PROJECT REPORT 2013-14
PROJECT SUBMITTED TO
PROF. ANUBHA WALIA
1:- ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
3:- LEARNING & RE-ENFORCEMENT
4:- STRESS MANAGEMENT
6:- TEAM WORK & GROUP DYANMICS
!0:- CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION
11:- ATTITUDE AND VALUE
!2:- INTER AND INTRA PERSONAL
Meaning of organisational behaviour:-
It is the study of human behaviour, attitudes and performance in an organisation. It is the study of what
people think, feel and do, in and around organisation.
The Classical Era (1880 – 1930):-
The classical management era lasted from about 1880 to 1930. During this time the general theories of
management began to evolve. They are as follows:
1) Administrative Theory:
It is also called the universal process school of management. This theory was given by HENRY FAYOL
in the year 1916. Fayol a French industrialist divided the manager‘s job into 5 functions: planning,
organising, command, coordination and control. He then gave 14 universal principal of management.
They are as follows-
1. Division of Work- Specialization allows the individual to build up experience, and to continuously
improve his skills. Thereby he can be more productive.
2. Authority-The right to issue commands, along with which must go the balanced responsibility for its
3. Discipline-Employees must obey, but this is two-sided: employees will only obey orders if management
play their part by providing good leadership.
4. Unity of Command-Each worker should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of
5. Unity of Direction- People engaged in the same kind of activities must have the same objectives in a
single plan. This is essential to ensure unity and coordination in the enterprise. Unity of command does not
exist without unity of direction but does not necessarily flows from it.
6. Subordination of individual interest (to the general interest) -Management must see that the
goals of the firms are always paramount.
7. Remuneration-Payment is an important motivator although by analysing a number of possibilities,
Fayol points out that there is no such thing as a perfect system.
8. Centralization (or Decentralization) -This is a matter of degree depending on the condition of the
business and the quality of its personnel.
9. Scalar chain (Line of Authority) -A hierarchy is necessary for unity of direction. But lateral
communication is also fundamental, as long as superiors know that such communication is taking place.
Scalar chain refers to the number of levels in the hierarchy from the ultimate authority to the lowest level in
the organization. It should not be over-stretched and consist of too-many levels.
10. Order-Both material order and social order are necessary. The former minimizes lost time and useless
handling of materials. The latter is achieved through organization and selection.
11. Equity-In running a business a ‗combination of kindliness and justice‘ is needed. Treating employees
well is important to achieve equity.
12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel-Employees work better if job security and career progress are
assured to them. An insecure tenure and a high rate of employee turnover will affect the organization
13. Initiative-Allowing all personnel to show their initiative in some way is a source of strength for the
organization. Even though it may well involve a sacrifice of ‗personal vanity‘ on the part of many managers.
14. Esprit de Corps-Management must foster the morale of its employees. He further suggests that: ―real
talent is needed to coordinate effort, encourage keenness, use each person‘s abilities, and reward each one‘s
merit without arousing possible jealousies and disturbing harmonious relations.‖
2) Scientific Management Theory:
This theory was given by FREDRICK TAYLOR in 1911. It means management that conducts business or
affairs by standards established by facts or truths gained through systematic observation, experiments or
reasoning. Taylor was known as the ―Father of Scientific Management‖. Taylor devised four principles for
scientific management theory, which were:
1. The development of a true science of management,
2. The scientific selection and training of workers,
3. Proper remuneration for fast and high-quality work
4. Equal division of work and responsibility between worker and manager.
3) Bureaucracy Theory:
Max Weber a German sociologist propounded the theory called principle of bureaucracy – a theory related
to authority structure and relations in the 19th
century. According to him, bureaucracy is the formal system
of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. He suggested an ideal
model for management as bureaucratic approach. He, in the book the theory of social and economic
organizations, explained the basic principles of bureaucracy. He gave emphasis on division of labour,
hierarchy, detailed rules and impersonal relations.
Principles of Bureaucratic Theory:
1) Job specialization: - Jobs are divided into simple, routine and fixed category based on competence
and functional specialization.
2) Authority hierarchy: - Officers are organized in a hierarchy in which higher officer controls lower
position holders i.e. superior controls subordinates and their performance of subordinates and lower staff
could be controlled.
3) Formal selection: - All organizational members are to be selected on the basis of technical
qualifications and competence demonstrated by training, education or formal examination.
4) Formal rules and regulations: - To ensure uniformity and to regulate actions employees, managers
must depend heavily upon formal organizational rules and regulations. Thus, rules of law lead to
impersonality in interpersonal relations.
5) Impersonality: - Rules and controls are applied uniformly, avoiding involvement with personalities
and preferences of employees. Nepotism and favouritism are not preferred.
6) Career orientation: - Career building opportunity is offered highly. Lifelong employment and
adequate protection of individuals against arbitrary dismissal is guaranteed. Here managers are professional
officials rather than owners units they manage. They work for a fixed salaries and pursue their career within
The Behavioural Era (1930 – 1960):-
A unique combination of factors fostered the emergence of the behavioural era during the 1930‘s. The first
was that the management began looking for new ways of handling employees. Second was, the behavioural
scientists conducting on-the-job research started calling for more attention to the ―human‖ factor. And under
this one study took place named as:
1)Hawthorne Legacy Theory:
The Hawthorne effect is a psychological phenomenon in which participants in behavioural studies
change their behaviour or performance in response to being observed by the individual conducting the study.
In the workplace, the Hawthorne effect can explain how the more attention an employee receives from
managers, co-workers and customers, the higher the level of effort and employee productivity. Essentially,
productivity increases when employees think that they are being watched or observed closely.
The term 'Hawthorne effect' was derived from the location where the phenomenon was first witnessed
during a series of experiments designed to find ways to increase worker productivity. The Hawthorne
experiments consisted of two studies: one on lighting levels at Western Electric Company's
Hawthorne Works and the other on offering special privileges to five bank workers. What was not
blatantly obvious at the time soon became a staple of behavioural management theory. That is, it is
important to consider the social and human relations needs of workers. Such needs have a direct effect on
employee performance and levels of productivity.
The Modern Era (1960 onwards):-
This era was started from 1960 onwards. Here new theories came into existence due to changes in the
environment and the organisation. The theories are as follows:
1) Theory X:
Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book
'The Human Side of Enterprise'. Theory X and theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of
management and motivation.
Theory X is also known as an ―authoritarian management style‖, which states that:
The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can.
Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organisational
The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and
wants security above all else.
2) Theory Y:
Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book
'The Human Side of Enterprise'. Theory X and theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of
management and motivation.
Theory Y is also known as ―participative management style‖, which states that:
Effort in work is as natural as work and play.
People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without
external control or the threat of punishment.
Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.
People usually accept and often seek responsibility.
The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organisational
problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.
In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilised.
3) Contingency Theory:
According to the pair of contingency theorists (TosiJr and Slocum Jr 1984), contingency theories developed
and their acceptance grew because they respond to criticisms that the classical theorists advocated ―one best
way‖ of organising and managing.
Contingency theories propose that the appropriate organisational structure and management
styles are dependent upon a set of ―contingency‖ factors, usually the uncertainty and instability of the
The contingency approach encourages managers to view organisational behaviour within a
Organisational behaviour scholars should embrace the contingency approach because it helps
them realistically interrelate individuals, groups and organisations.
4) System Theory – I/P PROCESS O/P:
The systems framework is also fundamental to organizational theory as organisations are complex dynamic
goal-oriented processes. One of the early thinkers in the field was Alexander Bogdanva who developed
his Tectology, a theory widely considered a precursor of Bertalanffy‘s General Systems Theory, aiming to
model and design human organizations. Kurt Lewin was particularly influential in developing the systems
perspective within organizational theory and coined the term "systems of ideology", from his frustration
with behavioural psychologies that became an obstacle to sustainable work in psychology. The complexity
theory perspective on organizations is another systems view of organizations. German sociologist Nikolas
Luhmann (1927 - 1998) developed a sociological system theory and describes organisations-
alongside interactions and society - as one of three main entities.
The systems approach to organizations relies heavily upon achieving negative
entropy through openness and feedback. A systemic view on organizations is Trans disciplinary and
integrative. In other words, it transcends the perspectives of individual disciplines, integrating them on the
basis of a common "code", or more exactly, on the basis of the formal apparatus provided by systems theory.
The systems approach gives primacy to the interrelationships, not to the elements of the system. It is from
these dynamic interrelationships that new properties of the system emerge.
EMERGING ISSUES IN ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR:-
It is a process of increasing the connectivity and interdependence of the world‘s markets and businesses.
It is a continuous process of ensuring that every aspect of production builds quality into the product.
b) JUST-IN-TIME (JIT):
Just- in- time inventory system is designed to minimize the storage and the holding costs by ensuring the
timely delivery of materials and supplies whenever needed.
Diversity can be defined as a mixture of people who vary by age, gender, race, religion and / or lifestyle.
Some of the challenges that the organisation face with the diverse workforce are;
a) Language differences
b) National ethnic grouping
c) Attitude and cultural differences
Ethics refers to the study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and
outcomes are good or bad.
