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Globalization and environmental change
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Globalization and environmental change


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  • 1. Global interactions environmental change
  • 2. A word about the pictures• The pictures on these slides have been taken from various internet sources. I haven’t asked for permission to use them, but this PowerPoint is for non-commercial educational purposes only and I therefore would like to thank you for your forbearance if you happen to find one of your pictures here.
  • 3. Agro-industrialization• Technology + cheaper transport = re-sourcing• Retailers and processors have increased power• Affects LEDCs’ ability to compete• Modern farming methods impact environment
  • 4. Agro-industrialization• Global farming increasingly intensive• Subsidies partly to prevent farmers going out of business• Farmers compete and increase efficiency – Labour saving machinery – Agro-chemicals (also labour saving) – High yield varieties (HYVs)
  • 5. Increased Yields• In the last 50 years – Wheat yield increased 2.6 to 8 tonnes/Ha – Barley Yield increased 2.6 to 5.8 tonnes/Ha – Dairy cows – doubled production of milk (now 5800 litres per year)
  • 6. Methods and problems • Animals reared on production lines – Results in increased spread of disease • Vegetables sprayed with pesticides – Apples average 17 times – Lettuce (imported) average 11.7 times – Chemicals enter the ecosystem
  • 7. Environmental problems• Costs for environmental restoration:• £2.3 billion per year ($4.4 billion, Kr 31 billion) – Cleaning up chemicals – Restoring habitats – Coping with sickness• £200 million per year for water companies to remove pesticides and nitrates• Just in the UK
  • 8. Environmental problems• Air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions• Costs UK £1.1 billion per year• 10% of UK emissions come from livestock (methane) and fertilizers (nitrous oxide)• UK farmers have damaged ecosystems: – 190,000 miles of hedgerow – 97% of meadows – 60% ancient woodland – 50% fall in farmland bird population• Soil degradation• Increased flood risk (14% in some areas)
  • 9. Water problems – Kenya, a case study• Lake Naivasha (Kenya) loss of life and shoreland ecosystems• Caused by – Pesticide pollution – Water extraction – Migrant worker deforestation
  • 10. Lake Naivasha today
  • 11. Lake Naivasha• Flower and vegetable growers blamed• Water diverted from rivers (remember the Aral Sea?)• 12 flower firms remove 25% of river water (enough for 100,000 small farmers)
  • 12. Flowers• Supplied to UK and European markets• Flowers are 90% water• Exporting water = virtual water• Water exported from a dry to a wet region!• In direct competition to poor farmers and pastoralists• Flower companies take both land and water
  • 13. Virtual water import/export
  • 14. Links• (Lake Naivara)• (agroindustry in Peru)• (economic effects of agro industry)• export#The-global-flower-trade (the global flower trade)• /%3Fpage%3Dfiles/VirtualWaterFlows&usg=__86Wdki0ByJxNOMmRfTUG5Iy4hm4=&h=650&w=1270&sz=526&hl=sv&start=3&zoom=1&um=1&itbs =1&tbnid=9gjCJtzc4pwLbM:&tbnh=77&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dvirtual%2Bwater%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dsv%26sa%3DX%26tbs%3Disch:1 (global virtual water trade)
  • 15. MiningExtraction of raw materials
  • 16. Mined materials• Metals (mined as ores) • Construction materials – Iron, copper, gold etc – Sand, gravel• Industrial minerals • Energy materials – Lime (calcium oxide), – Coal, oil, gas soda ash (sodium carbonate)
  • 17. Impacts of mining• Habitat destruction – Opencast mines – Disposal of waste rock – By-products of refining – Smelting
  • 18. Impacts of mining• Pollution – Extraction, e.g. mercury – Transport, emissions – Processing, e.g. Slag – Leaching of toxic by-products• Land forms – Derelict land – Artificial hills – Physical and visual pollution
  • 19. Increased air travel• Transport produces 25% of global CO2 emissions• Aviation accounts for 13% of transport emissions• = total of between 2 and 3%• Shipping transport accounts for 22%• But aircraft are worse because:
  • 20. Air transport emissions• Nitrogen oxides from exhausts help create ozone• Jet-trails = more clouds = intensified greenhouse effect• Night-flights = increased condensation (temperature difference) = more clouds than day- flights• 25% of flights are night flights• But contribute 60 – 80% of contrail warming