Lung and Liver cancer


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Cancer is a deadly disease prevalent all over the world. This presentation gives you a bird's eye view on the causes,symptoms and treatment of lung and liver cancer.

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine

Lung and Liver cancer

  1. 1. Lung and Liver Cancer Gayathri.M, BTB-11-009
  2. 2. Cancer  New cells form when the body doesn't need them and old or damaged cells don't die as they should.  The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth, nodule, or tumor.  The growth can be benign or malignant.
  3. 3. Benign tumour Malignant tumour rarely a threat to life may be a threat to life can be removed and usually don't grow back sometimes can be removed but can grow back don't invade the tissues around them can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs don't spread to other parts of the body can spread to other parts of the body
  4. 4. Liver Cancer
  5. 5. Liver Largest organ What does Liver do???  It removes harmful substances from the blood.  It makes enzymes and bile that help digest food.  It also converts food into substances needed for life and growth.
  6. 6. Liver Cancer  Primarily liver cancer begins in hepatocytes.  Known as hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk Factors  Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV)  Heavy alcohol use  Aflatoxin  Iron storage disease  Cirrhosis  Obesity and diabetes
  7. 7. Symptoms  Pain in the upper abdomen on the right side  A lump or a feeling of heaviness in the upper abdomen  Swollen abdomen (bloating)  Loss of appetite and feelings of fullness  Weight loss  Weakness or feeling very tired  Nausea and vomiting  Yellow skin and eyes, pale stools, and dark urine from jaundice  Fever
  8. 8. Diagnosis Physical exam  Check the liver, spleen and other nearby organs for any lumps or changes in their shape or size.  Check for ascites, an abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.  Also, your skin and eyes may be checked for signs of jaundice. Blood tests  Blood test detects alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).  High AFP levels could be a sign of liver cancer.
  9. 9. CT scan MRI Ultrasound test Biopsy  A biopsy usually is not needed to diagnose liver cancer, but in some cases, the doctor may remove a sample of tissue.  A pathologist uses a microscope to look for cancer cells in the tissue.  Tissues are obtained by 1. A needle through the skin 2. Laparoscopic surgery 3. Open surgery
  10. 10. Staging  Staging is an attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread, and if so, to what parts of the body.  When liver cancer spreads, the cancer cells may be found in the lungs.  Cancer cells also may be found in the bones and in lymph nodes near the liver.  Metastatic Liver Cancer Tests done for Diagnosis: 1. CT scan of the chest 2. Bone scan 3. PET scan
  11. 11. Treatment 1. Surgery 2. Ablation 3. Embolization 4. Targeted Therapy 5. Radiation Therapy 6. Chemotherapy
  12. 12. Surgery  Surgery is an option for people with an early stage of liver cancer.  The surgeon may remove the whole liver or only the part that has cancer.  If the whole liver is removed, it's replaced with healthy liver tissue from a donor and is known as total hepatectomy.  Removal of part of the liver is known partial hepatectomy.
  13. 13. Liver transplant Done when tumours are small, the disease has not spread outside the liver, and suitable donor liver tissue can be found. Ablation  Treatments to control liver cancer and extend life.  Surgery to remove the tumor may not be possible because of cirrhosis or other conditions that cause poor liver function, the location of the tumor within the liver, or other health problems.
  14. 14. Radiofrequency ablation  Use of special probe that contains tiny electrodes to kill the cancer cells with heat.  Ultrasound, CT, or MRI may be used to guide the probe to the tumor.  It is a hyperthermia therapy. Percutaneous ethanol injection  Ultrasound is used to guide a thin needle into the liver tumor.  Alcohol (ethanol) is injected directly into the tumor and kills cancer cells.  The procedure may be performed once or twice a week.
  15. 15. Embolization  For those who can’t have surgery or a liver transplant, embolization or chemoembolization may be an option.  A tiny catheter with sponge or other particles is inserted into an artery in your leg and is moved into the hepatic artery.  The particles block the flow of blood through the artery which results in the death of tumour.
  16. 16. Targeted Therapy  People with liver cancer who can’t have surgery or a liver transplant may receive a drug called targeted therapy.  Targeted therapy slows the growth of liver tumors.  It also reduces their blood supply.  The drug is taken by mouth.  Side effects include nausea, vomiting, mouth sores, and loss of appetite.  Sometimes, a person may have chest pain, bleeding problems, or blisters on the hands or feet.  The drug can also cause high blood pressure.
  17. 17. Radiation Therapy  Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells.  It may be an option for a few people who can’t have surgery.  Sometimes it is used with other approaches.  Radiation therapy also may be used to help relieve pain from liver cancer that has spread to the bones.  Two types: External radiation therapy Internal radiation therapy
  18. 18. Chemotherapy  The use of chemicals to kill tumours.  The drugs are given intravenously.  The side effects mainly depend on how much and what kind of drug is given.  Common side effects include nausea, vomitting, loss of appetite, fever and chills, and weakness.
  19. 19. Lung Cancer
  20. 20.  Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs.  Primary and secondary lung cancer  Primary lung cancer starts in lungs.  Lung is the secondary site of infection for some other cancer.