CODE OF ETHICS:
Code of ethics is a document describing what the organisation stands for and the general rules of conducts
expected of employees.
An ethics audit involves actively investigating and documenting incidents of dubious ethical value.
It is the process reducing the number of employees needed to operate effectively in an organisation.
It is a process that is directed at adjusting the number of employees needed to work in a newly designed
It is the process of eliminating those parts of organisations that focus on non-core sections of business and
hiring outside firms to perform these functions instead.
A virtual corporation is a highly flexible, temporary organisation formed by a group of companies that join
forces to exploit a specific opportunity.
It is the practice of using communications technology to enable work to be performed from remote
locations, such as home.
Benchmarking involves comparing one‘s own products or services with the best from other firms so as to
QUALITY CONTROL AUDIT:
Quality control audit is conducted to ensure the meeting of quality standards in the organisation.
It is defined as the fundamental re-thinking and radical redesigning of business processes to achieve drastic
improvement in performance.
Learning organisation is a place where new patterns of thinking are nurtured and people are continually
learning how to learn together.
Skills are abilities related to performance that can be learned. It is divided into 4 parts:
1. Technical Skills –It involves the ability to apply specific methods, procedures and techniques in a
2.Interpersonal Skills –It include the ability to lead, motivate, manage conflict, conduct group meetings
and work with others.
3. Conceptual Skills – It involves viewing the organisation as a whole and applying planning and
4. Communication Skills –It involve the ability to send and receive information and to convey and
understand thoughts, feelings and attitudes.
To do the job effectively, managers need to perform certain roles in the organisations. Roles can be defined
as a set of behaviours associated with a particular job in an organisation. According to HENRY
MINTZBERG, there are 10 different managerial roles. And these 10 roles fall into 3 major categories:
(A) INTERPERSONAL ROLES –It refers relationships with others and flow directly from a
manager‘s formal authority. It has 3 sub divisions:
1. Figurehead role– performing ceremonial duties.
2. Leader role – hiring, training and motivating subordinates.
3. Liaison role – making contacts with the outside world for the benefit of the organisation.
(B) INFORMATIONAL ROLES –Through their informational roles, managers build a network of
contacts. It has 3 sub divisions:
1. Monitor – scanning environment for relevant information, receiving unsolicited information.
2. Disseminator – passing along selected privileged information to subordinates.
3. Spokesperson – transmitting selected information to people.
(C) DECISIONAL ROLES –In their decisional roles, managers commit the organisation to future
courses of action. It has 4 sub divisions:
1. Entrepreneur – formulating and introducing changes, initiating new objects.
2. Disturbance handler – responding involuntarily top pressure non-routine situations.
3. Resource allocator – determining who will get what resources.
4. Negotiator – participating in negotiating sessions with other parties.
ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR FRAMEWORK:-
The framework for understanding the behaviour of employees in organisations consists of 5 basic
1. The environment
2. Individual processes – It comprises of the following:
Values and attitudes
Learning and reinforcement
3. Interpersonal and group processes– It comprises of the following:
Dynamics within teams
Dynamics between teams
Leadership and negotiation
4. Organizational processes –It comprises of the following:
Power and political behaviour
5. Change processes –It comprises of the following:
Nature of planned organizational change
Approach to planned organizational change
All of the above 5 components are interrelated with each other, that shows the behaviour of employees in an
Motivation is defined as individual‘s intention or willingness to put maximum effort in his/her work to reach
organizational goals and enhance one‘s ability to satisfy some individual needs. The cyclic process of
motivation starts from unsatisfied needsTensionDrivesSearch BehaviorSatisfied
Needto end with Reduced Tension. There are three major elements related to motivation: Effort, Goals
It refers to an individual‘s intensity in reaching the stated goal. The intensity varies fromIndividual to
individual and also depends upon the extent to which individual assignsImportance to various goals. If these
efforts are channeled in proper direction consistentWith organizational goals, the organization will
maximize its profit and reach a state ofExcellence in their field.
It refers to some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. It is also aState of deficiency
and the organism tries to restore this deficiency to make it as Equilibrium. An unsatisfied need creates
tension that stimulates drives within an Individual. These drives direct the individual in different directions
or searching in different places to find a particular goal, If the goal is attained the organism will satisfy
the need and reduce the tension.
Human behavior is always goal directed. Once the desired goal is satisfied, individualswill always restate
the goals or look for other goals to get satisfied. Goals will always bechanging from one level to another. In
order to motivate an individual, managers mustensure to set a goal in such a way which stimulates him or
her to put more effort in theirwork. An effective way to set goals is to follow the SMART approach, which
states thatgoals should meet five characteristics:
5. Timely or Time LimitedIf the chosen
1: MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEED
This motivation theory was originally developed in clinic from study of neurotic. This theory was proposed
by Abraham Maslow in 1943 and is based on the assumption that people are motivated by a series of five
universal needs. These needs are ranked, according to the order in which they influence human behaviour, in
1:Physiological needs are deemed to be the lowest- level needs. These needs include the needs such as
2: Thus, safety needs -- the needs for shelter and security -- become the motivators of human behaviour.
3:Social needs include the need for belongingness and love.
4:After social needs have been satisfied,ego and esteem needs become the motivating needs
5:self-actualization; the need for self-realization, continuous self-development, and the process of
becoming all that a person is capable of becoming.
2: HERZBERG’S MOTIVATOR HYGEINE THEORY
Also known as the Motivation-Hygiene Theory. It was found by Frederick Herzberg in 1959. It consists of
two factorsMOTIVATOR AND HYGIENEwhich are the primary cause of job satisfaction and
Herzberg's study consisted of a series of interviews that sought to elicit responses to the questions:
Love or belongings
(1) Recall a time when you felt exceptionally good about your job. Why did you feel that way about the job?
Did this feeling affect your job performance in any way? Did this feeling have an impact on your personal
relationships or your well- being?
(2) Recall a time on the job that resulted in negative feelings? Describe the sequence of events that resulted
in these negative feelings.
1) SATISFACTION (MOTIVATION): Five factors stood out as strong determiners of job
2)DISSATISFACTION (HYGIENE):The determinants of job dissatisfaction were found to be:
3: Two-factor Theory:-
TWO FACTOR THEORIES EMERGED FROM HERZBERG’S MOTIVATOR
HYGEINE THEORY. In this Herzeberg envisaged that the best way to improve the job was to enrich it.
Jod enrichment includes giving a job greater scope (variety) and depth (responsibility and control).
4: David McClelland
It was Henry Murray in 1938 defined the need of achievement as desire. According to David McClelland in
1971, regardless of culture or gender, people are driven by three motives:
Achievement:The need for achievement is characterized by the wish to take responsibility for finding
solutions to problems, master complex tasks, set goals, and get feedback on level of success.
Affiliation:The need for affiliation is characterized by a desire to belong, an enjoyment of teamwork, a
concern about interpersonal relationships, and a need to reduce uncertainty.
Power:The need for power is characterized by a drive to control and influence others, a need to win
arguments, a need to persuade and prevail
5:> ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY
Clayton Alderfer in late 1960 reworked Maslow's Need Hierarchy to align it more closely with empirical
research. Alderfer's theory is called the ERG theory -- Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.
• Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements; what Maslow called
physiological and safety needs.
• Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships; similar to
Maslow's social/love need, and the external component of his esteem need.
• Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development; the intrinsic component of Maslow's
esteem need, and self-actualization
Level of Need Definition Properties
Growth Impel a person to make
creative or productive effects
on himself and his
Satisfied through using
capabilities in engaging
problems; creates a greater
sense of wholeness and
fullness as a human being
Relatedness Involve relationships with
Satisfied by mutually sharing
thoughts and feelings;
under- standing, and
influence are elements
Existence Includes all of the various
forms of material and
When divided among people
one person's gain is another's
loss if resources are limited
7: Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor observed two diametrically opposing viewpoints of managers about their employees,
one is negative called ―Theory of X‖ and one is positive called ―Theory of Y‖
a) Theory of X: Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the ―Theory of X‖ in
regard to their employees.
• Employees dislike work; if possible avoid the same
• Employees must be coerced, controlled or threatened to do the work
• Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction
• Most employees consider security of job, most important of all other factors in the job and have
very little ambition
b) Theory of Y: Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the ―Theory of Y‖ in
regard to their employees.
• Employees love work as play or rest
• Employees are self-directed and self-controlled and committed to the organizational objectives
• Employees accept and seek responsibilities
• Innovative spirit is not confined to managers alone, some employees also possess it.
Theory of X assumes Maslow‘s lower level needs dominate in employees. Whereas Theory of Y, assumes
Maslow‘s higher level needs dominate in employees.
8: Porter and Lawler’s model in 1968:
After identifying the flaw in content model of motivation and VROOMS EXPECTENCY THEORYin
terms of their inability to correctly diagnose the relationship between performance and job satisfaction,
brought forward the improved model.
