“while people experiencing some forms of deprivation may not all have low income, people experiencing multiple or single but very severe forms of deprivation are in almost every instance likely to have very little income and little or no other resources” (Townsend 1987, p.131)
inequalities in income and wealth translate into residential segregation through differences in house prices, rents and tenure. The most vulnerable and those with the least choices are concentrated together in ‘undesirable’ areas while those with more resources tend to move out of the area. The rationed nature of social housing exacerbates this trend- but so can training and employment provision that enhance the economic capacity of individuals, including their mobility. If the newly employed see no positive reason to stay in an area, they will move out, only to be replaced by the most needy and those with the fewest choices and least resources. The result can be neighbourhoods that remain stubbornly impervious to improvement in time of economic boom.
indices of Deprivation
How to use this mapAnd what the sevendomains mean
The Index of Multiple Deprivation is a UKgovernment statistical study of deprived areas inUK local authorities.• It measures poverty and deprivation The Seven Domains of Deprivation across seven different dimensions or ‘domains’ Income• Poverty can be defined as a lack of financial resources to obtain the types of diet, participate in the activities and Education Employment have the living conditions and and Skills amenities which are customary, or at least widely encouraged or approved in Housing & the society to which we belong Health and Barriers to• Deprivation can be defined as a lack of Disability Services resources of all kinds, not just financial. It can encompass a wide range of an individual’s living conditions, not just Living Crime lack of money EnvironmentThe index of Multiple Deprivation is considered to be one of the most significant piecesof research into poverty and deprivation currently available. It is widely used by localauthorities to prioritise and allocate resources and services in your area.
Low income is a central component of the definition of multiple deprivation• While people experiencing some These domains are combined, with forms of deprivation may not all have appropriate weighting, into a single low income, people experiencing measure of multiple deprivation multiple or very severe forms of Living deprivation are likely to have very Environment Deprivation little income and few other resources 9%• Because income is so important Crime Income 23% (along with employment), it is 9% ‘weighted’ when calculating the index of multiple deprivation Education, S kills and Employment Training 23% Deprivation 14% Health Barriers to Deprivation Housing & & Disability Services 13% 9%
Inequalities in income and wealth translate into residential segregation Differences in house prices, rents and tenure along with the labour market act as a sifting process: while the relatively affluent can choose to live in certain kinds of neighbourhoods, the less affluent cannot The rationed nature of social housing exacerbates this trend with the most needy and vulnerable who qualify for housing The result is that the most vulnerable and those with the least choices are concentrated together in ‘undesirable’ areas
The radial graph covers the seven dimensions or ‘domains’ of deprivation Income Employment Crime Education and Living SkillsEnvironment Barriers to Housing Health and and Services Disability
Each domain of deprivation is ranked by ‘decile’ numbering 1 to 10: the higher the decile, the greater the deprivation Income Employment CrimeDecile 1 means Decile 10 meansthat the area falls that the area fallsinto the 10% least into the 10% mostdeprived areas in deprived areas inEngland England Education and Living Skills Environment Barriers to Housing Health and and Services Disability
Click on a heading to get more information Income Crime Employment This domain measures the proportion of the population in an area that live in income deprived families.Living It uses a range of indicators such as theEnvironment number of Adults and children in Income EducationDeprivation Support Families and Adults and children in and Skills income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance families. Barriers to Housing Health and and Services Disability
Click on a heading to get more information Income Crime Employment Employment deprivation is measured by looking at the proportion of the working age population per LSOA that is ‘work deprived’. It looks at a range of indicators such as claimants of Jobseeker’s Allowance , IncapacityLiving Benefit and Severe Disablement Allowance.Environment EducationDeprivation It also looks at numbers of participants in New Deal and Skills for 18-24s who are not claiming Jobseeker’s Allowance as well as the New Deal for lone parents. Barriers to Housing Health and and Services Disability
Click on a heading to get more information Income Crime Employment This domain aims to measure the extent of deprivation in education, skills and training in a local area. There are two sub domains: ‘Children & Young People’ which measures educational attainment plus participation in Further EducationLiving and Higher Education; and ‘Skills’ which measuresEnvironment skills in the adult population. They are meant to EducationDeprivation represent the ‘flow’ and the ‘stock’ of educational and Skills disadvantage. Barriers to Housing Health and and Services Disability
Click on a heading to get more information Income Crime Employment The domain measures premature death and the impairment of quality of life by poor health. It considers both physical and mental health. The domain measures morbidity ( defined as a diseased state, disability, or poor health due to any cause), disability and prematureLiving mortality.Environment This domain aims to capture unexpected deaths or levels EducationDeprivation of ill health by using age and sex standardised data. This and Skills means that the expected levels of health in a small area, given their age and sex composition are compared, rather than the absolute levels of health Barriers to Housing Health and and Services Disability
Click on a heading to get more information Income Crime Employment This domain measures barriers to housing and key local services. The domain is split into two sub-domains: ‘wider barriers’ and ‘geographical barriers’. The ‘wider barriers’ sub-domain looks at overcrowdingLiving and homelessness as well as housing affordability. TheEnvironment ‘geographical barriers ‘ looks at road distance to a GP surgery, a school or the local post office. EducationDeprivation and Skills Barriers to Housing Health and and Services Disability
Click on a heading to get more information Income Crime Employment This domain measures poor quality living environment. It is split into two sub-domains. The indoors living environment looks at the proportion of social and private homes that failLiving to meet the decent homes standard.Environment the outdoors living environment looks at road EducationDeprivation safety and air quality. and Skills Barriers to Housing Health and and Services Disability
Click on a heading to get more information Income Crime Employment Crime is an important feature of deprivation that has major effects on individuals and communities. This domain measures the rate ofLiving recorded crime for four major crime typesEnvironment – violence, burglary, theft and criminal EducationDeprivation damage – representing the risk of personal and Skills and material victimisation at a small area level. Barriers to Housing Health and and Services Disability