wireless3.ppt

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  • 52
  • PDC – Personal Digital Cellular PDC-P - PDC Packet
  • wireless3.ppt

    1. 1. Wireless Technologies
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Technology overview </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1G : AMPS; 2G : GSM; 2.5G : GPRS, EDGE; 3G : UMTS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satellite systems </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless LAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11, Bluetooth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless applications </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why Wireless? <ul><li>Human freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability v. Mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objective: “anything, anytime, anywhere” </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size, weight, power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure required </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital, operational </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. The m-Commerce “Revolution” <ul><li>1. High mobile phone penetration: 4 per PC worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>2. Convergence of the Internet and the mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>3. Transition to 3rd Generation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Personalization, location- & context-sensitive applications and services </li></ul>
    5. 5. Wireless Subscribers Worldwide SOURCE: UMTS FORUM (in millions) Year 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1995 2000 2005 2010 Rest of World Asia Pacific North America European Union
    6. 6. Electromagnetic Spectrum SOURCE: JSC.MIL SOUND LIGHT RADIO HARMFUL RADIATION VHF = VERY HIGH FREQUENCY UHF = ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY SHF = SUPER HIGH FREQUENCY EHF = EXTRA HIGH FREQUENCY 4G CELLULAR 56-100 GHz 3G CELLULAR 1.5-5.2 GHz 1G, 2G CELLULAR 0.4-1.5GHz
    7. 7. MOBILE FIXED MARITIME MOBILE BROADCAST AERO RADIOLOCATION
    8. 8. 300 GHz Spectrum Allocation SOURCE: NTIA.DOC.GOV
    9. 9. Wireless Telephony SOURCE: IEC.ORG AIR LINK PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE NETWORK WIRELESS WIRED
    10. 10. Cell Clusters SOURCE: IEC.ORG CELL 1 OVERLAPS 6 OTHERS DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES MUST BE USED IN ADJACENT CELLS SEVEN DIFFERENT SETS OF FREQUENCIES REQUIRED ACTUAL COVERAGE AREA OF CELL 1 ACTUAL COVERAGE AREA OF CELL 3
    11. 11. Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) PATTERN CAN BE REPLICATED OVER THE ENTIRE EARTH 200 FREQUENCIES IN ONE CELL TOTAL NUM BER OF FREQUENCIES = 1400 WORLDWIDE MANY CELLS CAN SHARE SAME FREQUENCIES IF SEPARATED IN SPACE
    12. 12. Cell Handover SOURCE: R. C. LEVINE, SMU AS PHONE MOVES FROM CELL “A” TO CELL “B”: • CELL “A” MUST HAND THE CALL OVER TO “B” • PHONE MUST CHANGE FREQUENCIES • CELL “A” MUST STOP TRANSMITTING Minimum performance contour Handover threshold contour A B x y z
    13. 13. Cell Sizes GSM: 100m - 50 km 250 km/hr MACROCELL: $1M MICROCELL: $250K SLOW-MOVING SUBSCRIBERS FAST-MOVING SUBSCRIBERS PICOCELLS
    14. 14. Multiple Access SOURCE: WASHINGTON UNIV. Frequency Division Code Division Time Division
    15. 15. Cellular Generations <ul><li>First </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog, circuit-switched (AMPS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital, circuit-switched (GSM, Palm) 10 Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced second </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital, circuit switched , Internet-enabled (WAP) 10 Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital, packet-switched , TDMA (GPRS, EDGE) 40-400 Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital, packet-switched , wideband CDMA (UMTS) 0.4 – 2 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate 100 Mbps; achieves “telepresence” </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. GSM Architecture SOURCE: UWC DATA RATE: 9.6 Kbps LIST OF ROAMING VISITORS LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS IN THIS AREA STOLEN, BROKEN CELLPHONE LIST ENCRYPTION, AUTHENTICATION INTERFACE TO LAND TELEPHONE NETWORKS HIERARCHY OF CELLS CELL TRANSMITTER & RECEIVER PHONE SIM: IDENTIFIES A SUBSCRIBER
    17. 17. GSM Frame Structure SOURCE: DANIEL ROLF
    18. 18. From GSM to UMTS HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data GPRS = General Packet Radio System EDGE = Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecomm System SOURCE: HPY 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 HSCSD GPRS EDGE UMTS 64 170 384 2000 kbit/s 43.2 CIRCUIT SW ITCHED PACKET SW ITCHED BUILT ON TOP OF GSM VoIP WCDMA TECHNOLOGY GMSK GMSK 8 PSK