Basically, Porter and Lawler‘s model (shown below) shows that the amount of effort generated depend
The value of the reward
The amount of effort seen to be necessary
The probability of receiving the reward
9: C Argyris
Even though management based on the assumptions of Theory X is perhaps nolonger appropriate in the
opinion of McGregor and others, it is still widelypracticed. Consequently a large majority of the people in
organisations todayare treated as immature human beings in their working environment.
In attempting to analyse the situation, Argyris compared bureaucratic/pyramidalvalues (the organisation‘s
counterpart to Theory X assumptions) that still dominatemost organisations with a more
humanistic/democratic value system (Theory Yassumptions about people).
Equity theory was first developed in 1963 by John Stacey Adams. Motivation is affected by one‘s
perception (accurate or inaccurate) of the relative outcome (rewards) one receives and inputs (efforts) one
exerts in comparison to others. If ―O‖ indicates Outcomes. ―I‖ indicates inputs. For individuals ―a‖ and ―b‖:
Comparison Perception of a If O/Ia< O/Ib Inequity (under rewarded) If O/IA = O/Ib Equity
If O/Ia> O/Ib Inequity (over rewarded)When people sense inequities in their work they will be aroused
to remove theDiscomfort and restore a state of felt equity to the situation by:
1: changing work inputs
2: changing rewards received
3: leaving the situation
4: changing the comparison points
5: psychologically distorting the comparisons
8:> Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
In recent years, probably the most popular motivational theory has been the Expectancy Theory (also known
as the Valence-Instrumentality- Expectancy Theory). Although there are a number of theories found with
this general title, they all have their roots in Victor Vroom's 1964 work on motivation.
Value of reward
Vroom's theory assumes that behaviour results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it
is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. The key elements to this theory are referred to as Expectancy
(E), Instrumentality (I), and Valence (V).Expectancy refers to the strength of a person's belief about whether
or not a particular job performance is attainable.Instrumentality as a probability belief linking one outcome
(a high level of performance, for example) to another outcome (a reward).Valence refers to the emotional
orientations people hold with respect to outcomes (rewards).
Motivational Force = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valance
Goal Setting Theory:
Goal setting theory was developed and refined by Edwin A. Locke in the 1960s. His first article on goal
setting theory was ―Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives‖ which was published in 1968
Work on the theory of goal-setting suggests that an effective tool for making progress is to ensure that
participants in a group with a common goal are clearly aware of what is expected from them.
setting involves establishing specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-
targeted (S.M.A.R.T ) goals.
Setting goals affects outcomes in four ways:
1. Choice: goals narrow attention and direct efforts to goal-relevant activities, and away from perceived
undesirable and goal-irrelevant actions.
2. Effort: goals can lead to more effort; for example, if one typically produces 4 widgets an hour, and
has the goal of producing 6, one may work more intensely towards the goal than one would
3. Persistence: someone becomes more prone to work through setbacks if pursuing a goal.
4. Cognition: goals can lead individuals to develop and change their behaviour.
Much of the work regarding reinforcement began with behavioural psychologists such as Edward
Thorndike, J. B. Watson and B.F. Skinner and their use of animal experiments. B.F. Skinner is famous for
his work on reinforcement and believed that positive reinforcement is superior to punishment in shaping
S In order for goals to translate into motivation and improved
performance, goals must be specific.
M Goals must be measurable to be able to provide progress feedback and to
know when the goal is achieved.
A A goal must be assignable to an individual or a group.
R The goal must be challenging, yet realistic.
T In order for goals to positively affect motivation and performance, goals
must be time-related.
B.F. Skinner in 1971 was a high profile researcher that articulated many of the theoretical constructs of
reinforcement and behaviourism. Skinner defined reinforcer according to the change in response strength
rather than to more subjective criteria, such as what is pleasurable or valuable to someone
The managers use the following methods for controlling the behaviour of the employees:
Positive Reinforcement- This implies giving a positive response when an individual shows
positive and required behaviour. For example - Immediately praising an employee for coming early
for job. This will increase probability of outstanding behaviour occurring again. Reward is a positive
reinforce, but not necessarily..
Negative Reinforcement- This implies rewarding an employee by removing negative /
undesirable consequences. Both positive and negative reinforcement can be used for increasing
desirable / required behaviour.
Punishment- It implies removing positive consequences so as to lower the probability of repeating
undesirable behaviour in future. In other words, punishment means applying undesirable
consequence for showing undesirable behaviour. For instance - Suspending an employee for
breaking the organizational rules. Punishment can be equalized by positive reinforcement from
Extinction- It implies absence of reinforcements. In other words, extinction implies lowering the
probability of undesired behaviour by removing reward for that kind of behaviour. For instance - if
an employee no longer receives praise and admiration for his good work, he may feel that his
behaviour is generating no fruitful consequence.
LEARNING & RE-ENFORCEMENT
Theories of learning
Consider a variety of theories of learning
Identify several principles of learning
Understand how individual differences affect the learning process
There are many different theories of how people learn. What follows is a variety of them, and it is useful to
consider their application to how your students learn and also how you teach in educational programs. It is
interesting to think about your own particular way of learning and to recognise that everyone does not learn
the way you do.
Burns (1995,) 'conceives of learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour with behaviour
including both observable activity and internal processes such as thinking, attitudes and emotions.' It is clear
that Burns includes motivation in this definition of learning. Burns considers that learning might not
manifest itself in observable behaviour until sometime after the educational program has taken place.
Sensory Stimulation Theory:
Traditional sensory stimulation theory has as its basic premise that effective learning occurs when the
senses are stimulated (Laird, 1985). Laird quotes research that found that the vast majority of knowledge
held by adults (75%) is learned through seeing. Hearing is the next most effective (about 13%) and the other
senses - touch, smell and taste account for 12% of what we know. By stimulating the senses, especially the
visual sense, learning can be enhanced. However, this theory says that if multi-senses are stimulated, greater
learning takes place. Stimulation through the senses is achieved through a greater variety of colours, volume
levels, strong statements, facts presented visually, use of a variety of techniques and media.
This theory was developed by the behaviourist school of psychology, notably by B.F. Skinner earlier this
century (Laird 1985, Burns 1995). Skinner believed that behaviour is a function of its consequences. The
learner will repeat the desired behaviour if positive reinforcement (a pleasant consequence) follows the
Positive reinforcement, or 'rewards' can include verbal reinforcement such as 'That's great' or 'You're
certainly on the right track' through to more tangible rewards such as a certificate at the end of the course or
promotion to a higher level in an organisation.
Negative reinforcement also strengthensbehaviour and refers to a situation when a negative condition is
stopped or avoided as a consequence of the behaviour. Punishment, on the other hand, weakens behaviour
because a negative condition is introduced or experienced as a consequence of the behaviour and teaches the
individual not to repeat the behaviour which was negatively reinforced. A set of conditions is created which
are designed to eliminate behaviour (Burns, 1995, p.108). Laird considers this aspect of behaviourism has
little or no relevance to education. However, Burns says that punishment is widely used in everyday life
although it only works for a short time and often only when the punishing agency is present.
Burns notes that much Competency Based Training is based on this theory, and although it is useful in
learning repetitive tasks like multiplication tables and those work skills that require a great deal of practice,
higher order learning is not involved. There is criticism of this approach that it is rigid and mechanical.
The emphasis here is on the importance of experience, meaning, problem-solving and the development of
insights (Burns 1995, p.112). Burns notes that this theory has developed the concept that individuals have
different needs and concerns at different times, and that they have subjective interpretations in different
Holistic learning theory:
The basic premise of this theory is that the 'individual personality consists of many elements ... specifically
... the intellect, emotions, the body impulse (or desire), intuition and imagination (Laird, 1985, p.121) that
all require activation if learning is to be more effective.
Facilitation theory (the humanist approach)
Carl Rogers and others have developed the theory of facilitative learning. The basic premise of this theory is
that learning will occur by the educator acting as a facilitator, that is by establishing an atmosphere in which
learners feel comfortable to consider new ideas and are not threatened by external factors (Laird 1985.)
Other characteristics of this theory include:
a belief that human beings have a natural eagerness to learn there is some resistance to, and unpleasant
consequences of, giving up what is currently held to be true,the most significant learning involves changing
one's concept of oneself.
Facilitative teachers are:
Less protective of their constructs and beliefs than other teachers, more able to listen to learners, especially
to their feelings, inclined to pay as much attention to their relationship with learners as to the content of the
course, apt to accept feedback, both positive and negative and to use it as constructive insight into
themselves and their behaviour.
Are encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning,provide much of the input for the learning
which occurs through their insights and experiences, Are encouraged to consider that the most valuable
evaluation is self-evaluation and that learning needs to focus on factors that contribute to solving significant
problems or achieving significant results.
Kolb proposed a four-stage learning process with a model that is often referred to in describing experiential
learning (McGill &Beatty 1995). The process can begin at any of the stages and is continuous, ie there is no
limit to the number of cycles you can make in a learning situation. This theory asserts that without reflection
we would simply continue to repeat our mistakes. The experiential learning cycle:
Kolb's research found that people learn in four ways with the likelihood of developing one mode of learning
more than another. As shown in the 'experiential learning cycle' model above, learning is:
through concrete experience
through observation and reflection
through abstract conceptualisation
through active experimentation
Differences in learning styles:
As already discussed, the idea that people learn in different ways has been explored over the last few
decades by educational researchers. Kolb, one of the most influential of these, found that individuals begin
with their preferred style in the experiential learning cycle (see above).
