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Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
Training for Self Government
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Training for Self Government

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  1. CHAPTER 17CHAPTER 17 TRAINING FOR SELF-TRAINING FOR SELF- GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT (1907-9121)(1907-9121)
  2. With theWith the existence of general peaceexistence of general peace and order, the Americans had theand order, the Americans had the opportunity to put into practice whatopportunity to put into practice what their leaders in Washington, D.C.their leaders in Washington, D.C. had PROMISED:had PROMISED: 1. To give the Filipinos the benefit of wise1. To give the Filipinos the benefit of wise and just administration;and just administration; 2. To give the Filipinos civil liberties they2. To give the Filipinos civil liberties they never enjoy under the Spanishnever enjoy under the Spanish colonial rule and;colonial rule and;
  3. 3. To train the Filipinos in self-government as3. To train the Filipinos in self-government as preparation for independence, a concept unheard ofpreparation for independence, a concept unheard of under Spain.under Spain.  But like other colonial pronouncements, suchBut like other colonial pronouncements, such promises could mean TWO THINGS.promises could mean TWO THINGS. First, The American policy in the training ofFirst, The American policy in the training of Filipinos in self-government meant that theFilipinos in self-government meant that the Americans did not believe that the FilipinosAmericans did not believe that the Filipinos were ready for independence.were ready for independence. Second, it also meant that the Americans wereSecond, it also meant that the Americans were not yet willing to give up the Philippines asnot yet willing to give up the Philippines as their colony.their colony.
  4. Thus, the government established by theThus, the government established by the Americans, by and large, was a governmentAmericans, by and large, was a government controlled by the Americans with the Filipinos INcontrolled by the Americans with the Filipinos IN CHARGE of RUNNING OR OPERATING;CHARGE of RUNNING OR OPERATING;  Filipinos who were wealthy and educated,Filipinos who were wealthy and educated,  Pro- Americans and westernized in theirPro- Americans and westernized in their lifestyles.lifestyles.
  5. The Americans took several steps to train inThe Americans took several steps to train in Filipinos for self-government before the grant ofFilipinos for self-government before the grant of independence.independence.  First, they passed the COOPER LAW or theFirst, they passed the COOPER LAW or the Philippine Bill of 1902. this law was responsible forPhilippine Bill of 1902. this law was responsible for the establishment of the Philippine Assembly,the establishment of the Philippine Assembly, which gave Filipinos the right to be represented inwhich gave Filipinos the right to be represented in the lawmaking body through their electedthe lawmaking body through their elected delegates to the Assembly.delegates to the Assembly.  Second, the Americans passed the Jones Law inSecond, the Americans passed the Jones Law in 1916, which handed over both houses of the1916, which handed over both houses of the lawmaking body exclusively to the Filipinos. It alsolawmaking body exclusively to the Filipinos. It also promised to grant independence to the Filipinos “promised to grant independence to the Filipinos “ as soon as a stable government [could] beas soon as a stable government [could] be established therin.established therin.
  6. * Third, the Americans under* Third, the Americans under Governor-GeneralGovernor-General FrancisFrancis Burton HarrisonBurton Harrison gave the Filipinos greatergave the Filipinos greater participation in the government. This was done byparticipation in the government. This was done by employing trained Filipinos in low and high positionsemploying trained Filipinos in low and high positions in the government. This process was calledin the government. This process was called FILIPINIZATION.FILIPINIZATION.  Fourth, the American Congress passed theFourth, the American Congress passed the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934 which providedwhich provided for the establishment of a transitionfor the establishment of a transition government called Commonwealth. At thegovernment called Commonwealth. At the end of this transition period, the Philippinesend of this transition period, the Philippines would finally be given her independence.would finally be given her independence.
  7. The PHILIPPINE COMMISSION which was theThe PHILIPPINE COMMISSION which was the lawmaking body during the early years oflawmaking body during the early years of American occupation the Philippine, passed theAmerican occupation the Philippine, passed the MUNICIPAL CODE ACT.MUNICIPAL CODE ACT. The municipal government was to beThe municipal government was to be administered by the following elected officials:administered by the following elected officials: >> the municipal presidentthe municipal president >> the municipal vice president andthe municipal vice president and >> the municipal council.the municipal council. these officials were to be elected everythese officials were to be elected every two years.two years.
