Introduction• The French society will undergo an epic transformation:• Feudal Aristocratic privileges evaporated Religious
• Different social groups will take an active part in politics: Bourgeoisie Mass from the streets Peasants Army• Different Political Regimes: Constitutional Monarchy Radical Republic Moderate Republic Empire
• Ideas: Enlightment, American Revolution• Social Problems: Three Estates (anachronic)• Economical Problems: Deficit (American War of Independence)• Political Crisis: Burgesses wanted to take an active part in politic
Phases The Estates-General (1789) The Constituent Assembly (1789-1791) The Constitutional Monarchy (1791-1792) The National Convention (1792 – 1795) The Girondin Convention (1792-1793) The Jacobin Convention (1793-1795) (Reign of Terror) The Directory (1795-1799)
Estates-General (1789)• Louis XVI called the meeting of the Estates General• Cahiers de Doleances → Great expectations• 5 May 1789: Estates General• Problem with the voting system: – Nobles & Clergy: wanted a vote per Estate. – Third Estate: wanted a vote per person.
National Assembly (1789-1792)• 17 June: The Third Estate declared himself to be the “National Assembly” and to represent the Nation.• 3 Days Later: they moved to the Tennis Court• Tennis Court Oath• The king gathered troops around Versailles• 14 July 1789: Storming of the Bastille• July-August 1789: La Grande Peur• August Decrees: o Abolished Feudalism: seigneurial rights (administer laws, taxes) and tithes from the clergy o Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
Constitutional Monarchy (October 1791-August 1792)•Powers: o Elected Assembly o King o Constitution•Flight to Varennes ( June 1791)•National Assembly declared war to Austria•They lost the war•Insurrection of August → Riots all-around Paris•National Convention
National Convention (1792- 95)• New Constitution (Popular Sovereignty)• New Regime → Republic• New Calendar (20th September: I Year)• Political Groups – The Mountain (montagnards) – The Girondins• Committee of Public Safety controlled by Robespierre• 21st January 1973: Louis XVI was executed
• They imposed a policy of terror• 40.000 people died• Protests in the countryside against the Revolution: La Vendée• Levée en masse (Leva en masa). All single men were required to join the army• Military victories• Social Laws: prices for the bread, for the salaries, right to work…
• People grew tired of the Reign of Terror• Army was becoming more prominent• July 1794 →• Coup of Termidor→• The Directory
The Directory (1795-1799)• It’s a reaction against the radicalism of jacobins and a return to the moderate ideas of the first moments of the revolution.• The political power is controlled again by the upper classes → upper bourgeoisie• New Constitution – More moderate – Two Courts – Executive power controlled by 5 members in order to avoid a new Dictatorship. It’s called “The Directory”
• Strong Repression: Robespierre & 84 people were executed• Double opposition Royalists (support Bourbons) Jacobins• The Army was winning great victories • Napoleon: Italian Campaign & Egiptian expedition (defeated by Nelson)• The Directory lost support in France, people began to look for a strong leader.• November, 1799: Coup of Brumario →• The Consulate: Bonaparte, Sièyes and Ducos.
Achievements of French Revolution• The privileges of nobles and clergy were abolished• The nobles wouldn’t administer justice anymore• Taxes were unified• Constitutions : that will control the power of monarchs• Separation of powers• Elections• Political parties• Newspapers
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.