Honey and Mumford (1986 cited in McGill &Beatty 1995 p.177) building on Kolb's work, identified four
Activist (enjoys the experience itself),
Reflector (spends a great deal of time and effort reflecting)
Theorist (good at making connections and abstracting ideas from experience)
Pragmatist (enjoys the planning stage)
There are strengths and weaknesses in each of these styles. Honey and Mumford argue that learning is
enhanced when we think about our learning style so that we can build on strengths and work towards
minimising weaknesses to improve the quality of learning.
Action Learning is the approach that links the world of learning with the world of action through a reflective
process within small cooperative learning groups known as 'action learning sets' (McGill &Beatty 1995).
The 'sets' meet regularly to work on individual members' real-life issues with the aim of learning with and
from each other. The 'father' of Action Learning, RegRevans, has said that there can be no learning without
action and no (sober and deliberate) action without learning.
Revans argued that learning can be shown by the following equation, where L is learning; P is programmed
knowledge (e.g. traditional instruction) and Q is questioning insight.
L = P + Q
Revans, along with many others who have used, researched and taught about this approach, argued that
Action Learning is ideal for finding solutions to problems that do not have a 'right' answer because the
necessary questioning insight can be facilitated by people learning with and from each other in action
Adult Learning (Andragogy)
Malcolm Knowles (1978, 1990) is the theorist who brought the concept of adult learning to the fore. He has
argued that adulthood has arrived when people behave in adult ways and believe themselves to be adults.
Then they should be treated as adults. He taught that adult learning was special in a number of ways. For
Adult learners bring a great deal of experience to the learning environment. Educators can use this as
Adults expect to have a high degree of influence on what they are to be educated for, and how they
are to be educated.
The active participation of learners should be encouraged in designing and implementing
Adults need to be able to see applications for new learning.
Adult learners expect to have a high degree of influence on how learning will be evaluated.
Adults expect their responses to be acted upon when asked for feedback on the progress of the
Classical Conditioning Theory:
Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov developed classical conditioning theory. When he was doing a research on
the chemical properties of saliva of dog, he noticed accidentally that the dog started salivating the moment
hearing the sound of a door of cupboard clinging. Based on his observation, he wanted to do some
experiment whether the dog can be conditioned to respond to any neutral stimuli. He used a simple surgical
procedure to operate the salivary glands of a dog to measure accurately the amount of saliva.
Pavlov’s Experiment: Pavlov conducted his experiment in three stages.
Stage I: When Pavlov presented the dog with a piece of meat, the dog exhibited a noticeable increase in
salivation. The meat is unconditional stimulus and salivation is unconditional response
Stage II: In this stage, the dog was not given a peace of meat but only exposed to a sound of ringing bell;
the dog did not salivate to the mere sound of a ringing bell.
Stage III: Pavlov decided to link both the presentation of meat and the ringing of a bell one after the other
with an interval of 5 minutes. After repeatedly hearing the bell before getting the meat, the dog began to
salivate as soon the bell rang. There is an association or link between meat and ringing a bell. After
repeating the association between meat and ringing a bell, the dog started salivating merely at the sound of
the bell, even if no food was offered. The dog is now conditioned to respond to a sound of a bell and started
salivating. This is called classical conditioning process. Thus, classical condition is defined as the formation
of S-R link (Stimulus-Response) or habit between a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response
through the repeated paring of conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
Social Learning Theory
People learn through both observation and direct experience, which is called as social learningtheory.
Individual learn by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about something, as well
as by direct experiences. By observing people around us, mostly from parents, teachers, peers, films and
television performers, bosses, we learn new behavior pattern. Albert Bandura, who has most vigorously
studied observational learning in humans, has emphasized that people observe others to learn not just
specific motor skills (such as driving a car and performing surgery) but also more general modes or styles of
behaving. Bandura demonstrated both of these functions of observational learning – acquiring specific
actions and learning general styles of behavior – in experiments with children. Bandura proposed that
people actively observe the behavior of other people to gain knowledge about the kinds of things that people
do, and use that knowledge in situations where it is useful. Social learning theory gives much importance to
perceptual process. People respond to how they perceive and defy consequences, not to the objective
consequence themselves. The influence of models is key to the social learning process. The following
fourprocesses are vital to determine the influence that a model will have on an individual.
i) Attention Process: People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its
critical features. People tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available similar
to us in our estimation.
ii) Retention Process: A model‘s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the
model‘s action after the model is no longer readily available.
iii) Motor Reproduction Process:After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the
watching must be converted to doing. This process then demonstrates that the individual can perform the
iv) Reinforcement Process: Individual will be motivated to exhibit they modeled behavior if positive
incentives or rewards are provided. Behavior that is positively reinforced will be given more attention,
learned better and performed more often.
The reinforcement theory implies that if a person has a need, then he /she will be motivated to work hard to
achieve the need desired. Furthermore, there is a continuous pattern within reinforcement for consequences
influence behavior and behavior influences consequences. It is important to recognize that people constantly
need to be reinforced for work that is done. Reinforcement is what motivates and derives people to push
REINFORCEMENT THEORY OF MOTIVATION:
Behaviorist B.F. Skinner derived the reinforcement theory, one of the oldest theories- of motivation as way
to explain behavior and why we do what we do. The theory may also be known as behaviorism or operant
conditioning. The theory states that "an individual‘s behavior is a function of its consequences". It is based
on law of effect, i.e. individual‘s behavior with positive consequences trends to be repeated, but individual‘s
behavior with negative consequences trends not to be repeated.
Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state of individual, that is the inner feelings and
drives of individuals are ignore by skinner. This theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual
when he takes some action. Thus, according to skinner, the external environment of the organization must
be designed effectively and positively so as to motivate the employees this theory is a strong tool for
analyzing controlling mechanism for individual‘s behavior. However it does not focus on the causes of
individual‘s behavior. "In understanding why an organism behaves the way it does, skinner saw no place for
dwelling on a person‘s intention or goals". For him, it was outward behavior and its environment that
mattered. His most important contribution to the behavior study was the concept of reinforcement
formalized in his principles of operant conditioning. (In contrast to Ivan Pavlov' principles of classical
Reinforcement theory has been used in many areas of study including animal training raising children and
motivating employees in the workplace. It focuses on observable behavior rather than personal states.
Theory focuses on the environmental factors that contribute to shaping behavior. Reinforcement theory
claims that stimuli are used to shape behaviors. the four primary approaches to the theory are ;
1. Positive reinforcement.
2. Negative reinforcement
TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT:
According to Huitt and Hummel (1997), 4 methods are employed in operant conditioning-
Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and Negative punishment.
The managers use the following methods for controlling the behavior of employees;
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT: It presents pleasant consequences for performing a
desired behavior. That is, a manager recognizes in some way an employee‘s desirable
behavior in completing a task or leading towards achievement of organizational goals.
The administration of positive consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired
behavior in similar settings.
Rewards are not necessarily positive reinforcers
A reward is a positive reinforcer only if the behavior improves.
PRINCIPLES OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT.
(Luthans and Kreitner 1985)
Principle of contingent reinforcement.
Principle of immediate reinforcement.
Principle of reinforcement size.
Principle of deprivation.
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT:in this an unpleasant event is presented before the employee
behavior occurs and then removed when the behavior does occur.
Also known as avoidance.
The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired
behavior in similar settings.
OMISSION/ EXTINCTION:omission means that all reinforcing events are stopped. Whereas
reinforcement increases the frequency of desired behavior, omission decreases the frequency of an
undesirable behavior and finally extinguishes it. Omission reduces the occurrence of employee
behaviors that do not lead to the achievement of organizational goalsThe omission procedure consists
Identifying the behavior to be reduced or eliminated.
Identifying the reinforcer that maintains the behavior.
PUNISHMENT: ―punishment creates a set of conditions which are designed to eliminate
behavior.‖It‘s an unpleasant event that follows behavior and decreases its frequency.
Implications of using punishment.
Punishing poor performance enhances performance without affecting satisfaction.
Arbitrary and capricious punishment leads to poor performance and dissatisfaction.
Punishment may be offset by positive reinforcement from another source.
POSITIVE PUNISHMENT:it gives positive individuals what they do not like when they have
performed the undesired behavior (Griggs, 2009). Positive punishment is what we think of when we
think of a ―punishment‖.
NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT: it removes what individuals like when they have performed the
undesired behavior (Griggs, 2009)
Stimulus Response Consequences
High performance is
rewarded in the
performance at a high
Punishment: Only one hour is given
lunch each day
more than one hour
Avoidance Individuals who take
than one hour for
will be reprimanded by
Individuals take only
one hour for lunch
Extinction 1. Bonus given to sales
person for each new
2. Bonus removed for
each new customer
Sales person worked
hard to get new
Sales persons exert
only nominal effort to
get new orders
SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT :Schedules of reinforcement determine when
reinforcement is applied. Reinforcement is always delivered according to some schedule (BANDURA
1969) . A schedule of reinforcement is basically a rule stating which instances of a behavior will be
reinforced. In some case, a behavior might be reinforced every time it occurs. Sometimes, a behavior
might not be reinforced at all. Either positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement might be used,
depending on the situation. In both cases, the goal of reinforcement is always to strengthen the behavior
and increase the likelihood that it will occur again in the future.
