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virtualization and hypervisors

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  • Full virtualization:- Each virtual machine monitor provides each Virtual Machine with all the services of the physical system, including a virtual BIOS, virtual devices and virtualized memory management.This combination of binary translation and direct execution provides Full Virtualization as the guest OS is fully abstracted (completely decoupled) from the underlying hardware by the virtualization layer. The guest OS is not aware it is being virtualized and requires no modification. Full virtualization is the only option that requires no hardware assist or operating system assist to virtualize sensitive and privileged instructions.
    Paravirtualization:- Paravirtualization is different from full virtualization, where the unmodified OS does not know it is virtualized and sensitive OS calls are trapped using binary translation. The value proposition of paravirtualization is in lower virtualization overhead, but the performance advantage of paravirtualization over full virtualization can vary greatly depending on the workload.
  • Primary — The single main hypervisor used as the standard for virtualizing their servers.  The survey allowed only one response in this category.
    Also Use — Respondents were asked to report other hypervisors deployed in their datacenter.  There was no limit to the number of these responses and many organizations had more than one secondary hypervisor.
    Plan to Stop —This was to capture which hypervisors organizations have currently deployed but planned to cease using in the near future.
    Evaluating — Aberdeen asked if there were hypervisors that are being evaluated or considered for future datacenter deployment.
  • Transcript

    • 1. MAJOR PROJECT MID-EVALUATION
    • 2.  Detailed study of a virtual technology, its types, advantages and disadvantages.  Study about Hypervisors or Virtual Machine Monitors ,its types and examples.  Choose hypervisors for selection on the bases of its audience.  Compare hypervisors on technical differences,
    • 3.  4 tools to compare i.e. XEN, KVM, Vmware and VirtualBox. Initially, we will study all the features of the tools and hence compare them on technical ground. After comparing technically we will compare them on benchmarks such as cpu speed, network speed, i/o speed, etc. further we will compare on real worls scenarios such as ftp server, sql server, decompression/compression.  BENEFIT- As a result we will get the tool best for the virtualization in given situation. Some of the comparing attributes would be os support of tool, security issues, cpu speed, network speed, i/o speed, least rtt(round trip time), etc.  A number of research works exist in the development of Hypervisor. However, the search for the ideal hypervisor continues.
    • 4. summary of all studied papers
    • 5. Virtualization allows multiple operating system instances to run concurrently on a single computer; it is a means of separating hardware from a single operating system.
    • 6.  Coexistence of Operating Systems on the same machine  Protection  Operating System research  Software testing and runtime debugging  Optimization of hardware utilization  Job migration  Virtual storage  Back Up an Entire Operating System  AND MANY MORE…..
    • 7. 1. CPU virtualization 1.1. full virtualization 1.2 para-virtualization 1.3 hardware assisted virtualization 2. Memory virtualization 3. Device and I/O virtualization
    • 8. Unlike Full virtualization, Paravirtualization involves modifying the OS kernel to replace nonvirtualizable instructions with hypercalls that communicate directly with the virtualization layer hypervisor.
    • 9.  Beyond CPU virtualization, This involves sharing the physical system memory and dynamically allocating it to virtual machines.  The operating system keeps mappings of virtual page numbers to physical page numbers stored in page tables. All modern x86 CPUs include a memory management unit (MMU) and a translation lookaside buffer (TLB) to optimize virtual memory performance.
    • 10.  The final component required beyond CPU and memory virtualization is device and I/O virtualization. This involves managing the routing of I/O requests between virtual devices and the shared physical hardware. The hypervisor virtualizes the physical hardware and presents each virtual machine with a standardized set of virtual devices as seen in Figure .
    • 11.  A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is a piece of computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines.  A computer on which a hypervisor is running one or more virtual machines is defined as a host machine.  Each virtual machine is called a guest machine.
    • 12.  Type 1 hypervisor is installed directly on bare-metal hardware, it doesn't require an additional OS, it is the OS, even it it is a light or minimal OS.  EX. Kvm and Xen  Advantages: System is thin, the hypervisor has direct access to the HW, higher density hardware.  Disadvantages: Really, Really large VMs are not supported, HW should support virtualization technology, costlier and Really bad console interface.
    • 13.  Type 2 is more of an application installed on an operating system and not directly on the bare-metal.  EX. VirtualBox and Vmware Workstation  Advantages: Run on a greater array of HW because the underlying Host OS is controlling HW access, Easy user interface, Data can be secured on the desktop .  Disadvantages: Decreased security, Loss of Centralized Management, Lower VM Density, Cannot support as many VMs are the first type.
