M.e. e&tc final seminar report for semester 1


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M.e. e&tc final seminar report for semester 1

  1. 1. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 A Seminar report On “Introduction of DASH7 Technology” Submitted by Mr. Karavade Gaurav Hemant Under the guidance of Prof. Nigvekar A. R. In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF ENGINEERING (PART- I) IN ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING K.I.T.’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KOLHAPUR DEPARMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING 2012-2013 SHIVAJI UNIVERSITY: KOLAPUR 416008 1
  2. 2. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. Karavade Gaurav Hemant. Of M.E (Electronics & Telecommunication) have satisfactorily completed the seminar work entitled “Introduction of DASH7 Technology” A seminar report submitted towards the partial fulfillment for the degree ofMaster of Electronics & Telecommunication engineering as laid down by the Shivaji University, Kolhapur Department of Electronics & Telecommunication engineering 2012-2013 Dr. M.S.Chavan. Prof. A. R. Nigavekar HEAD OF DEPARTMENT GUIDE Dr.V.G.Sangam. PRINCIPAL 2
  3. 3. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to express my deepest gratitude and sincere thanks to myguide Prof. A. R. Nigvekar For his constant encouragement and valuable guidanceduring the completion of my seminar. Being under his guidance has benefited mecomprehensively. His appreciation during the good times and their valuable guidanceduring the times wherein we were stuck at some points had been boosting our morals. I am very thankful to Dr. M. S. Chavan. Head of Department of electronics for hisvaluable co-operation. Finally to express my sincere gratitude to all those who helped me directly orindirectly in many way for completion of this seminar. Mr. Karavade Gaurav Hemant 3
  5. 5. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 ABSTRACT DASH7 is a new, market alliance with the goal of increasing the market size for ultra-low-powerwireless product lines by cultivating a global network of partners in this space. As the name hints,the basis for DASH7’s goal is with the ISO 18000-7 standard for low power RF. Together, DASH7 partners affectively address interoperability as well as the development andratification of improved functions into the standard. DASH7 is an open source wireless sensor networking standard for wireless sensor networking,which operates in the 433 MHz unlicensed ISM band. DASH7 provides multi-year battery life,range of up to 2 km, indoor location with 1 meter accuracy, low latency for connecting with movingthings, a very small open source protocol stack, AES 128-bit shared key encryption support, anddata transfer of up to 200 kbit/s. DASH7 is the name of the technology promoted by the non-profitconsortium called the DASH7 Alliance. 5
  6. 6. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 1. INTRODUCTION DASH7 is an open source wireless sensor networking standard for wireless sensor networking,which operates in the 433 MHz unlicensed ISM band. DASH7 provides multi-year battery life,range of up to 2 km, indoor location with 1 meter accuracy, low latency for connecting with movingthings, a very small open source protocol stack, AES 128-bit shared key encryption support, anddata transfer of up to 200 kbit/s. DASH7 is the name of the technology promoted by the non-profitconsortium called the DASH7 Alliance DASH7 follows the ISO/IEC 18000-7 open standard for the license-free 433 MHz ISM band airinterface for wireless communications. 433 MHz is available for use worldwide. The wirelessnetworking technology was originally created for military use and has been re-purposed for mainlycommercial applications in place of proprietary protocols like ZigBee or Z-Wave. Note that "Range" is highly dependent on many factors including the transmitters output power,such that higher power transmitters will be able to communicate at further distances at theimmediate cost of increased power consumption. In addition, "Range" is also affected by thecommunication data-rate, such that higher data-rates (e.g. 200-250kbit/s) will yield a lowercommunication distance than 10kbit/s. Lower data-rates are more immune to channel-noise, thuseffectively increasing signal-to-noise ratio and receiver sensitivity, as a result. The "Average PowerDraw" also depends heavily on the communication duty cycle, i.e. how often the radio and micro-controller wake-up to send a packet. In addition to duty cycle, the average power draw is almostentirely dependent on the silicon-chip manufacturers implementation, and has nothing to do withthe choice of frequency (i.e. 433 MHz or 2.4 GHz). For example, CC2530 consumes 29mA at+1dBm transmit power, JN5148 consumes 15mA at +3dBm, and ATmega128RFA1 14.5mA at3.5dBm. Sleep currents of the micro-controller with RAM retention is also equally important. Howoften you consume energy is application dependent. 6