CONTINUOUS AND INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE:
1. Continuous Reinforcement:
In continuous reinforcement, the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs. Generally, this
schedule is best used during the initial stages of learning in order to create a strong association between the
behavior and the response. Once the response if firmly attached, reinforcement is usually switched to a partial
For example ; when you drop coin in soft drink vending machine. Your behavior is reinforced by the
consequences of the machine delivering a can of soda.
2. Partial Reinforcement:
In partial reinforcement, the response is reinforced only part of the time. Learned behaviors are acquired more
slowly with partial reinforcement, but the response is more resistant to extinction. In intermittent reinforcement,
a reinforcer is delivered after some, but not every, occurrence of the desired behavior. Intermittent
reinforcement can be subdivided into ‗interval and ratio‘ and ‗fixed and variable‘ schedule.
There are four schedules of partial reinforcement:
Fixed-ratio schedulesare those where a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses.
This schedule produces a high, steady rate of responding with only a brief pause after the delivery of the
Variable-ratio schedulesoccur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses.
This schedule creates a high steady rate of responding. Gambling and lottery games are
good examples of a reward based on a variable ratio schedule.
Fixed-interval schedulesare those where the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of
time has elapsed. This schedule causes high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but much
slower responding immediately after the delivery of the reinforcer.
Variable-interval schedulesoccur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has
passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of response.
Schedules of Reinforcement for Monetary Rewards:
Schedules of Reinforcement Examples of Research
Fixed Interval Weekly or monthly paycheck
Fixed Ratio Piece-rate pay system based on number of units
produced or sales commission
Variable Interval Praise, recognition, or promotion awarded at
variable time periods
Variable Ratio Monitory bonuses for excellent performance
awarded in small sums at various time periods.
Behavior - modification programs in organizations generally follow at least five
stages of development:
Stages I: Identifying Critical Behaviors:In this step, the managers has to identify the critical
behaviors that make a significant impact on the employee‘s job performance. These are those 5 to 10
percent of behaviors that may account for up to 70 or 80 per cent of each employee‘s performance. This
may be a difficult step for companies that use non-job related factors to measure performance (eg.
Cooperativeness, friendliness, and other subjective measure).
Stage II: Developing a Baseline Data: This step requires the manager to develop some baseline
performance data. This is obtained by determining the number of times the identified behavior is occurring
under present condition. In this stage, specific goals for each employee are established. Lowering the
absenteeism by 10 per cent is a typical example. Goals may concern such aspects as productivity
improvement, decreased absenteeism and so on.
Stage III: Identifying Behavioral Consequences: This step is to perform a functional analysis to
identify the behavioral contingencies or consequences of performance. The employee keeps a record of his
or her daily work. This acts ass a self-feedback mechanism
Stage IV: Developing and implementing an intervention strategy: The manager reviews the
employee‘s performance record and then rewards the positive aspects of the performance, as determined by
the goals set in Stage Two and recorded in Stage Three. Reinforcing with recognition, compliments or
praise strengthens thedesired behavior; withholding of such reinforcement should help make the employee
aware of certain deficiencies in his or performance.
Stage V: Evaluating Performance Improvement:Finally, auditing of the effectiveness of this
program is assessed OB Modification has been used by a number of organizations to improve employee
productivity and to reduce errors, absenteeism,
The impact of reinforcement on organizational behavior can be summarized as follows:
1. Some type of reinforcement is necessary to reproduce a change in behavior.
2. Some types or categories of rewards are more effective for use in organization than are others.
3. The speed with which learning takes place and how lasting its effects will be determined by thetiming of
INTRODUCTION TO STRESS
The existence and importance of stress in industry was first recognized in America in 1956.A machine
operator named James Carter cracked up while working on the General Motors production line in Detroit.
Mr Carter had what commonly known as nervous breakdown and he sued general motors for that claiming
that company is responsible for his condition. Carter won the case and from that day most executives took
the relationship between stress and industry very seriously indeed
Work stress has very disastrous effect on quality of life and quality of work life. It has no boundaries; it can
affect women, men, executives and people of all nationalities. The American Institutes of stress estimates
that about $300 billion is lost because of work related stress and its after-effects-lower productivity, high
employee turnover, high absenteeism, medical cost etc. Stress is created by multitude of overlapping factors
such as quantitative or qualitative workloads, ethical dilemmas, and difficult relationship with bosses and
colleagues. Although stress can sometime can act as stimulant and challenge us (eustress). The notion of
management of stress basically focuses on management of distress.
WHAT IS STRESS?
When confronted with uncomfortable situation like appearing for an interview, giving formal speech,
different people will have different feelings and reactions- some negative and some positive. Stress refers to
the body‘s physiological, emotional and psychological responses to an individual wellbeing. When the
response is in the form of a deviation from healthy functioning the state is called distress. The reaction
which activates and motivates the people to achieve their goal, change their environment and face life
challenges is called eustress.
Definitions of stress:-
Dr.Seyles, an expert in stress management, defines stress as ―non- specific response of body to situation‖.
It is important to remember that the body chemistry does not distinguish between the anxiety causing,
pleasant or unpleasant situations. In any of these situations, the body response is the same, resulting in fight
or flight mechanism.
―Stress is an adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical, psychological and/or
Please write a One Sentence
S T R E S S.
THE THEORY OF GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
This theory states that when an organism is confronted with a threat, the general physio logical response
occur in three stages i.e. alarm reaction, stage of resistance, stage of exhaustion.
1. Alarm reaction: -The first stage includes an initial ―shock phase‖ in which resistance is lowered,
and a ―counter shock phase‖ in which defensive mechanism becomes active. Alarm reaction is
characterised by autonomous excitability, adrenaline discharge, increased heart rate, muscle tone.
Depending on the nature and the intensity of threat and the conditions of organism, the severity of the
symptoms may differ from mild invigorations to disease of adaptation.
2. Stage of resistance: -Maximumadaptation occurs at this stage. The bodily signs characteristic
of the alarm reaction disappears. Resistance increases to level above normal. If the stress persists
or the defensive reaction proves ineffective, the organism deteriorates to next stage.
3. Stage of exhaustion: -Adaptation energy is exhausted, signs of alarm reaction reappear and
resistance level begins to decline irreversibly and the organism collapses.
Drawback of this theory:-One of the major drawback of this theory is that the related
research was carried out on animals where the stressors are usually physical or environment and this
is not always in the case of human beings. The concept of general adaptation syndrome is therefore,
not given importance in the present days.
General Adaptation Syndrome
NATURE OF STRESS
An individual experiences stress when she perceives the presence of the factor creating stress as representing
a demand that may exceed her ability to respond. The factor that causes stress have been referred to as
stressors. When individuals are under stress, there reaction varies from physiological, psychological to
As a result of the reaction to the stress, breathing and heart rate changes , brain activity goes up to allow the
brain to function maximally. Hearing and sight become more acute and muscles ready themselves for
reaction. These biochemical and bodily changes represent a natural reaction to the environment stressors
which is known as fight or flight response. When a predator attacks an animal in a forest, it has two choices
either to fight back or to flee.The human nervous system also responds in the same way to the stressor from
the environment. This response helps to survive during emergency. For most of the people most of the time
predator is imaginary than real. In a work situation for ex- a fight-or-flight response isn‘t usually
appropriate. If an employee receives an unpleasant work from a manager. Instead, the employee is expected
to accept the assignment calmly and do the best job possible. Remaining calm and performing effectively
may be difficult when the employee perceives that the assignment as threatening and the body is prepared to
A variety of factor influences how an individual experiences stress. Identifies four of the primary factors:
1. The person‘s perception of the situation
2. The person‘s past experiences,
3. The presence or absence of social support,
4. Individual differences in reacting to stress
1. Perception: - It is a process whereby person selects and organizes environmental information in
to concept of reality. Employee perception of a situation can influence how they experience stressed-
two Microsoft employee job gets changed. The first employee view the new duties as an
opportunities to learn new competencies and think that the change is vote of confidence from
management in her ability to be flexible and take on challenges. Whereas the second employee think
the same situation to be extremely threatening and concludes that management is not happy with his
2. Past Experiences: -A person may perceive the situation as more or less stressful depending up
on how familiar that person is with that particular situation and his prior experiences with the
particular stressors involved. Past training may allow some employee to deal calmly with the
stressors than the less trained employees.
3. Social Support:-The presence or absence of other people influences how individual in work
place experience stress and respond to stressors. The presence of co-worker may increase an
individual confidence, allowing individual to cope in a better way with the stress. For
exampleworking alongside someone who is more confident and competently in stressful situations
may help the employee to behave similarly.