  8. GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT REORGANIZATIONREORGANIZATION  To make the reorganization of localTo make the reorganization of local governments effective and systematic, agovernments effective and systematic, a committee composed of two Filipino lawyerscommittee composed of two Filipino lawyers and three American military officers wasand three American military officers was created. This committee formulated plans forcreated. This committee formulated plans for the reorganization of the municipal governmentthe reorganization of the municipal government throughout the areas under Americanthroughout the areas under American jurisdiction.jurisdiction.
  9. The QUALIFIED VOTERS were males, twenty- threeThe QUALIFIED VOTERS were males, twenty- three years old and over, has resided in the municipality for atyears old and over, has resided in the municipality for at least six months, had held a position in the townleast six months, had held a position in the town government during the Spanish period, or ownedgovernment during the Spanish period, or owned property worth 500 pesos, or paid taxes worth 30 pesosproperty worth 500 pesos, or paid taxes worth 30 pesos a year, and who could speak and write in English ora year, and who could speak and write in English or Spanish. This law was restrictive because it only grantedSpanish. This law was restrictive because it only granted the highly- educated or propertied males the right tothe highly- educated or propertied males the right to vote.vote. The women, the poor, and the less-educated peopleThe women, the poor, and the less-educated people were not given the same right. The effect of suchwere not given the same right. The effect of such law to perpetuate the rule of the principalia or elitelaw to perpetuate the rule of the principalia or elite groups.groups.
  10. The Philippine Commission also reorganized theThe Philippine Commission also reorganized the provincial government by passing the PROVINCIALprovincial government by passing the PROVINCIAL CODE ACT. According to this law, the provincialCODE ACT. According to this law, the provincial government was to be administered by a boardgovernment was to be administered by a board composed of a governor, a treasurer, and acomposed of a governor, a treasurer, and a supervisor.supervisor.  The governor was to be elected by the qualifiedThe governor was to be elected by the qualified voters of the province for a term of two years.voters of the province for a term of two years.  The treasurer and the supervisor were to beThe treasurer and the supervisor were to be appointed. These appointive officials wereappointed. These appointive officials were Americans in the early years of the AmericanAmericans in the early years of the American rule.rule.
  11. THE CIVIL SERVICETHE CIVIL SERVICE In 1900, the Philippine Commission passed theIn 1900, the Philippine Commission passed the CIVIL SERVICE ACT. According to this law,CIVIL SERVICE ACT. According to this law, all government, shall be placed under theall government, shall be placed under the administrative control of the bureau of civiladministrative control of the bureau of civil service. The introduction of the civil also setservice. The introduction of the civil also set up the MERIT SYSTEM in which individualup the MERIT SYSTEM in which individual positive qualities and abilities, and nothingpositive qualities and abilities, and nothing else, counted when it came to promotions.else, counted when it came to promotions.
  12. EMPLOYMENT OF FILIPINOSEMPLOYMENT OF FILIPINOS the American authorities in the Philippines gave highly-the American authorities in the Philippines gave highly- educated and pro-American Filipinos seats in the Philippineeducated and pro-American Filipinos seats in the Philippine Commission. In 1901, three Filipinos of known pro-AmericansCommission. In 1901, three Filipinos of known pro-Americans stance were appointed to the Commission.stance were appointed to the Commission. These Filipinos are:These Filipinos are: *Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, the founder of the pro-American*Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, the founder of the pro-American Federal Party.Federal Party. *Jose Luzuriaga, and*Jose Luzuriaga, and *Benito Legarda*Benito Legarda When FRANCIS BURTON HARRISON became governor-When FRANCIS BURTON HARRISON became governor- general, he increased the number of Filipinos in thegeneral, he increased the number of Filipinos in the Commission.Commission. The FIRST CHIEF JUSTICE was CAYETANO ARELLANO.The FIRST CHIEF JUSTICE was CAYETANO ARELLANO.