    • 14. •Primary — The single main hypervisor used as the standard for virtualizing their servers. The survey allowed only one response in this category. •Also Use — Respondents were asked to report other hypervisors deployed in their datacenter. There was no limit to the number of these responses and many organizations had more than one secondary hypervisor. •Plan to Stop —This was to capture which hypervisors organizations have currently deployed but planned to cease using in the near future. •Evaluating — Aberdeen asked if there were hypervisors that are being evaluated or considered for future datacenter deployment.
    • 15.  Vmware(type 2) – Bhavya k. Saxena  XEN (type 1) – Gaurav suri  KVM (type 1)– Rishi Golyan  VirtualBox (type 2) – Pupul Saxena
    • 16.  Supports bridging existing host network adapters and share physical disk drives and USB devices with a virtual machine.  It can simulate disk drives. It can mount an existing ISO image file into a virtual optical disc drive so that the virtual machine sees it as a real one. Likewise, virtual hard disk drives are made via .vmdk files  VMware Workstation can save the state of a virtual machine (a "snapshot") at any instant. These snapshots can later be restored, effectively returning the virtual machine to the saved state.
    • 17.  Infrastructure : Vmware Virtual machine file system(VMFS), Vmware Virtual Symmetric Multi processing(SMP), Virtual Infrestucture web access, Vmware Vmotion, Vmware Distributed Resource Scheduler  Storage And Arrays:Fiber Channel SAN arrays, iSCSI SAN arrays and NAS arrays are widely-used storage technologies supported by Vmware Infrastructure to meet different data center storage needs  Ip Networks: Each computing server can have multiple gigabit Ethernet network interface cards(NICs) to provide high bandwidth and reliable networking to the entire data center
    • 18. proscons  Encrypts a virtual machine as a way to keep it from being used by unauthorized personnel  Each VM can now support up to 16 virtual CPUs and 16 cores per virtual CPU, up to 64GB of RAM  Can configure up to 20 virtual networks within a single instance of Workstation.  Availability of hardware-specific features to guests is constrained by the actual machine  VMware is overpriced.  Availability, reliability, Complexity issue.  Reduced application performance  Hyper-V and XenServer are better alternatives  Hardware compatibility  Application compatibility
    • 19.  Portability. VirtualBox runs on a large number of 32-bit and 64-bit host operating systems.  No hardware virtualization required.  Guest Additions. After installing the Guest Additions, a virtual machine will support automatic adjustment of video resolutions, seamless windows, accelerated 3D graphics and more. Hence, improving the performance of the guest OS and providing additional integration and communication with the host system.  Great hardware support.  Guest multiprocessing- VirtualBox can present up to 32 virtual CPUs to each virtual machine, irrespective of how many CPU cores are physically present on your host.  USB device support, Hardware compatibility, Full ACPI support, PXE Network boot, Built-in iSCSI support.  Multigeneration branched snapshots.  Clean architecture; unprecedented modularity.  Remote machine display.  Extensible RDP authentication, USB over RDP
    • 20.  Offers built-in GUI-based wizard for cloning a VM.  Offers built-in VM snapshot, and supports multiple snapshots.  Supports multiple types of disk image (e.g., vdi, vmdk, vhd, hdd, qed, qcow).  Supports multiple virtual monitors for a guest VM. Multiple virtual monitors belonging to a VM can be displayed in multiple windows of host machine, or via multiple physical monitors.  Can be installed on OS X, Windows 7, Windows 2008 Server, Solaris, OpenSolaris, FreeBSD host operating systems.  More frequent minor version upgrades.  Comprehensive built-in command-line interface for creating and running VMs (e.g., VBoxManage).
    • 21.  OVF localization (multiple languages in one OVF file) is not yet supported.  Cannot access NATed guest VMs from host machine without enabling port forwarding on host machine.  NATed guest VMs are isolated from one other, and cannot communicate with one another.  Bridged networking or host-only networking is required if guest VMs need to communicate with one another on the same Layer-2 network.  Can add up to eight vNICs to a guest VM, while VMware Player can create up to ten vNICs per guest VM. You can configure only four vNICs via VirtualBox GUI. To add more than four vNICs, you need to use VirtualBox CLI.  Does not support nested hardware-assisted virtualization.  No support for USB 3.0.