    19. 19. UMTS <ul><li>Universal Mobile Telecommunications System </li></ul><ul><li>Data at 2 megabits (> T1) but only indoors </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoors same as EDGE (384 Kbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Andersen says no wireless app needs more than 300 Kbps. WRONG! </li></ul><ul><li>Based on WCDMA (wideband CDMA) </li></ul><ul><li>Huge spectrum license costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UK 40B€; German 50B€ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GSM to EDGE costs 7% of GSM investment </li></ul><ul><li>GSM to UMTS costs 200-300% of GSM investment </li></ul>SOURCE: WAPLAND
    20. 20. Satellite Systems SOURCE: WASHINGTON UNIV. GEO (22,300 mi., equatorial) high bandwidth, power, latency MEO high bandwidth, power, latency LEO (400 mi.) low power, latency more satellites small footprint V-SAT (Very Small Aperture) private WAN SATELLITE MAP GEO M EO LEO
    21. 21. GPS Satellite Constellation <ul><li>Global Positioning System </li></ul><ul><li>Operated by USAF </li></ul><ul><li>28 satellites </li></ul><ul><li>6 orbital planes at a height of 20,200 km </li></ul><ul><li>Positioned so a minimum of 5 satellites are visible at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver measures distance to satellite </li></ul>SOURCE: NAVSTAR
    22. 22. Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) SOURCE: TRIMBLE NAVIGATION <ul><li>Benefits of AVL </li></ul><ul><li>Fast dispatch </li></ul><ul><li>Customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Safety, security </li></ul><ul><li>Digital messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic route optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Driver complicance </li></ul><ul><li>Sample AVL Users </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago 911 </li></ul><ul><li>Inkombank, Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>Taxi companies </li></ul>
    23. 23. GPS and Auto Insurance <ul><li>Need to rate drivers accurately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>age, residence and driving record not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>driving after midnight is 10 TIMES as risky as at 8:00 a.m. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commuting is the safest kind of driving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parking in high-crime neighborhoods increases payout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Progressive Insurance (Mayfield, Ohio) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Autograph” policy: car is outfitted with GPS, cellular modem, microprocessor + 256KB memory </li></ul><ul><li>When ignition is turned on, car records location every six minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Once a month, uploaded to Progressive by cellphone </li></ul>
    24. 24. GPS and Auto Insurance <ul><li>Customer is billed retrospectively every month </li></ul><ul><li>25-50% savings in premiums </li></ul><ul><li>Increases Progressive’s share but also gives them the right share (safe drivers) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Location-Aware Applications <ul><li>Vehicle tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Firemen in buildings, vital signs, oxygen remaining </li></ul><ul><li>Asset tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Baggage </li></ul><ul><li>Shoppers assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Robots </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate visitors </li></ul>
    26. 26. Wireless LAN <ul><li>Idea: just a LAN, but without wires </li></ul><ul><li>Not as easy since signals are of limited range </li></ul><ul><li>Uses unlicensed frequencies, low power </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 GHz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11 (wireless ethernet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WaveLAN 2 Mbps moving to 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5.2 GHz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OFDM (orthogonal FDMA) modem technology (30 Mbps) IEEE 802.11 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul>
    27. 27. Wireless LAN Components SOURCE: LUCENT WavePOINT II Transmitter Extended Range Antenna Ethernet Converter 11 Mbps WaveLAN PCMCIA Card WaveLAN ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) Card
    28. 28. Wireless LAN Configurations SOURCE: PROXIM.COM WIRELESS PEER-TO-PEER CLIENT AND ACCESS POINT MULTIPLE ACCESS POINTS + ROAMING BRIDGING WITH DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS UP TO 17 KM !