4. Individual Differences:-Individual differences in motivation, attitudes, personality and ability
also influence whether employees experience work stress, and if they do, how they respond to it.
Simply stated people are different, what one person consider a major source of stress, the other
person may hardly notice. Personality characteristics in a particular may explain some of the
differences in the way the employee respond to a particular stress.
TYPES OF STRESS
Constructive Versus Destructive
The form of stress which has a negative impact on the state of mind and the physical systems is called
destructive stress. Stress that has a positive impact resulting in a feeling of excitement and enthusiasm is
called constructive stress.
Episodic Versus Chronic Stress
The pattern of high degrees of stress followed by an interval of relief is referred to as episodic stress.
Chronic stress is one in which a person faces stress continuously and he can fight nor flee.
This stress happen because of sudden joy, fortunately this type of stress is not long- lasting. Furthermore it is
a state of happiness. Eustress, therefore, is not harmful, being occasional and fleeting.
This type of stress is caused because of hyperactivity and travails of life to meet deadlines, etc. Targets and
eleventh hour rush or continuous work causes hyper stress. The key to handle this type of stress is to have
This type of stress is just opposite of hyper stress. This stress is cause by less than optimum activity. The
effects of hypo stress are slower than other types but are more penetrating and long lasting. There are
example when organization has deliberately create hypo stress by denying work to there employees.
Causes of stress
Employees can experience stress both from their work life and from their personal life. These sources
interact with each other to give rise to various symptoms. Stress in our daily life is the result of many
interacting factors. We as individuals with some exclusive personality traits contributing towards generating
stress. The organizational environment may play host to potential stressors. The minor or major changes that
occur in the external environment may also contribute towards generation towards stress.
1. TASK DEMANDS: -Stress from the task demands emerge from the change enforced on the
employees with respect to the demand of their job.
2. Role Demand:-Job role demand include impossible workloads, idle period of time, job ambiguity,
and conflicting performance expectations.
3. Overload: -When there is an expectation from the organization to accomplish more than the ability
of the person, it results in work load.
4. Under load: -Under load occurs when people have insufficient work to fill their time or are not
allowed to use enough of their skills and abilities.
5. Role Conflict: -Role conflict exists when job functions contain duties or responsibilities that
conflict with one another.
6. Physical demand:-The physical demand of the work place can have huge impact on mental and
physical condition of the employee. Poor working condition in the form of high temperature, noise,
pollution etc. are the some of the example of working condition that can take toll on the employees.
7. Career Development:- The issues related to career planning and development such as security,
promotions, transfer and other developmental processes like under promotion, over promotion can
create anxiety and stress among the person concerned.
8. Aggressive behaviour: -A very common of aggressive behaviour in organization can be
observed in the form of violence and sexual harassment.
1. Economic Uncertainty:-Downsizing, rightsizing, retrenchment and so on all these things are
done in the name of efficiency and cost reduction to improve profitability.
2. Technological Changes: -Advancements in technology in the form of robots, computerization
etc. has contributed immensely to the productivity and profitability. However, it also has caused
displacement of skilled workers who have to now unlearn and learn new skills to match up the
expectations of the organization.
3. Political Uncertainty-Political disturbances in the external environment have tremendous impact
on the working of business organization.
Consequences of stress:-
1. Physiological Consequences:-The symptoms of stress as a part of physiological
consequences include heightened blood pressure, increased blood pressure, headache, sweating,
cold flashes etc.
2. Psychological Consequences:-Excessive amount of stress in the organization can
cause boredom, anxiety, tension and depression. All of these take the feeling of well-being away
from the individual and contribute to poor concentration and decreased the attention span at work
3. Job Burnout:-Job burnout refers to adverse effect of working conditions in which ability to
confront and manage stress reduces significantly and job satisfaction and relief from stress seem
impossible to achieve.
4. Behavioural Consequences:-When stress becomes distress, job performance gets
affected and work place accidents become very common. High stress levels impair our ability to
remember information, make effective decisions, and take appropriate actions.
INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES:-
1. Change the job:-If a person is not able to derive satisfaction from the job that he is currently
employed at, changing the nature of the job or leaving the organization in the favour of alternative
employment may be the answer.
2. Time Management:-Time management is a process of planning, organizing and controlling one‘s
3. Seeking help:-In a situation where an employee is not able to cater to the demands of work place
and job, same words of support from the colleagues and advice from the boss can greatly help him
alleviate his stress.
4. Exercise:-Exercise is highly effective method of managing stress. People who exercise regularly
are less likely to have heart attack as when compared to inactive people.
MEANING OF PERCEPTION:-
It is the process of selection and organization of environmental stimuli and interpreting them to provide
meaningful experience for the perceiver.
The perceptual process began when environmental stimuli are received through our sense. Most stimuli are
screened out, the rest are organized and interpreted based on various information processing activities. The
resulting perceptions influence our emotions and behaviour towards these objects, people and events.
1) Perceptual Selection:
It is the process by which people filter out most stimuli so that they can deal with the most important ones.
Perceptual selection is driven by internal and external factors.
(a) Internal factors include:
Personality -Personality traits influence how a person selects perceptions. For instance,
conscientious people tend to select details and external stimuli to a greater degree.
Motivation - People will select perceptions according to what they need in the moment. They will
favour selections that they think will help them with their current needs, and be more likely to ignore
what is irrelevant to their needs.
Experience -The patterns of occurrences or associations one has learned in the past affect current
perceptions. The person will select perceptions in a way that fits with what they found in the past.
Learning –A perceptual set is an expectation of a perception based on past experience with the
same or similar stimuli.
(b) External factors include:
Size -A larger size makes it more likely an object will be selected.
Intensity -Greater intensity, in brightness, for example, also increases perceptual selection.
Contrast - When a perception stands clearly out against a background, there is a greater likelihood
Motion -A moving perception is more likely to be selected.
Repetition -Repetition increases perceptual selection.
Novelty and familiarity -Both of these increase selection. When a perception is new, it stands out
in a person's experience. When it is familiar, it is likely to be selected because of this familiarity.
Five Stages in Perceptual Process:
Stage I: Observation Phase – It depicts the environmental stimuli being observed by the five
senses of the perceived
Stage II: Selection of the Stimuli: This is governed both by factors external to the perceived,
such as the characteristics of the stimulus, and internal to the individual, such as the personality
disposition and motivations of the perceiver.
Stage III: Organizing Stage – In this stage, the perceiver is influenced by figure and ground,
grouping, and several perceptual errors such as stereotyping halo effects, projection and perceptual
Stage IV: Interpretation Stage: This stage is governed by the perceiver‘s
assumptions of people and events and attributions about causes of behavior and feelings.
Stage V: Behavior Response: In this stage the response of the perceiver takes on both covert
and overt characteristics. Covert response will be reflected in the attitudes, motives, and feelings of
the perceiver and overt responses will be reflected in the actions of the individual.
It is the process by which people grow environmental stimuli into recognisable patterns. Factors influencing
perceptual organization are:
Continuity – It is the tendency to perceive objects as continuous patterns.
Closure -This is the tendency to try to create wholes out of perceived parts. Sometimes this can
result in error, though, when the perceiver fills in unperceived information to complete the whole.
Proximity -Perceptions that are physically close to each other are easier to organize into a pattern
Similarity - Similarity between perceptions promotes a tendency to group them together.
An assessment of the information collected for the purpose of making interpretation or judgement is called
perceptual interpretation. During this process there occur some errors. They are as follows:
1. Judgemental error - These are certain mistakes that we commit as a result of being judgemental. These
arise as a result of many actions on the part of the person perceiving the situation. Types of judgemental
a) Similarity –The tendency to see others having characteristics more like our own.
b) Contrast error – The tendency of some interviewers to compare job candidates to other candidates
interviewed at the same time.
2. Perceptual errors: Some of the perceptual errors are as follows:
a) Perceptual defence – The tendency of people to protect themselves against idea, objects, a situation
that are threatening.
b) Stereo typing –The tendency to assign attributes to someone slowly on the basis of the category in
which the person has been placed.
c) Halo effects – Evolution of another person slowly on the basis of one attribute, either favourable or
unfavourable, is called halo effect.
d) Projection – It is the tendency for the people to see their own traits in another people.
e) Expectancy effects– It is the extent to which prior expectations basis perception of events, objects and
f) Self-fulfilling prophecy – Expecting certain things to happen shapes the behaviour of the perceiver in
such a way that the expected is more likely to happen.
It refers to the manner in which people come to understand the causes of others behaviour is called
INTERNAL VS EXTERNAL CAUSES OF BEHAVIOUR:
A widely accepted model by HAROLD KELLEY attempts to explain how people determine why others
behave as they do. This explanation states that in making attributions, people focus on 3 major factors:
1. Consistency: The extent to which the people perceived behaves in the same manner as on other
occasions when faced with the same situation.
2. Distinctiveness:It is the extent to which the person perceived act differently in different situation.
3. Consensus:The extent to which others, faced with the same situation, behave in a manner similar to the
It is the model that examines the attributions based on internal causes and relies on drawing backward
influences for an observed event.