  7. 7. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 2. LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1. Bluetooth: Bluetooth is a proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over shortdistances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz) fromfixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security.Created by telecoms vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternativeto RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 16,000member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumerelectronics. The SIG oversees the development of the specification, manages the qualificationprogram, and protects the trademarks. To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must be qualified tostandards defined by the SIG. A network of patents is required to implement the technology and arelicensed only for those qualifying devices. The Bluetooth wireless technology is basically divided in two different systems: Basic Rate (BR) and Low Energy (LE). The BR systems can include the Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) mode and a High Speed (HS) mode.Pure BR systems (v1.2) are up to 721 Kbps [BSIGG]. BR/EDR (v2.0 and v2.1) offers the 2 Mbps (referred as π/ 4 -DQPSK) and 3 Mbps (referred as8DPSK) modes and HS (v3.0) can reach 24 Kbps [BSIGS]. LE systems (v4.0) have lowerconsumption and lower data rates. Versions 2.1 and 2.0 are backward compatible. The Bluetooth LE has an entirely new protocol stack compared to the standard protocols definedin v1.0 v2.0 and v3.0, previously named WiBree and Bluetooth ULP (Ultra Low Power). The wakeup latency usually is of about 3 seconds. 7
  8. 8. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 2.2. Wi-Fi: Wi-Fi is a popular technology that allows an electronic device to exchangedata wirelessly (using radio-waves) over a computer network, including high-speedInternet connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local areanetwork (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers(IEEE) 802.11 standards". However, since most modern WLANs are based on these standards, theterm "Wi-Fi" is used in general English as a synonym for "WLAN". A device that can use Wi-Fi (such as a personal computer, video game console,smartphone, tablet, or digital audio player) can connect to a network resource such as the Internetvia a wireless network access point. Such an access point (or hotspot) has a range of about 20meters (65 feet) indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can comprise an area assmall as a single room with walls that block radio waves or as large as many square miles this isachieved by using multiple overlapping access points. "Wi-Fi" is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance and the brand name for products using the IEEE802.11 family of standards. Only Wi-Fi products that complete Wi-FiAlliance interoperability certification testing successfully may use the "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED"designation and trademark. Wi-Fi has had a checkered security history. Its earliest encryption system, WEP, proved easy tobreak. Much higher quality protocols, WPA and WPA2, were added later. However, an optionalfeature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), has a flaw that allows a remote attackerto recover the routers WPA or WPA2 password in a few hours on most implementations.[2 Somemanufacturers have recommended turning off the WPS feature. The Wi-Fi Alliance has sinceupdated its test plan and certification program to ensure all newly certified devices resist brute-forceAP PIN attacks. 8
  9. 9. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09Protocol Release Frequency Modulation Max data Inner range rate802.11a 1999 5 GHz OFDM 54 Mbps 35 m802.11b 1999 2.4 GHz DSSS 11 Mbps 35 m802.11g 2003 2.4GHz OFDM/DSSS 54 Mbps 38 m802.11n 2009 2.4/5 GHz OFDM 150 Mbps 70 m (Table 1: Wi-Fi protocols overview) 2.3. Zigbee: ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks. ZigBee devices areoften used in mesh network form to transmit data over longer distances, passing data throughintermediate devices to reach more distant ones. This allows ZigBee networks to be formed ad-hoc,with no centralized control or high-power transmitter/receiver able to reach all of the devices. AnyZigBee device can be tasked with running the network. ZigBee is targeted at applications that require a low data rate, long battery life, and securenetworking. ZigBee has a defined rate of 250 kbit/s, best suited for periodic or intermittent data or asingle signal transmission from a sensor or input device. Applications include wireless lightswitches, electrical meters with in-home-displays, traffic management systems, and other consumerand industrial equipment that requires short-range wireless transfer of data at relatively low rates.The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensivethan other WPANs, such as Bluetooth. Network Layer: ZigBee Routers and the ZigBee Coordinator are given routing capacities, and can discoverneighbours and routes to those neighbours. This is performed through the AODV (Ad-hoc On 9
  10. 10. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09Demand Vector) protocol, as follows : a route request is broadcasted to all neighbours, whichfroward it to all their neighbours, and so on until the searched for device receives the request, andunicasts its route answer to the source via the lowest cost path. Application Layer: The application Layer is the one which the end user is faced with. It defines ZDOs (ZigBeeDevice Objects), whose roles comprise keeping the role played by the device in the network(namely ZC, ZR or ZED) and managing device discovery, requests to join a network, security andmore. The Application Support Sublayer stores and maintains binding tables as a database. ZigBeealso defines device profiles, so that any application could ideally dispose of a protocol perfectlyadapted to its needs and constraints. 