  21. 21. Risk Factors  Anything that we breathe in can affect the health.  The most important risk factor for lung cancer is smoking tobacco.  Other risk factors include: 1. Asbestos 2. Radon 3. Industrial substances 4. Radiation exposure 5. Air pollution 6. Tuberculosis 7. Genetics
  22. 22. Symptoms Symptoms of lung cancer that are in the chest:  Coughing, especially if it persists or becomes intense  Pain in the chest, shoulder, or back unrelated to pain from coughing  A change in color or volume of sputum  Shortness of breath  Changes in the voice or being hoarse  Harsh sounds with each breath (stridor)  Recurrent lung problems, such as bronchitis or pneumonia  Coughing up phlegm or mucus, especially if it is tinged with blood  Coughing up blood
  23. 23. Symptoms of lung cancer that may occur elsewhere in the body:  Loss of appetite or unexplained weight loss  Muscle wasting (also known as cachexia)  Fatigue  Headaches, bone or joint pain  Bone fractures not related to accidental injury  Neurological symptoms, such as unsteady gait or memory loss  Neck or facial swelling  General weakness  Bleeding  Blood clots
  24. 24. Diagnosis  Diagnosis of lung cancer is usually done by looking for symptoms.  If it is suspected, a biopsy is done to confirm the tumour. Bronchoscopy  A small tube is inserted through the mouth or nose into the lungs.  The tube, which has a light on the end, allows the doctor to see inside the lungs and to remove a small tissue sample.
  25. 25. Types and Stages of Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 85 percent of lung cancers. Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  Stage I: only in the lungs and has not spread to any lymph nodes.  Stage II: lung and nearby lymph nodes.  Stage III: lung and in the lymph nodes in the middle of the chest. Locally advanced disease. Stage III has two subtypes:
  26. 26.  Stage IIIA: cancer has spread only to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest where the cancer started.  Stage IIIB: cancer has spread to the lymph nodes on the opposite side of the chest, or above the collar bone.  Stage IV: This is the most advanced stage of lung cancer. Advanced disease. Cancer has spread to both lungs, to fluid in the area around the lungs, or to another part of the body.
  27. 27. Small Cell Lung Cancer SCLC accounts for remaining 15% of lung cancer. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer Limited stage: In this stage, cancer is found on one side of the chest, involving just one part of the lung and nearby lymph nodes. Extensive stage: In this stage, cancer has spread to other regions of the chest or other parts of the body.
  28. 28. Small Cell and Non Small Cell Lung Cancer
  29. 29. Treatment Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 1. Surgery, 2. Radiation, 3. Chemotherapy, and 4. Targeted treatments alone or in combination—are used to treat lung cancer.
  30. 30. Surgery  Most stage I and stage II non-small cell lung cancers are treated with surgery to remove the tumor.  For this procedure, a surgeon removes the lobe, or section, of the lung containing the tumor. Chemotherapy and Radiation  Adjuvant Chemotherapy for patients with stage II and IIIA disease.  For people with stage III lung cancer that cannot be removed surgically chemotherapy in combination with definitive (high-dose) radiation treatments is recommended.
  31. 31.  In stage IV lung cancer, chemotherapy is typically the main treatment and radiation is used only for palliation of symptoms.  Chemotherapy plan consists of combination of various drugs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy  Chemotherapy before radiation or surgery causes shrinkage of tumor enough to make it easier to remove with surgery.  This increases the effectiveness of radiation and destroys hidden cancer cells at the earliest possible time.
  32. 32. Targeted Therapy  Targeted therapies are designed specifically to attack cancer cells by attaching to or blocking targets that appear on the surfaces of those cells.  People who have advanced lung cancer with certain molecular biomarkers may receive treatment with a targeted drug alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Erlotinib - blocks Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Avastin – blocks Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Crizotinib – blocks Anaplastic lymphoma kinase
  33. 33. Small Cell Lung Cancer Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy  For small cell lung cancer, regardless of stage, chemotherapy is an essential part of treatment.  Radiation treatment may be used as well depending on the stage of cancer.  For limited-stage small cell lung cancer, combination chemotherapy plus radiation therapy at the same time is the recommended treatment.  Radiation therapy of the brain may be used before or after chemotherapy for some people whose cancer has spread to the brain.
  34. 34. Preventive Radiation Therapy to the Brain  In more than half of the people with small cell lung cancer, the cancer also spreads to the brain.  Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI).  This can benefit patient with both limited-stage and extensive-stage small cell lung cancers. Surgery  A very small percentage of people who have limited- stage small cell lung cancer.  No lymph node tumors may benefit from surgery.  After surgery adjuvant chemotherapy is given.
  35. 35. Treatment Side Effects  Blood clots  Bone issues  Chemobrain  Dental issues  Diarrhea  Fatigue  Hair loss  Lymphedema  Mouth sores  Nausea and vomiting  Neuropathy  Pain  Weight loss or gain
  36. 36. Reference  ions/163-lung_cancer_101   ects/treatmenttypes/radiation/radiationtherapyprincipl es/radiation-therapy-principles-types-of-radiation