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Gary Beck On Residential Low Energy Design March 2009 Houston Texas and Mobile Alabama
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Gary Beck On Residential Low Energy Design March 2009 Houston Texas and Mobile Alabama

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A three part presentation on Residential Low Energy Design.

A three part presentation on Residential Low Energy Design.
Part 1 - Design Choices for Low Energy
Part 2 - Building Components & Methods
Part 3 - When the HVAC Quits

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Gary Beck On Residential Low Energy Design March 2009 Houston Texas and Mobile Alabama Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Residential Low Energy Design Gary Beck Gary Beck, Eco-Holdings
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONS Eco-Holdings LLC Houston, Texas Register Texas Engineering Firm Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP BS Civil Engineering, Duke (1976) • Texas Professional Engineer (1981) • Machinery • Power Generation, Energy , Oil & Gas • Manufacturing • Composites, Building Products • Engineering • Design, Inspection, Green Consulting • Websites: EcoEgr.com • TexasEngineer.com, TexasWindstorm.com © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 3. We are all crash test dummies © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 4. Real Crash Test Dummies Push the Envelope! © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 5. TODAY’S AGENDA • Design Choices for Low Energy • Building Components & Methods • When the HVAC Quits © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 6. 1.Design Choices for Low Energy © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 7. 1. Design Choices for Low Energy A Crash Course on Energy (just 3 slides) The Atomic Energy Commission’ s Latest Symbol © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 8. Energy is Important “Humanity’s Top Ten Problems for the next 50 years” 1. ENERGY 2. WATER 3. FOOD 4. ENVIRONMENT 5. POVERTY 6. TERRORISM & WAR 2003 6 Billion People 7. DISEASE 2050 10 Billion People 8. EDUCATION 9. DEMOCRACY 10. POPULATION Dr. R. E. Smalley, (1943-2005) 1996 Nobel Prize Winner Slide from 2005 Energy Presentation - Rice University Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09
  • 9. Energy is a Property It can’t be created or destroyed It is either making things happen NOW Kinetic or Potential It can make things happen LATER “YinYang” Ming Dynasty 1368 Yin in its highest form is freezing Yang in its highest form is boiling © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 10. A Crash Course on Efficiency (just 3 more slides) η Potential Kinetic = x * Energy Energy The Ability How How Much x = to Do Well Its Actually Something Done Gets Done The Greek Symbol ‘Eta’ is used to represent Efficiency * A loose interpretation © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 11. Did I loose you? Try this… Your Your Your x = Federal Gross Cash Government η Salary Money Low Efficiency is Rarely of Value © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 12. Design Efficiency = Better Living Your Yours Your x = Cash Designer’s Quality of Money Skill Life η x $ = Design Living © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 13. Codes, Planning η Officials, HOAs η Realtors & η Architects Financiers “Green” Home Builders & “η” Suppliers η Engineers Designers BIG DESIGN IMPACT © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 14. Low Energy Home building is not rocket science © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 15. Tomorrow VERY GREEN Today, rapidly 100,000 BC Going GREEN VERY GREEN An easy Band-Wagon 1950 to to jump on 2000 WELL… 500 AD VERY 1700 to GREEN 1940 VERY GREEN © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 16. First steps July 2008 Houston Ad – 18 mpg city and 19 mpg highway. are easy Was it 12 mpg before? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 17. EPA to soon fine McMansion & SUV owners ? 