Indices of Multiple Deprivation Poverty and deprivation in the UK
The Index of Multiple Deprivation is a UKgovernment statistical study of deprived areas inUK local authorities.• It measures poverty and deprivation The Seven Domains of Deprivation across seven different dimensions or ‘domains’ Income• Poverty can be defined as a lack of financial resources to obtain the types of diet, participate in the activities and Education Employment have the living conditions and and Skills amenities which are customary, or at least widely encouraged or approved in Housing & the society to which we belong Health and Barriers to• Deprivation can be defined as a lack of Disability Services resources of all kinds, not just financial. It can encompass a wide range of an individual’s living conditions, not just Living Crime lack of money EnvironmentThe index of Multiple Deprivation is considered to be one of the most significant piecesof research into poverty and deprivation currently available. It is widely used by localauthorities to prioritise and allocate resources and services in your area.
Low income is a central component of the definition of multiple deprivation• While people experiencing some These domains are combined, with forms of deprivation may not all have appropriate weighting, into a single low income, people experiencing measure of multiple deprivation multiple or very severe forms of Living deprivation are likely to have very Environment Deprivation little income and few other resources 9%• Because income is so important Crime Income 23% (along with employment), it is 9% ‘weighted’ when calculating the index of multiple deprivation Education, S kills and Employment Training 23% Deprivation 14% Health Barriers to Deprivation Housing & & Disability Services 13% 9%
The index of multiple deprivation ranks and scorestiny geographical areas called Lower Super OutputAreas or LSOA’s• Lower Super Output areas contain Example: Lower Super Output area E01016664 in approximate populations of 1,000 to the local authority of Wokingham 1,500 people• There are 32,482 Lower Super Output Areas or LSOAs in England.• An area is characterised as deprived relative to other areas on the basis of the proportion of people in the area It has an IMD score of experiencing the type of deprivation in 0.94 question – in other words it is given a ‘rank’ This gives it a rank of 32,474 – which means it is one of the least deprived• Each LSOA area is ranked where 1 is areas in England the most deprived and 32,482 is the least deprived.
The full rank of LSOA 32,482 can be grouped into Deciles to make comparison easierExample: LSOA E01000008 in Barkingand Dagenham local authority It has an IMD score of 45.22... ..which gives it a rank of 3,172. This puts in Decile 10 which means the area is in the most deprived 10% of areas in England.
The ranks and scores can then be plotted on a ‘heat map’and colour coded to indicate the level of deprivationYou can do this for Index ofMultiple Deprivation or forone of the seven domainssuch as Income deprivationor EmploymentDeprivation
Inequalities in income and wealth translate into residential segregation Differences in house prices, rents and tenure along with the labour market act as a sifting process: while the relatively affluent can choose to live in certain kinds of neighbourhoods, the less affluent cannot The rationed nature of social housing exacerbates this trend with the most needy and vulnerable who qualify for housing The result is that the most vulnerable and those with the least choices are concentrated together in ‘undesirable’ areas
IMD data is used by local authorities to prioritise and allocate resources based on need• Different domains can also be separately mapped – for example a map focusing on the health domain may reveal some areas of high need that may not be considered deprived on the overall index of multiple deprivation• Local authorities use such data to allocate resources efficiently for programmes such as regeneration, neighbourhood renewal or to identify disadvantaged pupils for additional support or allocate grants to community groups• It can also be used for targeted interventions at the neighbourhood level