2.4. Dash7: DASH7 is an open source wireless sensor networking standard for wireless sensor networking,which operates in the 433 MHz unlicensed ISM band. DASH7 provides multi-year battery life,range of up to 2 km, indoor location with 1 meter accuracy, low latency for connecting with movingthings, a very small open source protocol stack, AES 128-bit shared key encryption support, anddata transfer of up to 200 kbit/s. DASH7 is the name of the technology promoted by the non-profitconsortium called the DASH7 Alliance. DASH7 follows the ISO/IEC 18000-7 open standard for the license-free 433 MHz ISM band airinterface for wireless communications. 433 MHz is available for use worldwide. The wirelessnetworking technology was originally created for military use and has been re-purposed for mainlycommercial applications in place of proprietary protocols like ZigBee or Z-Wave. DASH7 utilizes the 433.92 MHz frequency, which is globally available and license-free.433.92 MHz is ideal for wireless sensor networking applications since it penetrates concrete andwater, but also has the ability to transmit/receive over very long ranges without requiring a largepower draw on a battery. The low input current of typical tag configurations allows for batterypowering on coin cell or thin film batteries for up to 10 years. 10
  11. 11. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 Note that 433.92 MHz is the same as 13.56 multiplied by the number 32, or 2^5th power, whicheffectively means DASH7 radios can utilize the same antennae used by 13.56 MHz radios includingNear Field Communications, FeLiCa, MiFare, and other near-field RFID protocols. 11
  12. 12. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 3. DASH7 TECHNOLOGY Real Time Localization Systems have become a common modern utility a n d avariety of different implementations exist. Real-Time Localization Systems (RTLS) are notlimited to outdoor localization with GPS. By using other sensor technologies or acombination of sensor technologies; indoor localization can also be achieved. Ane x a m p l e of s u c h a l o c a l i z a t i o n system is proposed by When in OpportunisticSeamless Localization. In order to enable new applications which are capable ofperforming indoor localization, the new DASH7 Mode 2 (D7M2) technology will beused. This new technology is an open s o u rc e wireless sensor networking standardwhich operates at a frequency of 433 MHz. DASH7 is a variation on active RadioF r e q u e n c y Identification (RFID) technology but with a much greater range due to thef r e q u e n c y . Its fields of application are building automation, access control, l ocat i o n -based services, m o bi l e a d v e r t i s i n g and logistics. Depending upon where s u c h a system would be implemented the r a n ge o fcommunication varies f r o m 10 meters to a theoretical maximum of 10 kilometers. This is amuch greater range compared to other Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies. Inaddition to this greater range, these devices will consume less power. DASH7 follows the ISO/IEC 18000-7 open standard for the license-free 433 MHzIndustrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band air interface for wireless communications. Thewireless networking technology was originally created for military use and has beenrepurposed for commercial applications instead of proprietary protocols like ZigBee or activeRFID. DASH7 technology allows communication from tag-to-tag, has a much greaterrange than active RFID and benefits from the 433 MHz work- ing frequency which makesit a suitable replacement for mesh-networks 3.1 Features: 1. Frequency: - 433.92 MHz. 2. Range: - 10 m - 10 km. 3. Data Rate: - max 200 kbit/s. 4. Power: - Min.1 µW - Max. 29mW. 5. Multi-hop:- 2-hops. 12
  13. 13. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 3.2 BLAST: DASH7 incorporates the concept of “BLAST” in its operation. In comparison to typicalnetworks, BLAST does not rely on sessions because this is unnecessary in theapplications DASH7 is used for. These networks will have a more sporadic datatransmission which is typically slower but results in a lower power usage. 1. Bursty: - small and abrupt data transfers, that excludes v i d e o or audio content. 2. Light: - packet sizes are limited to 256 bytes. In order to send larger packets,consecutive packets may be sent but are to be avoided if possible. 3. Asynchronous: - There is no need for handshaking or synchronization betweenDASH7 d e v i c e s . The main method of communication is by command and response. 4. Transitive: - a DASH7 system of devices is inherently mobile o r transitional. Unlikeo t h e r w i r e l e s s t e c h n o l o g i e s DASH7 i s upload-centric, not d own l o ad centric. Thusdevices do not need to be managed extensively by fixed infrastructure. Most wireless technology throughout time has been designed to replace wired networks. Wirednetworks cannot possibly be conceived to meet the needs of DASH7 applications. DASH7applications are inherently mobile; devices and infrastructure can be mobile, and it is evendifficult to consider an alternate, wired network that could provide roughly similar function. BLAST as a concept fits into this application model, and it suits low power RF extremely well.DASH7 systems should b e u n d e r s t o o d n o t as convent i onal networks where theorganization is top-down and hierarchical, but instead as somewhat structure less pools of data whichwere not previously accessible. We call this concept "ambient data," and it is possible largely by the"transitive" attribute. Virtues of simplicity are able to cascade into all other areas of operationbecause we are able to ignore the cost of maintaining a top-down hierarchy structure. Whereother standards have floundered by their lack of focus, these BLAST design principlesdramatically clarify the requirements for implementing an aggressively low power RF standard. 13