2007: Supreme Court ruled government could use 1970 Clean Air Act to regulate greenhouse gases as a pollutant. Saved in 2008: EPA reversed earlier conclusions – ‘no finding on whether global warming poses a threat to peoples health of welfare.’ Clean Air Act ‘ill-suited” and “the wrong tool for the job” for global warming July 2008 AP Article © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 18. Clinton: “it’s the economy, stupidquot; Bush: “we are addicted to oil.” Obama: Green Jobs + $20B for Green Construction and Energy Conservation + $13B to repair Public Housing © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 19. To have an effect, we…ourselves… “need to change as dramatically as we are changing our light bulbs”. Bill McKibben 2006 National Geographic Article A Deeper Shade of Green © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 20. Design Vs Technology New light bulbs? Big wow,… it only took 97 years © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 21. Why Light Bulbs Are Bad Things we do know- The more I know, the more I know I don’t know. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 22. CFL LED Incandescent Life Span (in hours) 1,500 10,000 60,000 Watts 60 14 6 Cost $1.345 $2.98 $39.95 KWh of electricty used over 60k hours 3,600 840 360 Electricity Cost (@ $0.15 per KWh) $540.00 $126.00 $54.00 Bulbs needed for 60k hours of usage 40 6 1 Equivalent 60k hour bulb expense $53.80 $17.88 $39.95 Total 60,000 Hour Lighting Spend $593.80 $143.88 $93.95 Calculate Your Energy Savings # of Light Bulbs 30 30 30 Your estimated daily usage (hours) 5 5 5 Days in month 30 30 30 Household savings over 60,000 hours (energy + replacement) Cost - 60,000 hrs (kW+replacement) $17,814.00 $4,316.40 $2,818.50 Savings by switching from Incandescent $0.00 $13,497.60 $14,995.50 Monthly household energy savings KWh used per month 270 63 27 Electricity ($0.15 /KWh) $40.50 $9.45 $4.05 Savings by switching from Incandescent $0.00 $31.05 $36.45 Yearly household energy savings KWh used per year 3,285 767 329 Electricity Cost (@ $0.15 per KWh) $492.75 $114.98 $49.28 Annual Savings $0.00 $377.78 $443.48 © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 23. Those numbers look good, but <1%* of NA Carbon impact on Global Warming CFL USA POTENTIAL IMPACT 100% = All NA Consumed Energy 100% = NA Carbon Global Warming 100% x 25% for “Households” = 25% 25% x 60% as Electricity = 15% 15 % x 25% for Lighting = 3.75% 3.75% x 40% as Incandescent* = 1.5% <1% 1.5% - ‘Day Lighting’ design trend = * Balance is already LFL or CFL per 2005 International Energy Agency study © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 24. …plus the things we don’t consider * Cost of 5 milligrams of mercury? Add $ for Fixture/Switch replacement? Add $ for recycle ($3 to $5?) * LED Bulbs coming down in cost and Super-efficient incandescent bulbs are under development (per GE). © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 25. Design VS Technology Does Day-lighting make more sense? Consider light access tubes for small areas Images from Solatube.com © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 26. Too Many Low Energy Details! COMPONENTS DESIGN FEATURES •SITE •ENERGY •SIZE •FOUNDATION •WATER •USE •FRAME •LIGHTING •ROOF •VENTILATION •ARCH. DESIGN •FINISHES © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 27. Top 2 ? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 28. #1 is Home Size © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 29. 1950 The average 1970 US Home is now about 1990 2500 sq. ft.* 2004 *NHBA: 2004-2350 sf, 2005-2400 sf … © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 30. • But # of people in homes < since 1950. • Houses now >> 2X bigger than in 1950 • Big houses use more Energy (Remember?... Humanity’s #1 Problem for the next 50 years is Energy) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 31. 2500 sf is NOT a McMansion!!! Nor is it a McShack Just how many < 2500 sf homes have you designed or built recently ? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 32. Breaking News … (duhh…) Energy use is less for smaller homes (built with the same system) 5000 sf < 2500 sf EE EE EE = Embodied Energy of a Building System (AWF, SIP SCIP, ICF, AAC) LCA = Life Cycle Assessment (cycle/years) is the same for the same building system © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 33. The ‘problem’ remains: Architects, Engineers, Builders, Suppliers, Realtors, and Mortgage companies are paid by 5000 sf $/sf @ $150/sf $$ 2500 sf = < @ $150/sf =$ © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 34. Big Idea… © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 35. Sell ‘gsf’ (green square feet) $/gsf > $/sf 4000 ‘gsf’ is > 5000 sf Food Outdoor 500 sf Garden Dining 250 sf (5000 sf of conditioned Hobby 2500 sf and ‘out of touch’ space) (conditioned) Exercise 250 sf 500 sf Porch © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 36. Sell ‘gsf’ (green square feet) $$~$$ but < Energy 4000 gsf 5000 sf @ $150/sf + @ $150/sf Savings =$$ =$$ © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 37. #2 is Energy U$age © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 38. 2001 Avg Annual Home Energy $1,600 2006 Avg Annual Home Energy $1,900 2010 Avg Annual Home Energy $2,500? Green Homes Save 30% to 50% 30% can easily equal… © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 39. $100,000 $80/MONTH SAVED IN ENERGY BILLS INVESTED AT 7% FOR 30 YRS © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 40. $300,000 $80/MONTH $80/MONTH $80/MONTH $80/MONTH $80/MONTH $80/MONTH SAVED IN SAVED BY SAVED BY SAVED IN SAVED BY SAVED BY ENERGY EFFICIENT SOLAR ENERGY EFFICIENT SOLAR (SUPER SPACE HW & PV (SUPER SPACE HW & PV INSULATED) DESIGN SYSTEM INSULATED) DESIGN SYSTEM © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 41. Orienting for Solar Energy is Simple (If You Do Not Have Trees!) Winter Solar Heat + Summer Solar Power © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 42. Plan for Solar Energy, for now or for the future* 10 Watt/sf =3 kW system? (10W/sf x 30’ x 10’ = 3000W) Zero, None, Nada, Not Possible. 16 Panels ! *or pay twice later? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 43. Solar Energy Performance and Costing is simple due to online tools A 3000 Watt System @30°S = 3,976 kWh/year System Cost $24,000 - Incentives ($7,200) NET COST $16,800 http://www.kyocerasolar.com/products/pv_calculator.html http://sharpusa.cleanpowerestimator.com/default.aspx http://www.findsolar.com/index.php?page=rightforme © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 44. Combine Solar w/Wind for Max. Incentive $ 3 kW PV (4,000 kWh/yr) System Cost $8/W = $24K + - 30% Incentive = ($7.2K) Net Solar PV Cost = $16.8K 10 kW Wind (6,000 kWh/yr) System Cost $5K/kW = $50K - $1K/kW (up to $4K) = ($4K) Net Wind Gen Cost = $46K Total Net Cost = $62.8K If Combined $24K+$50K = $74K - 30% Incentive = ($22K) Total Net Cost = $51.8K for Avg. Home’s 10,000 kWh/yr © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 45. 1. Design Choices for Low Energy 1. Smaller HVAC space. 2. Flexible use designs - outdoor kitchen, hobby, exercise, work-at-home. 3. Solar, Wind, Rainwater? At what point does higher satisfaction & low operating cost justify a higher fee? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 46. 2. Building Components and Methods © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 47. 2. Building Components & Methods The Roof • Has a huge impact on energy performance • Can produce energy and collect water • Use SIPs for simple strong shapes © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 48. The Attic • Dusty area for purlins, braces, & hot HVAC ductwork? • Or a cool semi-conditioned sealed attic space? • Or free conditioned living space? 'free' living space Attics can be 30% of a house's volume. This plan uses SIPs to reclaim an extra 250 sf of conditioned space. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 49. Roof & Attic ‘System’ My Attic SIP Attic © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 50. Roof & Attic ‘System’ Most attics are like a 1970’s engine compartment – a confused and dusty mess With 3D design it becomes a high value performance space © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 51. Good MEP Design is coordinated… not that that is ever needed Electrical Ground Rebar 24” x 18” Service Access (Latest house in my neighborhood) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 52. Ward Off Vampires with good MEP design Image from March 2009 National Geographic Why not put these on their own circuit? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 53. Exterior Walls A Growing Number of Choices Wood: Traditional & Advanced Framing SIP: Structural Insulated Panel Masonry: CMU, ICF (Insulated Concrete Forms), AAC (Aerated Concrete) Metal: Cold Formed Steel with EPS © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 54. Advanced Wood Framing A definition: Techniques that use less lumber, reduce material and resource cost, and increase insulation. Common AWF items • Modular design uses 2’ wall increments • ‘California’ corner framing • headers sized for loads (vs. prescriptive sizing) • 2x6 @24”o.c. (versus prescriptive) 2000 & 2003 IRC allow advanced framing ‘Advanced Wood Framing’ www.PathNet.org © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 55. Advanced Wood Framing • AWF saves 19% Wood Volume • Headers are Sized Saves waste & increases to R-9. Common ‘California’ corner saves 1 stud Header of (2)2X per corner (not OK everywhere) + ½” plywood is Saves lumber costs, provides more < R-2 insulation behind the wall. ‘Advanced Wood Framing’ www.PathNet.org © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 56. Advanced Wood Framing • 2x6@24 is stronger than 2x4@16 2x4@16” 2x6@24” > • 2x6@24”section area per lf is higher than 2x4@16” (4.16 vs. *(Moment of Inertia ‘I’ for 3.93 sq. in.) rectangle is I=Width*H^3/12; H for 2x6 is 5.5”, 3.5” for 2x4. • 2x6@24” Bending Stress Cubed & adjusted per lf of Md/2(I*) higher than 2x4@16” wall, the H^3 value for 2x6@24” is still 2.5 times that • Nails for 24”o.c. VS 16”o.c. is of 2x4@16” Note: This is not reduced by 1/3 but can be a comprehensive ‘strength’ comparison!) adjusted by tighter nailing. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 57. Interior Walls Useful Volume for MEP Systems (Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing ) Mechanical: Traditional Duct & Chases or Hi-Velocity HVAC (4” dia. with insulation) Electrical: Traditional + Wire Track Types Plumbing: Traditional, PEX & fire sprinklers © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 58. MEP Within Walls Mechanical: Hi-Velocity HVAC provides efficiency + new duct work routing options 4”o.d. 2”i.d. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 59. MEP Within Walls Mechanical: Hi-Velocity HVAC provides efficiency + new duct work routing options © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 60. MEP Within Walls Electrical: Cable Tray/Raceway approach • Eliminates or limits insulation penetrations • Easy as ‘Custom Builder’ 1x10 Baseboard • Allows flexibility and easier changes • OEMs now offer wood finishes and colors Wiremold.com © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 61. MEP Within Walls Plumbing: PEX? • Known problems? •Brass Manifold? • More plumbing in interior walls, limiting insulation penetrations • Fire sprinkler lines • Easier repairs/ changes • ‘Live’ water re-routing? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 62. The Floor as a System Slab On Grade: • Thermally coupled to 70°F soil – use it? • If R.H. controlled 50%, the surface remains cool & dry • UFAD (Under Floor Air Delivery) of 68F air (vs. 58F) saves Air Conditioning BTUs • Known UFAD Problems? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 63. The Floor as a System Slab with UFAD: •Cast UFAD ducts into the slab to save energy? • UFAD air is 8 to 10° cooler than ceiling delivery air • Air in contact with concrete slab uses http://www.cbe.berkeley.edu thermal mass as energy reservoir. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 64. The Floor as a System Crawl Space: Many schools of thought • Vent or Conditioned No Vent? • Frame and Insulate, or SIP? SIP subfloor combines structure and insulation © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 65. The Floor as a System Crawl Space: Conditioned No Vent •Additional cost & multiple steps •HVAC must control humidity & temperature • Need detailed drainage plan Specifications at www.crawlspaces.org © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 66. The Floor as a System Crawl Space: http://www.buildingscience.com © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 67. The Floor as a System Crawl Space: http://www.buildingscience.com © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 68. The Floor as a System Crawl Space: “Wrapping the floor framing in foam insulation lowers the equilibrium moisture content of the wood. Warm wood is dry wood. Warm wood is happy wood.” – Building Science Oct 2008 http://www.buildingscience.com © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 69. The Floor as a System Crawl Space: SIPs do this well © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 70. Insulation Systems Insulation Systems Insulated Components FIBERS SITE FRAMED: Fiberglass Wood Framed Cellulose Systems Cotton PANELS: FOAMS SIP Polystyrene Isocyranate SITE FORMED Closed Cell Urethane SCIP Open Cell Urethanes ICF BARRIER FOILS BLOCKS: Tech-Shield CMU Radiant Foils AAC © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 71. Insulation Systems ACH (Air Changes per Hour) Measurement of air infiltration compared to total volume of air in a home per hour. Older poorly sealed homes ~ 2.5 ACH Typical wood frame home ~ 1.75 ACH Tightly constructed ~ 0.35 ACH Extreme Tightly constructed ~ 0.1 ACH © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 72. Insulation Systems AWF Energy Performance 2x4 AWF: R-15 is possible 2x6 AWF : R-21 Hi-Density 5½” Batts* 2x6 AWF : R-24A Hi-Dens. 5½” Batts* +1”R5 Polystyrene Panel 2x6 AWF: R-20 Spray Foam (3.6/in.)** R-19 Sp. Cellulose(3.5/in.) * Theoretical Value - Batts leak air & Moisture ** Spray foam w/o vapor barrier can reach 1.2 ACH @-50 Pa. depressurization =~ 0.1 ACH © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 73. AWF Know Negative Issues • New way to frame • Field Quality Sensitive • Wood framing quality varies by builder. • Fast construction makes it difficult to verify quality © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 74. AWF Future? “A No-Brainer ” • Green Building using Trees is a ‘no brainer” • Is ‘biologically advantaged’ (grows on trees). • The Wood Products industry ‘gets it” (is planting more than it uses, has improved adhesives, etc.) • No system is more design flexible • More engineered products coming (engineered studs, snap-in and membrane insulation systems © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 75. Structural Insulation Systems I should’ve made him take my course again SIP Structural Insulated Panel • Invented by Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wisconsin in the 1930’s. • Alden Dow, a Frank Lloyd Wright student, built the first Styrofoam houses in Michigan in 1951. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 76. SIPs,… better than diamonds? Image from March 2009 National Geographic © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 77. Structural Insulation Systems SIP oof • Like an Oreo Cookie – 2 pcf R SIP EPS inside, OSB outside • Jumbo OSB = 8’ x 24’ SIP SIP Walls • Can be used for walls, roofs, cantilevers, and floors. • SIP industry grew in the 90’s • Structural Insulated Panel Association (SIPA; sips.org) was formed in 1990 SIP Floors! © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 78. Structural Insulation Systems SIP • Wood basis + Low energy SIP Environmental Benefits consumption reduces Carbon footprint • Fast growth wood does not deplete old-growth trees • Up to 70% less lumber used. • Factory precuts reduces labor, travel, & fuel usage • OSB laminated with water based adhesives that are water proof when cured. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 79. Structural Insulation Systems SIP • SIPs easily outperform framed walls in earthquakes and high winds - even hurricane forces. Curved SIPs are naturally stronger but also • Roofing is more likely much harder to make since top & bottom radii to remain attached are different. They only can be pressed one at (SIP roof panels resist a time. No known US suppliers or manufacturers offer these as standard – yet. edge delamination (photo from sips.uk.com) and do not buckle.) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 80. Structural Insulation Systems SIP Energy Performance 2x6 SIP: R-25 to R-22 2x8 SIP: R-29 SIP homes regularly reach 0.5 ACH Older poorly sealed homes ~ 2.5 ACH Typical wood frame home ~ 1.75 ACH Tightly constructed ~ 0.35 ACH Extreme Tightly constructed ~ 0.1 ACH © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 81. Structural Insulation Systems SCIP Structural Concrete Insulated Panel In a perfect world, all dwellings would be built from internally insulated monolithic masonry panel systems. There is just one minor problem... …this guy makes much more money building swimming pools and tunnels © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 82. Structural Insulation Systems ICF Inventing ICFs would have been • Insulated Concrete Forms a no-brainer,… if • Many OEM block systems I just had • ICF listed by the IRC in 2003 invented EPS first Stiffeners hold rebar and shape s rm o y S F avit EP l l C Wa © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 83. Structural Insulation Systems ICF Know Negative Issues • Must be securely braced and tightly aligned • Interior and exterior cladding is still required • No pitched roof system • Concrete and steel price sensitive • “Inverted Oreo” Thermal ICF is strong – maybe mass is ‘backwards’ even over-designed? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 84. Structural Insulation Systems AAC: Autoclave Another Aerated Concrete smart idea from the 20’s • AAC was invented in Sweden in 1920, and commercialized in 1940 by Josef Hebel • The ‘AAC’ name is used for the class of aerated monolithic concrete building systems – even those that are not autoclave produced. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 85. Structural Insulation Systems AAC: Autoclave Aerated Concrete • AAC Blocks are stacked like CMUs. • Most AAC blocks use a thinset mortar adhesive • Some are dry stacked. Courtesy of Flexcrete • All use rebar is placed at key points. • Standard ACI Masonry construction rules apply Courtesy of Liteblock © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 86. Structural Insulation Systems AAC Know Negative Issues • Lack of experienced AAC masons mean on the job training is common • Electricians, Plumbers, and HVAC trades less familiar. • Blueprints should include all structural detailing • Special fasteners needed AAC Recess Routing of plumbing © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 87. Structural Insulation Systems Insulated Masonry (SCIP, ICF, AAC) SCIP/ICF/AAC Energy Performance Must Use ‘Equivalent’ R Value Expect SCIP/ICF to reach 0.35 to 0.1 ACH Expect AAC to also reach 0.50 to 0.2 ACH Older poorly sealed homes ~ 2.5 ACH Typical wood frame home ~ 1.75 ACH Tightly constructed ~ 0.35 ACH Extreme Tightly constructed ~ 0.1 ACH © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 88. AWF SIP SCIP ICF AAC MY SCORECARD Industry Experience 2 2 1 2 2 (5 High, 1 Low) Energy Performance 3 4 5 5 5 (to Code=1, Best=5) Relative Strength 3 4 5 5 4 (5 High, 1 Low) Design Flexibility 5 3 3 4 5 (5 High, 1 Low) Direct Labor Cost 4 5 1 3 4 (5 Low, 1 High) MEP & Finish Cost 5 3 2 2 3 (5 Low, 1 High) Speed of Construction 4 5 2 3 3 (5 High, 1 Low) Relative Material Cost 5 3 5 2 2 (5 Low, 1 High) 31 29 24 26 28 TOTAL © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 89. Ventilation now critical Older homes & typical wood frame homes with 2.5 to 1.75 ACH ‘breath’ enough to vent humidity, gases/vapors, molds/pollens. Wood-Icynene, SIP/ICF/AAC are 0.1 to 0.5 ACH Today’s air tight homes ‘breath’ only 5% to 10% as much as older homes. Ventilation becomes critical for tight homes © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 90. Ventilation now critical Moisture in bathrooms, kitchens, laundries no longer flows to the outside. •Cooking for 4 adds 4.5 lbs/day •A shower adds 