    • 22.  EFI (extensible Firmware Interface) support for hypervisor. Allows Xen to boot on machines which use EFI rather than a traditional BIOS  Support up to 4095 Host CPUs for 64 bit h/v (from 256)  Support for dom0 kernels compressed with xz  Per-device interrupt remapping (increases scalability)  Support for PVHVM guest direct physical IRQ injection (improves performance for PCI passthrough to Linux Guests)  Multiple PCI segment support  Lots of XSM / Flask fixes (security)  AMD SVM "DecodeAssist" support (AMD CPU feature that avoids emulation and increases performance)  Credit Scheduler tuning parameters: › sched_ratelimit_us › tslice_ms
    • 23.  AMD OSVW (OS Visible Workarounds): Disables OS workarounds for hardware errata which are not necessary to workaround in guests because it is handled at the host level.  Early boot time CPU microcode patching. Xen can supplied with the microcode image by the bootloader and load it early rather than relying on the domain 0 kernel to supply it later.  Improvements to paging and sharing, enabling higher VM density for VDI use-cases › Heavily reworked page sharing. This remains a tech preview though due to limited tools support.  Enhanced memaccess interfaces allowing increased introspection of guest memory by tools.  Initial support for nested virtualisation. This allows HVM guests access to hardware virtualisation features such that they can run their own hypervisor.
    • 24. proscons  It is more modernized than KVM, user friendly and can run without hardware support  Support for multiple hardware platforms  High security isolation features, independent of operating systems  Offers paravirtualization and hardware assisted virtualization  A different, user-friendly interface  It is not included in Linux except in recent versions  It has minimal power management features  It has a different dom0 structure increasing overload on CPU.  More complex than other hypervisors
    • 25.  NPT/EPT support (server boost)  KSM (share memory with COW)  Disk image cloning, sharing, snapshot  Ballooning  Live migration (nfs as shared storage)  Save and restore VM  Virtio paravirtualization  PCI-passthrough VT-D/IOMMU support
    • 26.  Each virtual CPU appears as a regular Linux process  Emulation is handle by a modified version of QEMU  Linux as a VMM  Resource management  The KVM control interface  Emulation of hardware
    • 27. proscons  It is free.  It is a part of Linux  Powerful CPU virtualization on Intel and AMD platforms, leverages hardware virtualization and Linux kernel, memory management, I/O capabilities  Real time scheduling  Powerful GUI  Powerful command line scripting tools for better productivity  Leverages security, kernel capabilities and memory managemnt of Linux  A bit dated  Difficult to master for novices and those used to GUI based usage  Very slow when CPU does not support virtualization and when it works in QEMU mode  Heavy I/O overhead  Lack of flexibility in device assignment  Issues in memory and power management
    • 28. 1. Host operating system support(virtualbox is better) 2. Ease of editing virtual machine’s configuration (virtualbox is better) 3. Usb support (vmware is better) 4. Range of virtual hard disks (virtualbox is better) 5. Remote connections (virtualbox is better) 6. VM cloning (virtualbox)
    • 29. 7. Ease of boot (vmware is better) 8. USB over RDP (virtualbox is better) 9. "Teleportation" migration functionality.(virtualbox is better) 10. Command-line options.(virtualbox is better) 11. Graphics(VMware is better) 12. Ovf support(vmware is better)
    • 30. 1. HOST OS - KVM isn't an option on older CPUs made before the virtualization extensions were developed, and it rules out newer CPUs (like Intel's Atom CPUs) that don't include virtualization extensions. 2. Red Hat drops XEN and anoints KVM 3. Market of KVM and XEN - If you're going with RHEL over the long haul, bank on KVM. If you're running on Amazon's EC2, you're already using Xen, and so on 4. Operating system overhead - Xen is not burdened with any operating system overhead that is unrelated to processing a series of guests on a given machine 5. Security - Xen ensures a high level of security via a variety of methods/features: guest isolation,priviliged access, small code base and operating system seperation
    • 31. 6. Maturity - The Xen hypervisor has been available for enterprise deployment since 2004 and is the first open source hypervisor to successfully be deployed by industry leading Linux vendors 7. Scheduling -Xen uses its own kernel for thread scheduling and dispatching virtual machines, while KVM, accepted into mainline Linux kernel sources, uses that kernel for these operations 8. Ease of use - KVM is generally considered easier to configure and operate given it is just a single module that you load in the Linux kernel. 9. Memory page sharing -XEN doesn't implement memory page sharing and KVM does it very efficiently. 10. Lack of Dom0 in kvm -KVM introduces many performance benefits, such as less I/O latency due to lack of Dom0 11. I/O and network operations – Kvm- VM -> Virtio -> CentOS with KVM XEN- VM -> PV-OPS Driver -> Dom0 -> Xen
    • 32. 1. CPU speed 2. Cache and Memory speed 3. i/o Disk access speed 4. Network Speed 5. Cryptography speed
    • 33. VMware VirtualBox KVM Xen SSE yes yes Yes yes SSE2 yes yes Yes yes SSE3 / SSSE3 yes / yes yes / no yes / no yes / yes SSE4 yes no no yes 1. VMware takes the lead in both ALU and FPU performance, but it is the integer speed which shows the higher advantage. 2. Only VMware and Xen present to the guest OS the SSSE3 and newer extensions. 3. The net result is that VirtualBox and KVM are on par with VMware, while Xen show some problems giving a considerably lower result.
