Digital Divide 2.0

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Digital Divide 2.0

  1. 1. Global Digital Divide 2.0: Always Off in an Always On World STIA-422: Information Technology (IT) in a Changing World November 4, 2008 Gaurav Mishra
  2. 2. Introduction Emerging Markets + Emerging Technologies The intersection of technology, culture and development www.gauravonomics.com
  3. 3. Digital Divide
  4. 4. Digital Divide Source: ITU-UNCTAD World Information Society Report 2007
  5. 5. World Map: Computer Penetration Source: United Nations Global Development Goals Indication
  6. 6. World Map: Internet Penetration Source: Emiel van Wegen based on World Internet Stats data
  7. 7. World Map: Optical Fiber Source: Tata Communications
  8. 8. Price of Broadband Access Japan $0.06 per 100 kbps (0.002% of average monthly wage) vs. Mozambique $361.83 per 100 kbps (1400 times average monthly wage) Source: Wired Magazine based on ITU data
  9. 9. Price of Broadband Access Source: ITU-UNCTAD World Information Society Report 2007
  10. 10. Reasons for Differential Technological Achievement
  11. 11. Three Types of Technology Transfers Innovation  2 1  3 Adaption Diffusion  Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects 2008
  12. 12. Three Types of Technology Transfers Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects 2008
  13. 13. Technological Achievement Index Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects 2008
  14. 14. What is Digital Divide 2.0?
  15. 15. The 4 Cs of Digital Divide 2.0 1 2 3 4 Computing Devices Connection Content Capabilities The Digital Binary Group: Focus on Access (Computers + Connection) The Digital Inequality Group: Focus on Application (Content + Capabilities) Source: Technology and Social Inclusion, Mark Warschauer, 2003; Eszter Hargittai, 2001
  16. 16. Digital Divide 2.0 D Semantic Web i Mobile 2.0 g Web 2.0 i t E-Mail a SMS l D i v i Mobile d Internet e Broadband 3G 2 . Next Generation Networks 0
  17. 17. The Promise/ Myth of Leapfrogging
  18. 18. The Promise of Leapfrogging Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0bh3HP51rJs
  19. 19. The Economic Value of Mobile As much as 8% of GDP Source: McKinsey & Co, 2006, Leonard Waverman et al, 2005
  20. 20. Why is Mobile an Exception? mobile use Source: ITU-UNCTAD World Information Society Report 2007; The Economist, 2008
  21. 21. The Myth of Leapfrogging Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects 2008
  22. 22. Mobile Interface for Illiterate Users Source: Jan Chipchase et al, Nokia Research, 2007
  23. 23. Telecom Usage at the BOP Source: Teleuse at the Bottom of the Pyramid, LIRNEasia, 2007 Video1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MScc9UNeX7k Video 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4pfAy_A7Klk
  24. 24. Telecom Usage at the BOP 94% have used a phone Only 38% of non-owners but only 13% own one, plan to buy a phone in >70% use public phones the next 2 years > 90% can only afford a Average of one call per startup cost of <$30 & day, 78% local, , 72% to monthly cost of <$5 stay in touch, 90% of them <5 min long 99% have monthly incomes of <$150 Only 35% use SMS, <10% use it daily 30% want to buy a fixed phone 66% of non-users don’t 72% haven’t heard of the know how to use SMS internet, <<1% have used it 95% use pre-paid cards All figures for India, 2006 Image: http://flickr.com/photos/dipu87/2553076909/ Data: Teleuse at the Bottom of the Pyramid, LIRNEasia, 2007
  25. 25. How to Bridge Digital Divide 2.0?
  26. 26. Government Policy is Important Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects 2008
  27. 27. Grassroots Innovations Are Equally Important
  28. 28. VNL WorldGSM MicroTelecom Low cost, rugged, solar powered mobile network to serve rural populations profitably Source: www.vnl.in
  29. 29. Grameen Village Phone (B’desh) Microloans to help poor rural woman become public phone operators Source: www.grameenfoundation.org
  30. 30. United Villages (India) Drive-by wifi network to connect remote villages to the internet, with a time lag Source: www.unitedvillages.com
  31. 31. QuestionBox (India) Use human mediation to connect illiterate users to the internet Source: www.questionbox.org
  32. 32. EkGaon Mobile Framework (India) Paper-mobile hybrid document management system for semi-literate users Source: www.ekgaon.com
  33. 33. BabaJob/Microsoft Research(India) Text-free job search engine Source: www.babajob.com /tf/textfree.htm
  34. 34. Ushahidi (Kenya) Mapping crisis information through text messages sent by users Source: www.ushahidi.com
  35. 35. MobiChange (India) Lowest common denominator mobile social networking platform Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pulguita/323775179/
  36. 36. Discussion - Digital divide: narrowing or widening? - Leapfrogging: myth or reality? - Solution: government policy or grassroots innovations?
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