  14. 14. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 093.3. Tag-to-Tag Communications: Unlike most active RFID technologies, DASH7 supports tag-to-tag communications which,combined with the long range and signal propagation benefits of 433 MHz, makes it an easysubstitute for most wireless "mesh" sensor networking technologies. DASH7 alsosupports sensors, encryption, IPv6, and other features.3.4. Communication range: The standards above do not all put the same limits on transmit power. For Bluetooth, ZigBee andISO 18000-7, 0dBm @ 50 Ohms is the reference value which yields the nominal range as discussedin product or standards literature. It is certainly possible to improve range by increasing thetransmission power or increasing the sensitivity of the receiver, although governments often haveregulations regarding allowable transmit power. Incidentally, both of these techniques also increasethe power requirement of the system. It the form below, the Friis equation solves for free- space communication range when receiversensitivity (Pr), transmission power (Pt), receiver antenna gain (Gr), transmitter gain (Gt), andwavelength (λ). The range value de- rived here is highly optimistic for real world scenarios – at leastbecause it doesn’t account for bandwidth or modulation – but more refined models of the Friis doexist and the ranges values these produce remain proportional to the basic form, nonetheless. Thebasic relationship is that as frequency goes up, range goes down. The first three rows show that a 433MHz radio can have the same range as a similar 2.45GHz radioeven if the 433 MHz antenna system is only 3% as efficient. This is important in real worldapplications where antennas are routinely de-tuned by environmental factors, often quite severely. Inthe lower rows, typical book values are plugged-in to show the theoretical maximum range of eachresearched solution at 1 mW transmit power (0 dBm). These values deviate from the nominal valuesdue to many factors: signal bandwidth, modulation, noise, and interference to name a few (a morethorough study of these effects is available in the appendix). 14
  15. 15. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 (Fig. 1. Graph of frequency versus range) From the Friis equation of the last section one can determine that, with all else equal, thelower frequency wave has a greater ability to penetrate space than does the higher frequencywave (i.e. it has a longer range). This relation- ship is also a topic of quantum physics.Early quantum physicist Louis De Broglie postulated that lower frequency waves can berepresented by smaller particles, whereas higher frequency waves are represented by largerparticles. It’s beyond the scope of this paper to examine why, but the fact is that the smaller particles are more mobile carriers of energy and travel farther. A case in point is the US Navy’s radio for communicating with deep-submerged submarines anywhere in the world. It runs out of a station in Michigan at the astonishingly low frequency of 76 Hz, and its waves (or particles) penetrate the Earth itself. Besides their better permittivity characteristics, lower frequency waves have longer wavelength and diffract comparatively easily. (Diffraction is also outside the scope of this paper). The important thing to remember is that when encroached by interfering objects, longer wavelengths will more easily “bend” around these obstacles as light bends when put in proximity to a lens. This property contributes to the non-line-of-sight attribute in table. 15
  16. 16. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 093.5. Interoperability: DASH7 devices use a single global frequency, which simplifies deployment and maintenancedecisions relative to specifications using multiple frequencies. A neutral, third party testingauthority also conducts conformance and interoperability testing under the DASH7 Certifiedprogram. DASH7 Alliance was created to promote an adoption of active tag technology based on ISO18000-7 standards in commercial environments. DASH7 technology is the de-facto standard in themilitaries of many nations. Many RFID deployments (especially in the transportation and logistics) use active and passivetags. As an example, an ocean container may use active tags (433MHz). Pallets and cases insidemay use EPC global Gen2 passive tags (860-920 MHz range). The active tag could store ID’s of allpallets inside, in addition to other data. This common scenario reflects that devices will have toimplement several standards (from different standards organizations). In the above scenario, anactive tag will implement several standards: I. ISO 18000-7, ISO 18047-7 and DASH7 extensions. II. EPC global Tag Data Standards 1.5.III. Sensor data based on IEEE 1451.7 (ISO 21451.7).IV. GPS data based on NMEA 0183. 16