  13. THE HARRISON APPOINTMENTTHE HARRISON APPOINTMENT During the presidential election of 1912, the DemocraticDuring the presidential election of 1912, the Democratic Party candidate, WOODROW WILSON, announcedParty candidate, WOODROW WILSON, announced an opposite view. He was in favor of grantingan opposite view. He was in favor of granting independence to the Philippines. Wilson was electedindependence to the Philippines. Wilson was elected president, and soon after he sent an investigator to thepresident, and soon after he sent an investigator to the Philippine to study condition of the country.Philippine to study condition of the country. The investigator, HENRY FORD JONES, reported toThe investigator, HENRY FORD JONES, reported to Wilson that the Filipinos had the capacity to governWilson that the Filipinos had the capacity to govern themselves.themselves. Wilson, in order to show his good faith in favoringWilson, in order to show his good faith in favoring independence for the Filipinos , appointed FRANCISindependence for the Filipinos , appointed FRANCIS BURTON HARRISON of New York as governor-BURTON HARRISON of New York as governor- general of the Philippines. Harrison was known to begeneral of the Philippines. Harrison was known to be sympathetic to Filipino aspirations.sympathetic to Filipino aspirations.
  14. FILIPINIZATION UNDER HARRISONFILIPINIZATION UNDER HARRISON Filipinization, or the placing of the government in the hands ofFilipinization, or the placing of the government in the hands of Filipino administrators, was governor Taft’s idea. His policy ofFilipino administrators, was governor Taft’s idea. His policy of the “ Philippines for the Filipinos ” was the beginning ofthe “ Philippines for the Filipinos ” was the beginning of Filinization.Filinization. THE JONES LAWTHE JONES LAW Jones Act of 1916, it started in the Preamble that the PhilippinesJones Act of 1916, it started in the Preamble that the Philippines would be granted independence “as soon as a stablewould be granted independence “as soon as a stable government [could] be established therein.” Toward this end,government [could] be established therein.” Toward this end, the Jones Act provided that the domestic affairs of thethe Jones Act provided that the domestic affairs of the Filipinos should be administrered by them so that “they mayFilipinos should be administrered by them so that “they may be better prepared to fully assume the responsibilities andbe better prepared to fully assume the responsibilities and enjoy the privileges of complete independence.”enjoy the privileges of complete independence.”
  15. IMPORTANT PROVISIONSIMPORTANT PROVISIONS The government was to have three branches – theThe government was to have three branches – the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.executive, the legislative, and the judicial. * the EXECUTIVE branch was headed by the* the EXECUTIVE branch was headed by the governor-general who was to be appointed by thegovernor-general who was to be appointed by the President of the united states with the approval ofPresident of the united states with the approval of the American Senate. The vice governor, also anthe American Senate. The vice governor, also an American, was to be appointed in the same mannerAmerican, was to be appointed in the same manner as the governor-general.as the governor-general. * The LEGISLATIVE power or the power to make a* The LEGISLATIVE power or the power to make a laws was vested in the Philippine Legislature.laws was vested in the Philippine Legislature.
  16. Legislative was composed of two houses:Legislative was composed of two houses: 1. the Upper House or the Senate and,1. the Upper House or the Senate and, 2. the Lower House or the house of2. the Lower House or the house of representatives.representatives. The JUDICIAL POWER, on the other hand, wasThe JUDICIAL POWER, on the other hand, was exercised by the Supreme Court and the lowerexercised by the Supreme Court and the lower courts of justice.courts of justice. The most important provision of the Jones Law wasThe most important provision of the Jones Law was the BILL OF RIGHTS, this provision enumerated thethe BILL OF RIGHTS, this provision enumerated the civil rights of the Filipino people. These include thecivil rights of the Filipino people. These include the freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedomfreedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom from illegal search, freedom to assemble for thefrom illegal search, freedom to assemble for the redress of grievances, and other rights exercised byredress of grievances, and other rights exercised by people in democratic countries.people in democratic countries.
  17. THE LEGISLATURETHE LEGISLATURE The Philippine Legislature under the Jones Law wasThe Philippine Legislature under the Jones Law was inaugurated in Manila on October 16, 1916. theyinaugurated in Manila on October 16, 1916. they could pass laws subject to the votoes of thecould pass laws subject to the votoes of the American governor-general and the U.S President.American governor-general and the U.S President. THE COUNCIL OF STATETHE COUNCIL OF STATE Acting on the suggestion of speaker Osmenia, heActing on the suggestion of speaker Osmenia, he created the council of state. This was composed of thecreated the council of state. This was composed of the governor-general acting as chairman, the speaker ofgovernor-general acting as chairman, the speaker of the house, the senate president, and the members ofthe house, the senate president, and the members of the cabinet.the cabinet.
  18. Gavilo, Geline L.Gavilo, Geline L.

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