There are 2 attribution tendencies that distort ones interpretation of observed behaviour.
1. Fundamental Attribution Bias– It is reflects one‘s tendencies to attribute another person‘s behaviour
to his or her personal characteristics, as opposed to situational factors.
2. Self-Serving Bias – It represents one‘s tendency to take more personal responsibility for success rather
than for failure.
It refers to the process used by individuals to control the impression others form of them Rosenfeld,
Giacalone and Riordan (1995) viewed various tactics to generate favourable impressions. They are:
2. Disclosing obstacles
3. Doing favours
5. Opinion conformity
6. playing dumb
7. Playing safe
It is a process in which social perception occurs when someone formally evaluate the job performance of
It is a process by which organizations attempt to perceive themselves with respect to all aspects of their
culture, business and people.
While observing people‘s behavior such as getting an overseas assignment or promotion to top management
position or failed miserably in university examination or fired from the employer etc. we attempt to
determine whether it was internally caused or external caused. If those factors such as knowledge, skill,
effort, talent, hard work, positive attitude are responsible for the occurrence of behavior, it is labeled as
Internally caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. If
those factors such as situational factors such as location advantage, non-availability of material, contacts
with influential others, etc are responsible for the occurrence of behavior, it is labeled as externally caused.
Externally caused behavior is seen as resulting from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as forced into
the behavior by the situation.
There are three factors which are used to determine whether the behavior is caused by internal factors or due
to external factors. They are: Distinctiveness, Consensus and Consistency.
It refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. If a person is coming
late not only to office but also to picnic party or to birth day party or to attending meeting etc. If his late
coming behavior is not unique, it will probably be judged as internal. (Low Distinctiveness) If his late
coming behavior is unusual, that is, only to office work, his late coming behavior is due to external
attribution. (High Distinctiveness)
It refers to whether all the people who are facing with a similar situation respond in the same way or not. If
all the people are responding the same way, then there is high consensus. If consensus is high, then his late
coming behavior is due to external factors. If only this worker is late and all others are punctual, then there is
low consensus. If consensus is low, then his late coming is due to internal factor
It refers whether a person responds the same all the time, that is, whether his late coming is common in all
the days or once in a blue moon. If his late coming is reported in all the days, then there is high consistency.
If there is high consistency, his late coming behavior is due to internal factor. If his late coming is reported
only one time, then there is low consistency. If there is low consistency, then his late coming is due to
external factors. The more consistent the behavior, the more the observer is inclined to attribute it to internal
TEAM WORK& GROUP DYNAMICS
According to Business Directory, team work has been defined as the ―process by which a group of
people work collaboratively to achieve a set or given goal/ task‖. According to this definition, team work
means that people will try to cooperate, using their different individual skills and talents to provide
constructive feedback despite the fact that individuals may have personal conflict among themselves. This
definition acknowledges that team work brings together ideologically different people, with different skill
sets for the accomplishment of a set target or goal.
A SYSTEM MODEL OF TEAM BUILDING
This model can be a very useful and practical way to analyze the success of a team and to
help it develop in the areas of most need. This model of team effectiveness was developed based on the
characteristics of the group. The key components making up
effective team can be categorized into four aspects such as Work design, Composition,
Context and Process.
Work Design:This category includes variables such as skill variety, task identity, task significance,
autonomy and feedback. It is reported that these characteristics enhance
member motivation and increase team effectiveness. These work design characteristics
motivate because they increase members‘ sense of responsibilities for and ownership of
the work and because they make the work more interesting to perform.
Composition:This category covers such as ability, personality, roles and diversity,
size, flexibility, preference for teamwork
Context:The three contextual factors that appear to be most significantly related to
team performance are the presence of adequate resources, effective leadership and a
performance evaluation and reward system that reflects team contributions.
Processes: The final category related to team effectiveness is process variables. These
include member commitment to a common purpose, establishment of specific team goals,
team efficacy, a managed level of conflict and the reduction of social loafing.
BRUCE TUCKMAN THEORY :
Bruce Tucuman, currently a psychology professor at Ohio State University, is one of the most influential
thinkers in modern history. His research has spanned over fifty years, and his dissertations regarding the
functions of a small group are revolutionary. Released in 1965, the theory, also known as Tuck man
stages, were made widely known to the intellectual community and contained four stages (later five) that
would define the basic functions of a team in progress.
A Brief Analysis of Tucuman’s Stages :
The four original stages of Tucumán‘s model of group behaviour were forming, storming, norming, and
performing, with adjourning being added twelve years in later.
The stage of forming takes place when team or group members first meet one another. Tucumán
explains how group members will explicitly attempt to avoid conflict in fear of giving off a bad first
impression. According to Tucuman, very little work on the project at hand gets completed during this
stage. This stage is more important for becoming acquainted and learning to work together.
The second stage is known as storming. There is a double-edged definition within storming because
not only does brainstorming of different individuals‘ ideas take place but the disagreements and
arguments regarding these ideas also happen. Tucumán explains that this stage is a test of group
members‘ maturity and ability to compromise with others‘ opposing ideas, two major necessities
when in a team setting.
The third stage is norming, probably the most simple of the five stages. Norming takes place when
storming completes and the group is ready to move forward with assigning roles and beginning
physical production of work.
The fourth stage, performing, happens when the group or team begins to work as one cohesive unit
in an efficient and productive manner. There is very little argument or hesitation; the project closes
in on completion as the individual members become properly synchronized within their roles.
The final stage, added in 1977, is adjourning, which basically explains the process of letting go of
one‘s role in the team and the attachments they have made.
Contrasting Tucuman’s Stages with the Tannenbaum and Schmidt
Bruce Tucuman‘sstages of group dynamics are not the only highly regarded theory defining group functions.
The Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum talks about managerial and team roles and how much power the
manager gives the employees to make decisions.
Basically, the manager can give more or less power to their team. If too little power is given to the
employees, then the rest of the team may not function properly. If more power is given to employees and
something goes wrong, the manager will be forced to take the blame, not for the project‘s failure but rather
for giving his team the kind of power he/she did.
Unlike Bruce Tucuman‘s theory, Tannenbaum and Schmidt focused more on the manager as the primary
role and what would potentially happen to the manager in these situations. On the other hand, Tucuman
wanted to focus on the entire team as a cohesive unit. While compromise is a major contributor to the
Tucuman theory, the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum emphasizes the leader as the only decision-
maker of the group; the team is merely just there for ideas and contributions.
Overall, Tucuman‘s Stages is a much more balanced group effort, while the Tannenbaum and Schmidt
Continuum is what one would find in a current corporation‘s business meeting.
Theories of Group Dynamics
The processes involved in groups and their communication methods have been around as long as there have
been groups! However, serious study of group dynamics, as a topic of research, is something that has
occurred mostly in the last fifty years. Writing down what has happened in group dynamics in the last
century began after WW2, and has progressively become more refined by researchers.
As we look at the theories that govern the study of groups, we can visualize an ocean with several ships on
it. This ocean represents the general theories of group dynamics.
However, the general theories are always there, underlying every special theory of how a group works. The
general theories of Emergence and Symbolic Convergence represent dynamics that are in all groups,
regardless of the special model the group may be using. These theories have been validated by the work of
Ernest Bormann, who has recorded over 400 case studies in his group dynamics classes.
General theories come about through the study of groups in history to find patterns of group behaviour. The
behaviour is observed, analysed, written down and then tested. When the observed behaviours become
actual social theory, they are really statements of the general tendencies of groups. Because social theory is
not absolutely scientific, they are not like a law. They are theories of what will happen in most groups.
THE PUNCTUATED-EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:
This model emphasis the degree to which the group completes its task based on how
much time is left before the task must be completed. In the group development, the
timings of when groups form and change the way they work is highly consistent. It is
reported that the three activities such as i) direction of the group, ii) inertia and iii) major changes occur at
similar times during the formation and operation of groups.
I. Group’s direction: During the first meetings, the members will discuss and set the group direction to
achieve the assigned target. A set of behavior pattern and various assumptions will be emerging to formulate
action plans during the first meeting. These lasting patterns can appear as early as in the first few seconds of
the group‘s life
II. Inertia: During this period the group tends to stand still or becomes locked into a fixed course. The
group is unlikely to reexamine the course of action and always keep a fixated mind based on the earlier
assumptions and behavioral pattern. New insights that might challenge initial patterns and assumptions
might occur among individual members, but the group is often
III. Transition from old pattern towards major changes or new
perspectives to get results:
At one point of time the group experiences its transition from switching the old behavioral pattern or
assumptions to the new perspectives to reach the targets. This period is characterized by a concentrated burst
of changes, dropping of old patterns and adoption of new perspectives. This transition sets a revised
direction. Incapable of acting on these new insights. . This is called inertia.
THREE CRITICAL PERIODS DURING THE GROUP
Period I - Initial Period of Meetings:
During this initial period, the group has the least structure and often is dependent on the
leaders, and has unclear expectations, high anxiety, and sometimes, low member participation. Initial
meetings outline priorities, define member roles, establish pecking
orders, and evaluation criteria.