  17. 17. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 093.6. Power Spectral Density Analysis: (Fig. 2. nominal, modeled power spectral densities of a low energy Bluetooth transmission & a ZigBee (802.15.4) transmission.) All power spectral densities (PSDs) from figures are plotted on a horizontal axis of Hertz and avertical axis of arbitrary, relative energy, representative of equal power transmission (nom. 1mW) in allPSDs. Energy values from figure may thus be compared to figure Figures indicate that the power of the ISO transmission is very different in shape than either the Bluetooth spectrum, which uses narrowband FSK modulation, or the ZigBee spectrum which uses QPSK and heavy spreading. We can assume that channel filtering does exist in each of these solutions, and that it takes the standard approach of passing 90% or more of the band power. In conjunction with figure 2.4b table 2.4a shows that ISO 18000-7 has relatively good in-band power utilization and that it does not, in fact, employ a narrowband modulation. Low energy Bluetooth, on the other hand, does use an 17
  18. 18. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 especially narrowband modulation, and this should be considered in any study concerning interference. ZigBee employs substantial spectrum spreading techniques and thus has the lowest bandwidth efficiency. (Fig.3. nominal, modeled power spectral densities of an ISO 18000-7 transmission matched to the specified modulation index of 1.8 and an ISO 18000-7 transmission that is slightly mismatched (modulation index = 2.0). One final observation is the nature of the power peaks at ± 55.55 kHz in the frequency-matched ISO18000-7 PSD. If special filtering is used, roughly 70% of the power of the ISO signal can be receivedfrom only 40 kHz bandwidth – yielding a Hz/bit of 1.44. When using receivers designed to takeadvantage of this special property, ISO 18000-7 can deliver the interference robustness of a widebandmodulation and the bandwidth efficiency (i.e. free-space propaga- tion capacity) of a narrowbandsolution. 18
  19. 19. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 093.7. Dash7 Alliance: The DASH7 Alliance is the body responsible for overseeing the development of the ISO 18000-7 standard for wireless sensor networking, as well as interoperability certificationof DASH7 devices and the licensing of DASH7 trademarks. The DASH7 Alliance is anindustry consortium whereas "DASH7" is the name of the technology. The DASH7 Alliance is a privately held, not-for-profit trade association founded in February2009. The DASH7 Alliance is headquartered in San Ramon, California. The DASH7 Alliance itselfdoes not make, manufacture or sell DASH7-enabled products but owns the DASH7 trademark.Manufacturers may use the trademark to brand certified products that belong to a class of wirelesssensor networking devices based on the ISO 18000-7 standard. DASH7 wireless sensor networking technology is operating in the license-free433.92 MHz spectrum. DASH7 has multi-kilometer range, multi-year battery life, sensor andsecurity support, tag-to-tag communications, and a maximum bitrate of 200kbit/s. DASH7 devicesoperate on a single global frequency and are interoperable “out of the box” regardless of applicationand by design do not require cumbersome application profiles. DASH7 is the brand given to theISO 18000-7 standard for active RFID similar to the use of the WiFibrand for IEEE802.11 communications. The DASH7 Alliance today consists of four main working groups overseen by a board ofdirectors. There are a number of subgroups within the working groups.The working groups are as follows:3.7.1. Technical Working Group: Receives end user requirements from the Outreach Working Group and begins to translate theminto technical specifications for submittal to ISO. Within the TWG, there are also a number ofsubgroups including security and low frequency wakeup. 19
  20. 20. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 093.7.2. Test and Certification Working Group: Co-ordinates the Alliances efforts around conformance and interoperability testing, as well asthe actual granting of DASH7 Certified status to submitted products that passes the DASH7 Testand Certification process.3.7.3. Standards and Regulatory Working Group: Co-ordinates the submittal of specifications to ISO and the subsequent voting by members inISO. The SRWG also coordinates the Alliances interactions with various regulatory bodies aroundthe world and liaison relationships with other standards and industry consortia.3.7.4. Outreach Working Group: Gathers end user requirements for submittal to the outreach working group and also leads allpublic outreach for the Alliance. Within the OWG, there are also a number of subgroups includingautomotive, container sensing and security, building automation and smart energy, and governmentaffairs.3.8. ISO/IEC 18000-7 Air interface standard: ISO/IEC 18000-7:2009 defines the air interface for radio frequency identification (RFID)devices operating as an active RF tag in the 433 MHz band used in item management applications.It provides a common technical specification for RFID devices that can be used by ISO technicalcommittees developing RFID application standards. ISO/IEC 18000-7:2009 is intended to allow for compatibility and to encourage inter-operabilityof products for the growing RFID market in the international marketplace. ISO/IEC 18000-7:2009defines the forward and return link parameters for technical attributes including, but not limited to,operating frequency, operating channel accuracy, occupied channel bandwidth, maximum power,spurious emissions, modulation, duty cycle, data coding, bit rate, bit rate accuracy, bit transmissionorder, and, where appropriate, operating channels, frequency hop rate, hop sequence, spreadingsequence, and chip rate. ISO/IEC 18000-7:2009 further defines the communications protocol usedin the air interface. 20
