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Digital Divide 2.0

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  • 1. Global Digital Divide 2.0: Always Off in an Always On World STIA-422: Information Technology (IT) in a Changing World November 4, 2008 Gaurav Mishra
  • 2. Introduction Emerging Markets + Emerging Technologies The intersection of technology, culture and development www.gauravonomics.com
  • 3. Digital Divide
  • 4. Digital Divide Source: ITU-UNCTAD World Information Society Report 2007
  • 5. World Map: Computer Penetration Source: United Nations Global Development Goals Indication
  • 6. World Map: Internet Penetration Source: Emiel van Wegen based on World Internet Stats data
  • 7. World Map: Optical Fiber Source: Tata Communications
  • 8. Price of Broadband Access Japan $0.06 per 100 kbps (0.002% of average monthly wage) vs. Mozambique $361.83 per 100 kbps (1400 times average monthly wage) Source: Wired Magazine based on ITU data
  • 9. Price of Broadband Access Source: ITU-UNCTAD World Information Society Report 2007
  • 10. Reasons for Differential Technological Achievement
  • 11. Three Types of Technology Transfers Innovation  2 1  3 Adaption Diffusion  Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects 2008
  • 12. Three Types of Technology Transfers Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects 2008
  • 13. Technological Achievement Index Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects 2008
  • 14. What is Digital Divide 2.0?
  • 15. The 4 Cs of Digital Divide 2.0 1 2 3 4 Computing Devices Connection Content Capabilities The Digital Binary Group: Focus on Access (Computers + Connection) The Digital Inequality Group: Focus on Application (Content + Capabilities) Source: Technology and Social Inclusion, Mark Warschauer, 2003; Eszter Hargittai, 2001
  • 16. Digital Divide 2.0 D Semantic Web i Mobile 2.0 g Web 2.0 i t E-Mail a SMS l D i v i Mobile d Internet e Broadband 3G 2 . Next Generation Networks 0
  • 17. The Promise/ Myth of Leapfrogging
  • 18. The Promise of Leapfrogging Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0bh3HP51rJs
  • 19. The Economic Value of Mobile As much as 8% of GDP Source: McKinsey & Co, 2006, Leonard Waverman et al, 2005
  • 20. Why is Mobile an Exception? mobile use Source: ITU-UNCTAD World Information Society Report 2007; The Economist, 2008
  • 21. The Myth of Leapfrogging Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects 2008
  • 22. Mobile Interface for Illiterate Users Source: Jan Chipchase et al, Nokia Research, 2007
  • 23. Telecom Usage at the BOP Source: Teleuse at the Bottom of the Pyramid, LIRNEasia, 2007 Video1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MScc9UNeX7k Video 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4pfAy_A7Klk
  • 24. Telecom Usage at the BOP 94% have used a phone Only 38% of non-owners but only 13% own one, plan to buy a phone in >70% use public phones the next 2 years > 90% can only afford a Average of one call per startup cost of <$30 & day, 78% local, , 72% to monthly cost of <$5 stay in touch, 90% of them <5 min long 99% have monthly incomes of <$150 Only 35% use SMS, <10% use it daily 30% want to buy a fixed phone 66% of non-users don’t 72% haven’t heard of the know how to use SMS internet, <<1% have used it 95% use pre-paid cards All figures for India, 2006 Image: http://flickr.com/photos/dipu87/2553076909/ Data: Teleuse at the Bottom of the Pyramid, LIRNEasia, 2007
  • 25. How to Bridge Digital Divide 2.0?
  • 26. Government Policy is Important Source: World Bank Global Economic Prospects 2008
  • 27. Grassroots Innovations Are Equally Important
  • 28. VNL WorldGSM MicroTelecom Low cost, rugged, solar powered mobile network to serve rural populations profitably Source: www.vnl.in
  • 29. Grameen Village Phone (B’desh) Microloans to help poor rural woman become public phone operators Source: www.grameenfoundation.org
  • 30. United Villages (India) Drive-by wifi network to connect remote villages to the internet, with a time lag Source: www.unitedvillages.com
  • 31. QuestionBox (India) Use human mediation to connect illiterate users to the internet Source: www.questionbox.org
  • 32. EkGaon Mobile Framework (India) Paper-mobile hybrid document management system for semi-literate users Source: www.ekgaon.com
  • 33. BabaJob/Microsoft Research(India) Text-free job search engine Source: www.babajob.com /tf/textfree.htm
  • 34. Ushahidi (Kenya) Mapping crisis information through text messages sent by users Source: www.ushahidi.com
  • 35. MobiChange (India) Lowest common denominator mobile social networking platform Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pulguita/323775179/
  • 36. Discussion - Digital divide: narrowing or widening? - Leapfrogging: myth or reality? - Solution: government policy or grassroots innovations?