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Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
Geo 1 Resources and footprints
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Geo 1 Resources and footprints

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Transcript

  • 1. Resources
  • 2. How do we define resources?• Pretty much anything of use to human beings• Subjective – depends on who uses them• Culture – defines what is a resource• Technology- limits access to resources
  • 3. Resources - examples• Oil – used for energy and manufacture• Wood – used for fuel, paper, construction• Gold – value as a commodity, decorative and electronic uses• Soil – used for growing food• People – used as a labour force• Snow – used to generate income from recreation
  • 4. How do we categorize resources?• Perpetual resources• Renewable resources• Non-renewable resources• BUT• Renewable resources can also run out!
  • 5. Totally renewable resources (perpetual resources)• Water – hydro-electric power• Wind – power• Sunlight – solar power• Tides – wave power
  • 6. ”Renewable” resources• Livestock• Fish• Trees• Clean water• Soil
  • 7. Non-renewableresources• Oil• Coal• Gas• Mineral wealth**may be recycledand used continuously
  • 8. Footprints• Measures human demand on the environment
  • 9. • Just now many renewableFootprints and usingresources resources are being usedEnergy resources too fastMineral resourcesOrganic resourcesWater resources • The population keepsLandscape growing • Development means more spending power • This means that consumption is on the increase
  • 10. • We are continously finding more efficient ways to harvest our resources• But what is the impact?
  • 11. Ecological footprints• This is the impact that humans have on biomes• Amount of biospace needed for balance• Land required for crops• Pasture land for grazing• Forests for fuel, material and environment• Oceans• Infrastructure for housing industry and transport• Energy – land reqd for absorbing CO2
  • 12. Current figures• USA 9 – 10 ha per person• UK 5 – 6 ha per person• South Africa 2 – 3 ha per person• Afghanistan 0,2 ha per person• 1 hectare = 10,000 square metres (100 x100)• Current availability 1.9 ha per person
  • 13. Managing resources• According to current figures and resource use then…• Using resources at the same rate as the USA the planet can support 1.2 billion• Using resources at the same rate as Bangladesh the planet can support 22 billion
  • 14. Environmental sustainability• Environmental Sustainability Index ESI• Calculated from 21 indicators• Countries given ranking and 0-100 score• Top = Switzerland with score of 95.5• Second = Sweden with score of 93.1• Not all countries are ranked
  • 15. More ecological footprints – top 16
  • 16. So let’s get this straight…• Sweden ranks second on the Environmental sustainability index• And has an ecological footprint of 7.53 (ha per person)• Current estimates are that the planet can sustain 1.9 ha per person• OK…..• This is because Sweden is sparsely populated
  • 17. Limits to growth• Current figures 1.9 ha per person• This is known as carrying capacity (the term may be used in other fields)• Could this be changed? Can carrying capacity be increased?
  • 18. Carrying capacity• The maximum population that an environment can sustain indefinately – For most species food and water are the only variables – For humans many other factors, such as sanitation, can affect carrying capacity
  • 19. Calculating impact I=P.A.T• I = Impact• P = population• A = Affluence (measured by GDP)• T = Technological factor (a variable)
  • 20. Carrying capacity - theories• Thomas Malthus (1766 – 1834)• Wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population• This outlines the Malthusian Growth Model
  • 21. Malthusian Growth Model• Population increases exponentially• Food supplies increase arithmetically• Therefore population growth will outstrip food supplies• Leading to population checks
  • 22. Malthuisian population checks• Positive checks: – Increase death rate • war, disease, famine, environmental collapse• Preventative checks: – Lower birth rate • birth control, either individual or state controlled • May be enforced, as in China • Or encouraged by education and financial benefits
  • 23. Neo-Malthusianism• (new malthusianism)• Current theories and policies favouring birth control to reduce birthrates and overpopulation• Issues: – Religion – Human rights
  • 24. Ester Boserup (1910 – 1999)• Wrote The Conditions of Agricultural Growth• Stated that population growth will result in agricultural intensification• In other words through efficiency and technology carrying capacity may be increased when needed
  • 25. Agricultural intensification• The British agricultural revolution – Occured over several centuries – Developments in • Crop rotation • Land use • Tools and technology • Land enclosure – Reduced famine, thus increased population which in turn allowed the industrial revolution
  • 26. Irrigation• Watering crops artificially insteadof waiting for rain• Puts a strain on sources of water (rivers)• Can lead to cross-border conflicts over water• (example India/Pakistan)
  • 27. 20th century: The green revolution• Application of new technologies• Pesticides and fertilizers• More modern machinery• Expanded infrastructure• Hybrid seed varieties• Lead to greatar commercialisation
  • 28. Environmental impacts• Monocropping – reducing biodiversity – Loss of valuble species/genetic traits• Pesticides – species destruction (”pests”)• Erosion and deterioration of soils – Dessication – Compaction – Nutrient depletion
  • 29. Other impacts• Increasing population…!• Health – spread of genetic disorders and diseases, e.g. cancer• Socioeconomic change – rural unemployment – Increased rich/poor disparity – Globalisation weakens smaller markets • E.g. food imports to Africa cheaper than local produce
  • 30. Deforestation in Borneo• Trees cut for their wood• Land used for monoculture (e.g. oil palms)
  • 31. From this…To this…

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