  21. 21. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 4. APPLICATIONS 4.1. Commercial Applications: Similar to other networking technologies that began with defense sector(e.g. DARPA funding the Internet), DASH7 is similarly suited to a wide range of applications indevelopment or being deployed including: 1. Building Automation, Access Control, Smart Energy:- DASH7s signal propagation characteristics allow it to penetrate walls, windows, doors, andother substances that serve as impediments to other technologies operating at 2.45 GHz, forexample. For smart energy and building automation applications, DASH7 networks can bedeployed with far less infrastructure than competing technologies and at far lower total cost ofownership.[4] 2. Location-Based Services:- DASH7 is being used today for developing new location-based services using a range ofDASH7-enabled devices including smartcards, tickets, watches and other conventional productsthat can take advantage of the unique small footprint, low power, long range, and low cost ofDASH7 relative to less practical and high-power wireless technologies like WiFi or Bluetooth.Using DASH7, users can "check in" to venues in ways not practical with current check-intechnologies like GPS, that are power-intensive and fail indoors and in urban environments.Location-based services like Foursquare, Novitaz, or Facebook can exploit this capability inDASH7 and award loyalty points, allow users to view the Facebook or Twitter addresses of thosewalking past, and more. 3. Mobile advertising:- DASH7 is being developed for "smart" billboards and kiosks, likewise "smart" posters that canbe ready from many meters (or even kilometers) away, creating new opportunities for both tracking 21
  22. 22. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09the effectiveness of advertising spend but also creating new e-commerce opportunities. DASH7spotential to automate check-ins and check-outs provides essential infrastructure to location-basedadvertising and promotions. 4. Automotive:- DASH7 is increasingly seen as the next-generation tire pressure monitoring system given itsoperation at the same frequency (433 MHz) as nearly all proprietary TPMS systems today. DASH7-based TPMS will provide end users with more accurate tire pressure readings, resulting in greaterfuel economy, reduced tire wear and tear, and greater safety.[7] DASH7 products are also beingdesigned and used for other automotive applications like supply chain visibility. 5. Logistics:- DASH7 is being used today for tracking the whereabouts of shipping containers, pallets, rollcages, trucks, rail cars, maritime vessels, and other supply chain assets, providing businesses withunprecedented visibility into their everyday operations. Also: cold chain management (vaccines,fresh produce, cut flowers, etc.), whereby DASH7 is used for monitoring the in-transit temperatureand other environmental factors that can impact the integrity of sensitive products. Since NATO militaries continue to deploy DASH7 infrastructure, defense suppliers (see Classesof Supply) are expected to also deploy DASH7 infrastructure given NATO requirements for supplychain visibility beyond just physical boundaries of a given military and deep into the supply chainsof an array of suppliers around the world. DASH7 is expected to be adopted similar to theway barcoding was rapidly adopted by commercial companies, many of whom are also defensesuppliers, following the LOGMARS barcoding mandate from the U.S. Department of Defense in1981. 4.2. Defense Applications: DASH7 is being used extensively by the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) and othermilitaries. In January 2009, DoD awarded a $429 million contract for DASH7 devices, making itone of the largest wireless sensor networking deployments in the world, especially when combined 22
  23. 23. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09with DoDs $500 million + installed base of non-DASH7 infrastructure which DoD is upgrading toDASH7. Commenting on the U.S. Department of Defenses move to an RFID III multi-vendor contractearlier this year, Lt. Col. Pat Burden, the DoDs Product Manager Joint-Automatic IdentificationTechnology, stated, "This is a significant milestone for DoD in that this migration will not only giveDoD and other Federal agencies customers best-value solutions at competitive prices, but it movesus to ISO 18000-7:2008 compliant products, thus broadening interoperability with DoD and ourcoalition partners." NATO military forces are required to interoperate with DoDs DASH7 network and are requiredto deploy interoperable infrastructure. All NATO militaries are deploying or in the process ofdeploying DASH7 infrastructure. 23
  24. 24. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 5. DEVOLEPER SUPPORT 5.1. Open Tag: DASH7 developers benefit from the open source firmware library called Open Tag, whichprovides developers with a "C"-based environment in which to develop DASH7 applicationsquickly. So in addition to DASH7 (ISO 18000-7) being an open source, ISO standard, Open Tag isan open source stack that is quite unique relative to other wireless sensor networking (e.g. ZigBee)and active RFID (e.g.[10] proprietary) options elsewhere in the marketplace today. Current versions of Open Tag use the open source Open Tag License. Open Tag is a very purpose-built OS that offers a low level radio driver, PHY & MAC controlsystem, event and session manager (OS-like), network protocols (M2NP, M2DP, M2AdvP) routing,raw data, group synchronization transport protocols (M2QP) query / data acquisition, data transferfile system read, write, create, delete, etc. C API library functions (Programming apps in C on thesame device), Serial API(s) Client-Server (Communicating the apps via another device). All versions of Open Tag are available as a git repository via Source forge & Git Hub, and someversions are available as archives. 5.2. Semiconductor Industry Support: DASH7 developers receive support from the semiconductor industry including multiple options,with Texas Instruments, ST Microelectronics, Melexis, Semtech and Analog Devices all offeringDASH7 hardware development kits or system-on-a-chip products.[11] Texas Instruments also joinedthe DASH7 Alliance in March 2009 and announced their CC430 system-on-a-chip product forDASH7 in December 2009.[12] Analog Devices also announced their ADuCRF101 single chipsolution for DASH7 in November 2010. 24
