Competency meaning, characteristics and types


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Competency meaning, characteristics and types

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Competency meaning, characteristics and types

  1. 1. Competency – Meaning, Characteristics and Types By Dr. G C Mohanta, Professor, Al-Qurmoshi Institute of Business Management, Hyderabad, India Competency Definition: Competency is any attitude, skill, behaviour, motive, or other personal characteristic that is essential for an individual to perform a job or, more importantly, differentiates „solid‟ from „outstanding‟ performance. Competencies Required by Employees The following are the competencies required by an employee for excellent performance: (i) Adaptability, (ii) Commitment, (iii) Creativity, (iv) Motivation, (v) Foresight, (vi) Leadership, (vii) Independence, (viii) Emotional Stability, (ix) Analytical Reasoning and (x) Communication Skills. Behavioural Competencies The following are the behavioural competencies required by the employees and the managers:
  2. 2. Behavioural Competencies Behavioural Competencies Core Competencies (all employees) Leadership Competencies (people managers & other leaders) Customer Service Teamwork and Cooperation Results Orientation Accountability Judgment and Decision Making Talent Management Transformers of Organisation Additional Behavioural Competencies Communication Conflict Management Creativity and Innovation Cultural Awareness Flexibility Initiative Negotiation and Influence Professional Development Project Management Teaching Others Team Leadership Competency Iceberg Model We can think of competencies in terms of an iceberg. Technical competencies (Knowledge, Skill) are at the tip - above waterline, clearly visible & easier to assess. Behavioral competencies (Self- image, Trait, Motive) are below the waterline and more difficult to assess and often harder to develop. Behavioral competencies can be understood as manifestations of (a) how a person views him or herself (self-image) and (b) how he or she typically behaves (traits) or which gives purpose & direction to his behaviour (motives).
  3. 3. Competencies The following are the competencies of an individual: Skill - A person's ability to do something well (Excellent in use of Microsoft Word) Knowledge - Information that a person uses in a particular area (speaks many languages) Self-image - A person's view of him or herself, identity, personality and worth (leader, or developer of people) Trait - A typical aspect of a person's behavior (good listener) Motive - What drives someone's behavior in a particular area (achievement, affiliation or power) Types of Competencies There are five types of competencies:
  4. 4. (i) Core Competencies, (ii) Technical/Professional/Functional Competencies, (iii) Behavioural Competencies, (iv) Threshold competencies and (v) Differentiating competencies. Core Competencies - Internal capability that is critical to the success of business, to be possesses by all individuals Technical/Professional/Functional Competencies - Specific knowledge & skills required to be effective in a job Behavioural competencies - Motives, traits & attributes that shape behaviour & reflect “how” one applies one‟s knowledge & skills in order to achieve results Threshold competencies - Characteristics required by a jobholder to perform a job effectively Differentiating competencies - Characteristics which differentiate superior performers from average performers Main Competency Components Definition: It explains what the competency means and provides the common language that everyone can understand in the same way Scale: It lays out a behaviour pattern for each level, beginning with basic behaviour and gradually increases. It represents a logical and progressive development sequence. The following are the definitions and scales of two important competencies: Relationship Building Competency Definition: Ability to develop contacts and relationships which are internal and external to the organization and to facilitate work efforts or to gain support and cooperation from others. Scale: The following are the five level scales: Level 1: Understands the significance of networking Level 2: Identifies/approaches key stakeholder contacts Level 3: Actively seeks relationship building opportunities Level 4: Organizes involvement of key players and Level 5: Builds a network of contacts Competency in Written Communication The following are the definitions and five level scales for writing and transmitting information:
  5. 5. Competency Characteristics The various attributes of a specific competency is known as the characteristics of the competency. The following are the two important competencies with their characteristics: Leadership Competencies – Characteristics: (i) Decisiveness, (ii) Strategic Orientation, (iii) Development of People, (iv) Team Leadership, (v) Achievement Orientation, (vi) Self-Confidence and Courage of Conviction, (vii) Impact and Influence and (viii) Relationship Building. Interpersonal Competencies – Characteristics: (i) Respect for client, (ii) Listening skills, (iii) Oral communication skills, ((iv) Written communication skills, (v) Leadership skills, (vi) Negotiation skills, (vii) Coaching skills, (viii) Presentation skills, (ix) Teamwork skills, (x) Facilitation skills, (xi) Conflict management skills, (xi) Ability to work in an environment of diversity, (xii) Interviewing skills and (xiii) Flexibility.