0.5lbs/day •Humans add 6 to 8 lbs/day •Dish washing 1.2 lbs/day Its easy to build up excessive moisture levels (and that’s just water vapor) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 91. Ventilation now critical Besides that clammy feel, and mold growth potential, it wastes energy* Add 15 min timer ventilation fans to every shower, bathroom, & kitchen. Or install humidity controlled ventilation * One lb water takes 970 BTUs to evaporate. To get that 1lb of water-gas to condense so we can remove it, that same 970 BTUs of energy must be removed by the cold Freon in your HVAC refrigeration loop, + the energy for multiple fan motors. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 92. Ventilation now critical 15 min timer + 250 cfm ventilation fan + flap- vents ~ $150 Broan QTXE110S Humidity controlled 110 cfm ventilation fan + flap vents ~ $230 © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 93. 3.When the HVAC Quits © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 94. 3. When the HVAC Quits …We’ve learned a hard few lessons Katrina- 1/2 million refugees Rita- choked TX highways © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 95. Uncertainty is the only certainty For Houstonians, uncertainty is currently a hurricane. We know when they are coming and where it will likely flood. We can plan, and we can leave. For most, it only gets drastic if the HVAC quits. So why not design for it? Predictions? 2005 way under, 2006 way over, 2007 way over… © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 96. Big Idea… Don’t Leave (unless told to) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 97. Make ‘Shelter-In-Place’ a residential design requirement © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 98. 3. When the HVAC Quits Now that we haven’t left, and the damn power is out maybe we should rethink our HVAC requirements My HVAC Disclaimer : I am not and HVAC designer, nor a HERS* rater, and I don’t do Manual-J’s**, but I do know energy. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 99. Before we get too far, here is how to find HVAC experts online ASHRAE www.ashrae.org (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating & Air-Conditioning Engineers) HERS ™ www.natresnet.org (Residential Energy Services Network) Manual-J ™ www.acca.org and www.manualj.com (Air Conditioning Contractors of America) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 100. Remember This? Outdoor 500 sf Dining 250 sf (5000 sf of conditioned Hobby 2500 sf and ‘out of touch’ space) (conditioned) 500 sf Porch © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 101. Your Energy Target ? Home Performance Classifications 1. “Baseline” - homes to current code 2. “Energy Star®” labeled homes 3. “Guaranteed Performance” homes *2000 EPA / Advanced Energy Study (Phoenix) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 102. Add Tight and Insulated R-13/1.75 ACH wood frame VS… Walls @ R-21 to R-25 (2x6 w/foam or 8”SIP) w/0.5 ACH + Roof @ R-25 to R29 (2x8 w/foam or 8”SIP or ) + HVAC in Conditioned Space © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 103. A 4th Classification? 1. (BL) quot;Baselinequot; homes to current code 2. (ES) “Energy Star®quot; labeled homes 3. (GP) quot;Guaranteed Performancequot; homes *2000 EPA / Advanced Energy Study (Phoenix) 4. (SI) “Super Insulated” homes ? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 104. BL = 4.2 kWh/sf or “4” ES = 3.5 kWh/sf or “3.5” (BL -16%) GP = 2.8 kWh/sf or “3” (BL-33%) SI = 2.1 kWh/sf or “2” That BL minus 50%! © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 105. AVG HOME = 2500 sq.ft. BL = 4 x 2500 = 10,000 kWh ES=3.5 x 2500 = 7750 kWh GP = 3 x 2500 = 7500 kWh SI = 2 x 2500 = 5000 kWh (BL - 50%) SI = 2 x 1650 = 3300 kWh (BL - 66%) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 106. 