  25. 25. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 One semiconductor industry approach is the combination of DASH7 with MEMS sensingproducts: "We strongly believe that the next big wave in sensors will be driven by the combination of thesensing function with wireless transmission – and ISO 18000-7 is the right solution for security andasset monitoring applications," said Benedetto Vigna, group vice president and general manager ofthe MEMS and Healthcare Product Division at STMicroelectronics in the companysannouncement. "The Smart Web-Based Sensor HDK is a best-in-class development platform thatwill help the adoption of wireless sensors across the industry." ST Microelectronics announced the beta version of its DASH7 Smart Sensor developers kit inMay 2009 in collaboration with Arira Design. Another semiconductor industry approach focuses on automotive: "There is a great potential for DASH7 technology in the automotive area," said Gilles Cerede,Product Line Manager for Wireless Automotive & Sensing at Melexis. "We see a perfect fitbetween DASH7 features and performance and the requirements of wireless safety applications. Forexample the ultra-low power consumption matches the TPMS life time constraints, while the"multi-kilometer" communication range is perfectly suited for car-to-car and car-to-infrastructureapplications. Last but not least, DASH7 is compatible from a frequency point of view with existingRemote Keyless Entry systems." DASH7 is also seen as a complement to 13.56 MHz NFC (Near Field Communications), whereboth technologies can "co-exist" in the same silicon with only minor adjustments to the NFC siliconto accommodate DASH7. 25
  26. 26. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 5.3. Developer Test Tools and Certification Program: The DASH7 Alliance, through its partnership with the world renowned MET Laboratories,Inc. offers developers a complete set of test tools to allow for early testing of new DASH7 devicesto ensure early in the development process that they will ultimately pass DASH7 Certifiedinteroperability testing. Once products are completed, DASH7 Alliance members can access METLaboratories test and certification facilities and, upon successfully completing certification testing,those members may use the "DASH7 Certified" logo on products that have successfully completedAlliance testing procedures conducted by MET. 26
  27. 27. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 6. ISM Band The industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands are radio bands (portions of the radiospectrum) reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial,scientific and medical purposes other than communications.[1] Examples of applications in thesebands include radio-frequency process heating, microwave ovens, and medical diathermy machines.The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radiocommunication using the same frequency, so these devices were limited to certain bands offrequencies. In general, communications equipment operating in these bands must tolerate anyinterference generated by ISM equipment, and users have no regulatory protection from ISM deviceoperation. Despite the intent of the original allocation, in recent years the fastest-growing uses of thesebands have been for short-range, low power communications systems. Cordless phones, Bluetoothdevices, NFC devices, and wireless computer networks all use the ISM bands. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-R in 5.138, 5.150, and 5.280 of the Radio Regulations.Individual countries use of the bands designated in these sections may differ due to variations innational radio regulations. Because communication devices using the ISM bands must tolerate anyinterference from ISM equipment, unlicensed operations are typically permitted to use these bands,since unlicensed operation typically needs to be tolerant of interference from other devices anyway.The ISM bands do have licensed operations; however, due to the high likelihood of harmfulinterference, licensed use of the bands is typically low. In the United States of America, uses of theISM bands are governed by Part 18 of the FCC rules, while Part 15 contains the rules for unlicensedcommunication devices, even those that use the ISM frequencies.The ISM bands defined by the ITU-R are: Frequency range Bandwidth Center frequency Availability 6.765 MHz 6.795 MHz 30 KHz 6.780 MHz Subject to local acceptance13.553 MHz 13.567 MHz 14 KHz 13.560 MHz 27