    • 34. 1. While VMware, VirtualBox and KVM give us quite similar in results, Xen is behind the competitors. This can be a results of a more-heavy hypervisor or, more probably, of the “double encapsulation” of the guest system 2. The story is reversed now: Xen is slight faster, and least VirtualBox. 3. It seems that Xen do a very good use of the nested page table feature.
    • 35. 1.KVM is, by much, the slower hypervisor in the read test; VMware is best. 2.To us, the KVM results are due to very poor caching and great I/O overhead.
    • 36. 1. Watching the write test, we have a very different picture: the faster virtual machine is VirtualBox 2. To us, seems that VirtualBox use a write-back cache algorithm, while the others use a write- throught policy. 3. greater speed for VirtualBox, but also a greater risk of data loss 1 2 4 8 16 32 XEN 410,28 367,6 370,37 374,77 376,66 376,78 KVM 108,52 107,22 105,81 109,3 107,17 95,8 VBOX 2022,38 8548,59 4756,33 3162,37 1120,3 2044,4 VMWARE 216,63 267,01 332,63 361,53 359,8 393,46
    • 37.  ping -f 192.168.122.166 -c 25000 -s 1024 1. The results are quite close, with Xen only slight slower 2. We can see that KVM was the best performing virtual machine, with a privileged time dominated by IRQ servicing time: this means that the network-related syscalls executed quite fast on KVM. On contrary, Xen has a very high privilege time but a lower IRQ time: the network-related syscalls executed slowly. VMware as a extraordinary low IRQ time, probably a courtesy of its paravirtualized network driver, while VirtualBox is overall a decent performer.
    • 38. 1. Installation time 2. Web server test 3. Mysql performance 4. FTP server test 5. File compression/ Decompression test
    • 39.  VMware and Xen are very closely matched, while KVM is the real loser: it took over 30 minutes to complete, a 5-fold increase compared to VirtualBox!
    • 40. 1. Xen is really slow, the other hypervisors perform quite similarly here. As Apache creates a new thread for each new connection, it is entirely possible that the real culprit here is a very low speed in creating new threads. 2. VirtualBox seems to be the best user-level hypervisior, but it lag behind in kernel-level CPU time. At the other end, VMware has great kernel- level CPU time but the worst user-level time. Xen is the slowest machine, while VMware is the fastest.
    • 41. 1. Xen was the slowest machine, while VirtualBox was the fastest 2. Xen is again the slowest hypervisor, with a very great gap from the other. Well, it seems that we were right: MySQL is another well-threaded program, and Xen results are very low. On the other hand, KVM is a little faster that the others. 3. We see a very great dominance of privileged (kernel) time. It means that the system spend the most time on syscalls or IRQ servicing routines.
    • 42. 1. Xen-best- download vmware-best-upload 2. The results are not so homogeneous now: Xen is the least efficient hypervisor here showing syscall routines execute very slowly. 3. The download disk activity is so small thanks to the guest side caching. VMware is the most efficient machine, Xen is the least.
    • 43. 1. Apart Xen, which is slower, VMware, VirtualBox and KVM are quite paired each other. 2. KVM is very fast to both compressing and decompressing. 3. compression test, which is more CPU intensive, KVM and VirtualBox both have a quite strong advantage. In the decompression test, which is generally disk bound, we see that KVM lost the crown probably as a result of its no-so-quick disk subsystem, while Xen and VMware are slightly better.
    • 44. Test Best Worst Cpu speed Vmware Xen Cache subsystem Vmware Xen Memory subsystem Xen Vbox I/O speed Vbox KVM Network speed KVM Xen Cryptographic speed Vmware, KVM, Vbox Xen Installation time Vbox KVM Web server test Vbox followed by vmware Xen Sql server test KVM Xen FTP server test Vmware Xen Compression/ Decompression speed KVM / Vmware Xen / Vbox