1. Introduction• The French society will undergo an epic transformation:• Feudal Aristocratic privileges evaporated Religious
2. • Different social groups will take an active part in politics:  Bourgeoisie  Mass from the streets  Peasants  Army• Different Political Regimes: Constitutional Monarchy Radical Republic Moderate Republic Empire
3. • Ideas: Enlightment, American Revolution• Social Problems: Three Estates (anachronic)• Economical Problems: Deficit (American War of Independence)• Political Crisis: Burgesses wanted to take an active part in politic
4. Phases The Estates-General (1789) The Constituent Assembly (1789-1791) The Constitutional Monarchy (1791-1792) The National Convention (1792 – 1795)  The Girondin Convention (1792-1793)  The Jacobin Convention (1793-1795) (Reign of Terror) The Directory (1795-1799)
5. Estates-General (1789)• Louis XVI called the meeting of the Estates General• Cahiers de Doleances → Great expectations• 5 May 1789: Estates General• Problem with the voting system: – Nobles & Clergy: wanted a vote per Estate. – Third Estate: wanted a vote per person.
6. National Assembly (1789-1792)• 17 June: The Third Estate declared himself to be the “National Assembly” and to represent the Nation.• 3 Days Later: they moved to the Tennis Court• Tennis Court Oath• The king gathered troops around Versailles• 14 July 1789: Storming of the Bastille• July-August 1789: La Grande Peur• August Decrees: o Abolished Feudalism: seigneurial rights (administer laws, taxes) and tithes from the clergy o Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
7. Tennis Court Oath
8. Storming of The Bastille
9. Constitutional Monarchy (October 1791-August 1792)•Powers: o Elected Assembly o King o Constitution•Flight to Varennes ( June 1791)•National Assembly declared war to Austria•They lost the war•Insurrection of August → Riots all-around Paris•National Convention
10. National Convention (1792- 95)• New Constitution (Popular Sovereignty)• New Regime → Republic• New Calendar (20th September: I Year)• Political Groups – The Mountain (montagnards) – The Girondins• Committee of Public Safety controlled by Robespierre• 21st January 1973: Louis XVI was executed
11. Public Execution of Luis XVI Robespierre
12. • They imposed a policy of terror• 40.000 people died• Protests in the countryside against the Revolution: La Vendée• Levée en masse (Leva en masa). All single men were required to join the army• Military victories• Social Laws: prices for the bread, for the salaries, right to work…
13. • People grew tired of the Reign of Terror• Army was becoming more prominent• July 1794 →• Coup of Termidor→• The Directory
14. The Directory (1795-1799)• It’s a reaction against the radicalism of jacobins and a return to the moderate ideas of the first moments of the revolution.• The political power is controlled again by the upper classes → upper bourgeoisie• New Constitution – More moderate – Two Courts – Executive power controlled by 5 members in order to avoid a new Dictatorship. It’s called “The Directory”
15. • Strong Repression: Robespierre & 84 people were executed• Double opposition  Royalists (support Bourbons)  Jacobins• The Army was winning great victories • Napoleon: Italian Campaign & Egiptian expedition (defeated by Nelson)• The Directory lost support in France, people began to look for a strong leader.• November, 1799: Coup of Brumario →• The Consulate: Bonaparte, Sièyes and Ducos.
16. Bonaparte in the 18th Brumaire
17. Achievements of French Revolution• The privileges of nobles and clergy were abolished• The nobles wouldn’t administer justice anymore• Taxes were unified• Constitutions : that will control the power of monarchs• Separation of powers• Elections• Political parties• Newspapers