    29. 29. Bluetooth <ul><li> A standard permitting for wireless connection of: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal computers </li></ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>Handsfree headsets </li></ul><ul><li>LCD projectors </li></ul><ul><li>Modems </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless LAN devices </li></ul><ul><li>Notebooks </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop PCs </li></ul><ul><li>PDAs </li></ul>
    30. 30. Bluetooth Characteristics <ul><li>Operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM) (unlicensed)! band. Packet switched. 1 milliwatt. Low cost. </li></ul><ul><li>10m to 100m range </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Frequency Hop (FH) spread spectrum, which divides the frequency band into a number of hop channels. During connection, devices hop from one channel to another 1600 times per second </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth 1-2 megabits/second </li></ul><ul><li>Supports up to 8 devices in a piconet (two or more Bluetooth units sharing a channel). </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in security. </li></ul><ul><li>Non line-of-sight transmission through walls and briefcases. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy integration of TCP/IP for networking. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Bluetooth Devices NOKIA 9110 + FUJI DIGITAL CAMERA ERICSSON COMMUNICATOR ERICSSON R520 GSM 900/1800/1900 ALCATEL One Touch TM 700 GPRS, WAP ERICSSON BLUETOOTH CELLPHONE HEADSET SEE MORE BLUETOOTH
    32. 32. Wireless Application Support <ul><li>WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and iMode </li></ul><ul><li>High-level protocols that use cellular transport </li></ul><ul><li>WAP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses WML (Wireless Markup Language) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides content into “cards” equal to one telephone screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified but incompatible form of HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To send to a WAP phone, must broadcast WML content </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. WAP Applications Web Content Server Mobile Terminal WAP Gateway Non Mobile Internet User Database Server SOURCE: DANET WAP simulator iNexware Mobile Network Internet
    34. 34. iMode <ul><li>Telephone, pager, email, browser, location tracking, banking , airline tickets , entertainment tickets , games </li></ul><ul><li>NTT DoCoMo ( ドコモ means “anywhere”) </li></ul><ul><li>Japan is the wireless Internet leader: </li></ul>SOURCE: EUROTECHNOLOGY JAPAN K.K.
    35. 35. iMode <ul><li>Sits on top of packet voice/data transport </li></ul><ul><li>As of March 2002, > 32 million subscribers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>28,000 new ones per day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>24% of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>>1400 “official” sites </li></ul><ul><li>>800 application partners </li></ul><ul><li>>40,000 unofficial sites </li></ul><ul><li>Fee based on amount of data transmitted </li></ul>SOURCES: XML.COM , EUROTECHNOLOGY.COM
    36. 36. iMode <ul><li>Phonetic text input (better for Japanese) </li></ul><ul><li>SLOW: 9.6 Kbps, but 3G will raise to 384 K </li></ul><ul><li>Uses cHTML (compact HTML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>same rendering model as HTML (whole page at a time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low memory footprint (no tables or frames) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Java port coming </li></ul><ul><li>Standby time: 400 min., device weight 2.4 oz. (74g) </li></ul>SOURCES: XML.COM , NTT
    37. 37. iMode Operation DoCoMo Packet Network (PDC-P) iMode Servers PACKET DATA HTTP SOURCE: SAITO & SHIN IP IP INFO PROVIDER INTERNET BILLING DB USER DB
    38. 38. Key Takeaways <ul><li>Mobile growing very rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Cell systems need large infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless LAN does not </li></ul><ul><li>Content preparation is a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless business models largely unexplored </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth, bandwidth, bandwidth </li></ul>
    39. 39. Q A &

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