (Democrats) Working class leaders They wanted to extend many of the liberal arguments to wider segments of the population Republicanism (Democrats) It's the continent version of radicalism They are opposed to royalism and monarchies. They supported “Revolutions” Heirs of the “French Revolution” Democrats: “universal male suffrage” Because of police repression they joined in secret societies.
  6. 6. Utopian Socialism It was previous to marxism They regarded the economic system as aimless, chaotic and unjust. They looked for a fairer and more equal distribution of income among all the members of society. Personalities: − Robert Owen − Saint Simon − Charles Fourier and his phalanstère
  7. 7. Scientific Socialism, Marxism or Communism Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels They wanted to improve the working conditions They believed in progress and in society. All the social classes would disappear and “the proletariat” would create a new society without social classes called “Communist Society” All means of production should be owned by society through the Government Surplus value (plusvalía): the worker creates some benefits, that are taken by capitalists, not by workers.
  8. 8. • Feminism • This movement wanted to expand the rights of women in both public and private life. • Main aims: a better education, reforms in property and divorce laws, the right to participate in public debates and voting rights • Nationalism • It defends the right of a group of individuals to be identified with a political entity called “nation”. • Centrifugal nationalism: it destroys already existing empires or nations • Centripetal nationalism: it creates new nations

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