Period II - Midpoint:Tension between outcomes and relationships, the exhaustion of group creativity,
and the onset of physical and emotional fatigue seem to occur most
frequently at the midpoint of group‘s life cycle.
Period III - Crises Point:
While the urgency of the task can accelerate the pace of task outcomes, other factors such
as cohesion, conflict management, balance between relationships and task needs, effective communication
and involvement are required for well-developed groups
BENNIS AND SHEPARD MODEL OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT:
This model focuses primarily on task or projects groups and assumes that such groups
follow four stages of development
i) Orientation:During this stage, the group members will be involved in the following activities:
Establishing structure, rules and communication networks of the group, clarifying relations and
interdependencies among group member, identifying leadership roles and clarifying authority and
responsibility relationships, developing a plan for goal accomplishment
ii) Internal Problem Solving:The major activities of this stage include: identification and resolution of
interpersonal conflict, further clarification of rules, goals and structural relationships. Development of a
participative climate among group members.
iii) Growth and Productivity:In this stage, the members devote much time directing towards goal
accomplishment, developing data-flow and feedback systems for task performance, growing cohesion
among members of the group.
iv) Evaluation and Control:During this last stage, the members, particularly leadership role
emphasizes facilitation, feedback and evaluation, roles and group interdependencies are renewed, revised
and strengthened, group exhibits strong motivation toward goal accomplishment.
The Emergent Model
The first general theory that Bormann has come up with is the Emergent Model. Emergence is the
description of the way in which decisions manifest themselves in a group. To take off from the above
analogy, emergence is like looking for a ship (a leader, or a decision of the group) in the fog. You are
looking into the fog for the ship that you know is there. But it‘s not there. Maybe it‘s there. Yes there‘s
something there! Then you see a slight outline, and then, there it is; a ship. It is difficult to pinpoint the
exact point in time you first saw it, but it has emerged.
In the small group, all of the social and emotional decisions seem to arrive this way. And it is the
leadership of the group, especially, that comes about byemergence. This is important to realize: that
leadership in a small group will arrive this way, because if a group does not recognize emergent leadership,
it will really struggle. So, the ―emergent model describes the dynamic process by which the tendencies
described in group process arrive at conscious thresholds and become known to the group.‖ (Dr. Katz,
5 Things that Emerge
Bilhart describes five tendencies in a group that emerge:
1. Tendency to develop group norms, such as accepted ways to address each other or ways of
talking that are acceptable or not. Once group norms are set, members are expected to conform;
2. Tendency to specialization. Generally a member will emerge to a particular role, such as ―the
organizer‖ or ―the timekeeper;‖
3. Tendency to form status roles. The more fun and/or difficult the task, the higher the status,
such as the levels of status in the book ―Animal Farm;‖
4. Tendency for the group to develop its own “culture”, complete with symbols and inside
5. Tendency to form shared fantasies (an invented story that may not be true, but serves to
make other members of the group ―dream‖ about new ideas or deeper thoughts) , good or bad ,
possibly started by one member and added to by others, to emerge as the group‘s shared fantasy.
Fantasies, in particular, may not be of much consequence, but layer upon layer, they become a
strong builder of cohesion (they stick together) in the group.
Cohesion of the Group
Cohesion is the key concept of the emergent Model. It is the single most critical dynamic in a group, and
there is a strong correlation between cohesiveness and the quality of the group‘s experience and the quality
of its progress. Bormann says that the cohesiveness is the extent to which members of the group are willing
to make the needs and goals of the group their own. Other research has found that the more cohesive the
group, the more freedom they had to disagree with one another. Because of the cohesiveness, or sense of
belonging, it gave them the freedom to disagree without devastating reprisal.
The Assembly Effect
The assembly effect is the key to cohesion of the group in its early stages. The assembly effect is the
interaction of the different personalities of group members and how each personality is affected by another.
As a group forms, the level of compatibility of different personalities becomes crucial to the group. If each
member realizes their strengths, and yet knows and accepts another member‘s strengths and weaknesses,
those symmetrical relationships become compatible.
An example that comes to mind is that on a Navy warship, every sailor has been trained in fire fighting.
They all know how to use a fire hose and nozzle to put out both ash and oil type fires. In the event of an on
board fire, that has been started after an explosion, depending on how many lives were lost, maybe one of
the cooks or a navigator will have to use this basic knowledge to help save his ship and himself. The group
that knows each other‘s job and can fill in for one another may very well have opportunity to save their
ship. This group strength may be overlooked in a task oriented small group where cohesiveness has not
emerged through the social development of the group. Without this, a member may say something stupid
like ―I don‘t get paid to think‖ or ―that‘s not my job…‖
Another part of the assembly effect is that of homogeneity and heterogeneity of its members. For some
tasks, or if time is very short to complete the project, it helps to have the group homogenous: that is, they
think alike, they have similar values and expectations. However, if a group‘s need is to be creative and, in
the end come up with a better product, then it helps if they have a diversity of interests, personality, and
expectations to come up with a better product (heterogeneous)
Bormann says that the best groups are heterogeneous when it comes to a need for low-process, and free-
wheeling brainstorming in the beginning planning stages. But there is a need then for high procedural types
within the group to complete the project. In the area of expectation of achievement, it is virtually invaluable
to have similar values. So, an ideal group will have homogeneous values, heterogeneous task skills and a
blended midrange of procedural values. This is really a heterogeneous group that appreciates homogeneity.
The exchange theory
The exchange theory also affects cohesion of the group as the general tendencies emerge. The exchange
effect begins as soon as a group is formed, but it takes a while for members to come up with a cost-benefit
exchange analysis for themselves in the group. So the effect will not play a big part in the group dynamics
until about midlife of the group. In a group, each member will mentally tabulate the rewards and costs to
themselves in the areas of material things, social rewards, prestige, esteem, accomplishment of the job and
recognition. If the plusses are more than the minuses, then the member will stay and add to the cohesiveness
of teamwork and the group. If the negatives are greater than the positives, then the member will either
become a point of non-cohesion in the group or will leave. If the member leaves, then, by the assembly
effect, the group will still struggle with cohesion because the whole new order of assembly will then occur.
Conclusion on Emergence
So it is important to understand how things emerge in the group and its cohesion is affected by such
dynamics as the makeup of the assembly and how members view their exchange benefits for being in the
group. The emergent model is one of the basic models of group dynamics that is true to all groups in some
Symbolic Convergence Theory
The second general theory of group dynamics that Borman describes is the symbolic Convergence Theory.
It runs parallel with Emergence theory in that it happens at the same time emergence is happening. Borman
describes this theory as the one in which people are story tellers who share fantasies. As group members
talk together and members find they have an experience in common, they begin to chime in and add to the
story. This is called chaining or sharing and the more of it that happens within a group, the more
cohesiveness there is in the group.
In the process of multiple fantasies, a group begins to form its own culture and its own symbols. That
forming is called symbolic convergence. As layer upon layer of shared fantasies are formed, cohesiveness is
created, internal communication is generated, roles begin to emerge, and group norms are established to
converge into a whole culture.
We can look at the general theories of emergence and symbolic convergence as a running parallel like
railroad tracks. They operate simultaneously and provide a foundation for social theory on group dynamics.
On those railroad tracks are little boxcars that have been constructed for specific purposes. These boxcars
are like the three special theories. They each have been constructed for a different purpose, such as the
pragmatic, relational and value shift models.
Bormann describes these special or artistic theories, as a plan to form the group in a specific way to bring
about a specific purpose. Unlike General Theories, these can be changed or moulded at any time in order to
bring about the main purpose of the group. The three models then, pragmatic, relational and value shift, are
artistic theory as described by Bormann.
The Pragmatic Theory was formed as a way to get a group to complete a task. It was used in groups formed
in the early fifties in businesses. As Riemann summarizes in his book describing the 1950s, the ―Lonely
Crowd,‖ the population moved after WW2 up to about 1963, from a rural society to an urban society.
Working well in a group became an important value at the time. Previously the dominant America valued
independence and the ability to work alone.
The emphasis of the pragmatic model is the SMCR method of analysing group dynamics as developed by
Wilbur Schramm. That‘s the Sender encodes a Message through a Channel, which is then recorded by
There are two values in the Pragmatic model, fidelity of transmission and efficiency. In fidelity of
transmission, the question is ―how much is getting through?‖ If there is a lot of external noise such as a
stereo playing, the noise can be reduced in order to get a higher level of fidelity. Internal noises, such as
anger, hunger, or even the temperature of a room can also hinder fidelity of transmission. To the degree that
you can decrease internal noise, you can increase fidelity of transmission. Intrinsic noise, where there is
false message, or an overload of information, will also cause a decrease in fidelity. Another way to increase
fidelity is to increase redundancy by repeating messages or by finding several ways to give the same
message. Or, if you use multiple channels to convey the message, it will more likely get through.
The second value in the Pragmatic model is that of efficiency. Efficiency concerns itself with the use of
energy resources and time. The goal is to send more messages, more rapidly and with less energy
expended. If we give an erroneous message, it sometimes takes longer to correct it than it would have taken
to just be clear the first time.
The Relational Theories