  28. 28. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 0926.957 MHz 27.283 MHz 326 KHz 27.120 MHz40.660 MHz 40.700 MHz 40 KHz 40.680 MHz Region 1 only and subject to local433.050 MHz 434.790 MHz 1.84 MHz 433.920 MHz acceptance902.000 MHz 928.000 MHz 26 MHz 915.000 MHz Region 2 only 2.400 GHz 2.500 GHz 100 MHz 2.450 GHz 5.725 GHz 5.875 GHz 150 MHz 5.800 GHz24.000 GHz 24.250 GHz 250 MHz 24.125 GHz61.000 GHz 61.500 GHz 500 MHz 61.250 GHz Subject to local acceptance122.000 GHz 123.000 GHz 1 GHz 122.500 GHz Subject to local acceptance244.000 GHz 246.000 GHz 2 GHz 245.000 GHz Subject to local acceptance Regulatory authorities may allocate other parts of the radio spectrum for unlicensedcommunication systems, but these are not ISM bands For many people, the most commonly encountered ISM device is the home microwaveoven operating at 2.45 GHz. However, in recent years these bands have also been shared withlicense-free error-tolerant communications applications such as Wireless Sensor Networks in the915 MHz and 2.450 GHz bands, as well as wireless LANs and cordless phones in the 915 MHz,2.450 GHz, and 5.800 GHz bands. Because unlicensed devices already are required to be tolerant ofISM emissions in these bands, unlicensed low power uses are generally able to operate in these 28
  29. 29. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09bands without causing problems for ISM users; ISM equipment does not necessarily include a radioreceiver in the ISM band (a microwave oven does not have a receiver). In the United States, according to 47 CFR Part 15.5, low power communication devices mustaccept interference from licensed users of that frequency band, and the Part 15 device must notcause interference to licensed users. Note that the 915 MHz band should not be used in countriesoutside Region 2, except those that specifically allow it, such as Australia and Israel, especiallythose that use the GSM-900 band for cell phones. The ISM bands are also widely used for Radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications with the most commonly used band being the13.56 MHz band used by systems compliant with ISO/IEC 14443 including those used by biometricpassports and contactless smart cards. In Europe, the use of the ISM band is covered by Short Range Device regulations issuedby European Commission, based on technical recommendations by CEPT and standards by ETSI.In most of Europe, LPD433 band is allowed for license-free voice communication in additionto PMR446. Wireless LAN devices use wavebands as follows:  Bluetooth 2450 MHz band  HIPERLAN 5800 MHz band  IEEE 802.11/Wi-Fi 2450 MHz and 5800 MHz bands IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450MHz ISM bands. Wireless LANs and cordless phones can also use frequency bands other than the bands sharedwith ISM, but such uses require approval on a country by country basis. DECT phones use allocatedspectrum outside the ISM bands that differs in Europe and North America. Ultra-wideband LANsrequire more spectrum than the ISM bands can provide, so the relevant standards such as IEEE802.15.4a are designed to make use of spectrum outside the ISM bands. Despite the fact that theseadditional bands are outside the official ITU-R ISM bands, because they are used for the same types 29
  30. 30. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09of low power personal communications, these additional frequency bands are sometimes incorrectlyreferred to as ISM bands as well. Also note that several brands of radio control equipment use the 2.4 GHz band range for lowpower remote control of toys, from gas powered cars to miniature aircraft. Worldwide Digital Cordless Telecommunications or WDCT is an ISM band technology that usesthe 2.4 GHz radio spectrum. 30
  31. 31. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 7. CONCLUSION We can conclude that by comprising with other wireless sensor network standard DASH7 hastoo many advantages. But we have to improve its data rate by using proper data compressionmethod. We can also develop the library for DASH7 on TINY OS. We see the advantages of DASH7 compare to other standards by using following table: (Table 2. Comparison chart of wireless networks) 31
  32. 32. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 8. FUTURE SCOPE 1. Preparation of library for accommodating DASH7 on tiny OS. 2. Increase data rate of the signal by using suitable data compression method. 3. Multimedia data transmission using DASH7 standard. 4. Modulation method for data transmitting more efficiently. 32
  33. 33. M.E. (Sem-1) Introduction of DASH7 Technology Roll No: 09 9. REFERANCES 1. Mike McInnis, IEEE P802.15.4f Active RFID System Call for Applications. http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG4f.htm,21 January 2009. 2. M. Laniel, J.P. Emond, A.E. Altunbas, RFID Behavior Study in Enclosed Trailer/Container for Real Time Temperature Tracking. UF/IFAS Center for Food, Distribution and Retailing, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, University of Florida, 28 June 2008. 3. M. Petrova, L. Wu, P. Mahonen, J. Riihijarvi. Interference Measurements on Performance Degradation between Colocated IEEE 802.11g/n and IEEE 802.15.4 Networks. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Networking, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 2007. 4. SY Shin, HS Park, S Choi, WH Kwon, Packet Error Rate Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 under IEEE 802.11b Interference.Seoul, Korea: School of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Seoul National University, 2008. 5. M. Weyn, “ Opportunistic seamless localization,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Antwerp, March 2011. 6. Wireless Communication : Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, IEEE 802.15.4, DASH7 by Helen Fornazier, Aurélien Martin, Scott Messner on 16 march 2012 33