4000 gsf (2500 sf conditioned) At 50% of Baseline Performance Annualized kWh = 2 kWh/sf x 2500 sf = 5000 kWh per Year (Our little 3000W Solar PV made 3976 kWh per year) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 107. An Unrealistic Energy Target ? HVAC = currently 30% of kWh Goal for 4000 gsf : 2kWh/sf Home? 5000 kWh/yr x 30% = 1500 kWh/yr 5000 kWh/yr x 50% = 2500 kWh/yr (Our little 3000W Solar PV made 3976 kWh per year) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 108. Don’t Forget Comfort What does it take to be comfortable at home? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 109. Don’t Forget Comfort 30% to 50% Relative Clean Air Humidity Exchanges Low Utility Bills Comfort? Low dust, mold, allergens Low Maintenance 65 F to 75 F © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 110. Don’t Forget Comfort In HVAC-Speak its called “Sensible Load” Sensible Load for cooling refers to the dry bulb temperature of the building. Influence Factors: Heat and leakage from walls, attics, and crawl spaces, windows, doors, people, appliances, lights, sunlight heat, interior wall separations. © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 111. Don’t Forget Comfort Tight Walls, attics, and crawl spaces Efficient lighting Energy-Star appliances “Great Design” control of sunlight heat, interior wall separations in smart places. Windows & Doors People Living Inside (=Humidity, a need for Clean Air, etc.) © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 112. Don’t Forget Comfort Buy the Best Operable Windows Windows ASHRAE 90.1 U-COG: 0.571 U-Factor at center of glass SHGC: 0.404 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient VT: 0.732 Visible Transmittance SC: 0.43 Shading Coefficient Climate Pick Windows for Yours Warmer - Lower SHGC, Low-e coating outside Cooler - Lower U-factor, Low-e coating inside © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 113. Don’t Forget Comfort People Living Inside (with HVAC) Target Relative Humidity 45% to 60% Have HVAC designed for 50% R.H. R.H. control is temperature independent Ventilation on timers or - Ventilation on humidity controllers Okay, you’ve done great reducing your energy demand, but the power is out! – now what ? © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 114. Remember This? 5000 to 6000 BTU Window AC Unit (like Frigidaire FAA067P7A or GE ASM05LK) @ 1000 Watts … S-I-P Appliances Wattage Room Air conditioner 1,000 Outdoor Ceiling Fan 120 500 sf Table Fan 150 Dining Freezer (stand-alone) 600 Lights CF 25 250 sf Laptop 25 Television 20“ LCD 65 Hobby 2500 sf Total 1920 Watts Generators (conditioned) Craftsman 30250 – 2500 Watts Briggs&Stratton EM7 – 5000 Watts Intermittent Usage Wattage Toaster oven 1,225 500 sf Porch Whole house fan 500 Microwave oven 925 © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 115. And Remember This? A 3000 Watt System @30°S = 3,976 kWh/year Solar Energy as Back Up NET COST $16,800 http://www.kyocerasolar.com/products/pv_calculator.html http://sharpusa.cleanpowerestimator.com/default.aspx http://www.findsolar.com/index.php?page=rightforme © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 116. For Serious Shelter-In-Place 1. 3-day supply of water/person Additional Items to Consider 2. 1 gallon of water/person/day •Prescription medications/glasses •Important family documents 3. Food,3-day supply of non- •Insurance policies perishable food. •Identification/bank acct records 4. Infant formula/Pet food •Cash or traveler’s checks 5. Battery-powered radio •Sleeping bag or blankets w/NOAA Weather alert •long sleeved shirt/pants and 6. Flashlight and extra batteries sturdy shoes. •Chlorine bleach and medicine 7. First aid Whistle dropper 8. Dust mask •1 to 9 as disinfectant/ 16 drops 9. Moist towelettes per gallon for emergency drinking 10. garbage bags •Fire Extinguisher/Matches 11. Wrench or pliers to turn off •Mess kit/paper utilities cups/plates/utensils 12. Can opener for food •paper towels, Pen & Pencil •Games, card, puzzles, gameboys 13. Local maps http://www.ready.gov/america/index.html © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP
  • 117. Thanks! I’m I’m jealous jealous I’m I’m jealous jealous I’m I love my jealous new GSF home I’m I’m jealous jealous I’m jealous I’m jealous Email us at eco@ecoegr.com or Call ECO at 713-377-4209 © Eco-Holdings 2/4/09 Gary Beck, P.E., SECB, LEED AP