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  • 52
  • PDC – Personal Digital Cellular PDC-P - PDC Packet
  • Transcript

    • 1. Wireless Technologies
    • 2. Outline
      • Technology overview
      • Cellular communications
        • 1G : AMPS; 2G : GSM; 2.5G : GPRS, EDGE; 3G : UMTS
      • Satellite systems
      • Wireless LAN
        • 802.11, Bluetooth
      • Mobility support
        • WAP
      • Wireless applications
    • 3. Why Wireless?
      • Human freedom
        • Portability v. Mobility
      • Objective: “anything, anytime, anywhere”
      • Mobility
        • Size, weight, power
        • Functionality
        • Content
      • Infrastructure required
      • Cost
        • Capital, operational
    • 4. The m-Commerce “Revolution”
      • 1. High mobile phone penetration: 4 per PC worldwide
      • 2. Convergence of the Internet and the mobile phone
      • 3. Transition to 3rd Generation
      • 4. Personalization, location- & context-sensitive applications and services
    • 5. Wireless Subscribers Worldwide SOURCE: UMTS FORUM (in millions) Year 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1995 2000 2005 2010 Rest of World Asia Pacific North America European Union
    • 6. Electromagnetic Spectrum SOURCE: JSC.MIL SOUND LIGHT RADIO HARMFUL RADIATION VHF = VERY HIGH FREQUENCY UHF = ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY SHF = SUPER HIGH FREQUENCY EHF = EXTRA HIGH FREQUENCY 4G CELLULAR 56-100 GHz 3G CELLULAR 1.5-5.2 GHz 1G, 2G CELLULAR 0.4-1.5GHz
    • 7. MOBILE FIXED MARITIME MOBILE BROADCAST AERO RADIOLOCATION
    • 8. 300 GHz Spectrum Allocation SOURCE: NTIA.DOC.GOV
    • 9. Wireless Telephony SOURCE: IEC.ORG AIR LINK PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE NETWORK WIRELESS WIRED
    • 10. Cell Clusters SOURCE: IEC.ORG CELL 1 OVERLAPS 6 OTHERS DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES MUST BE USED IN ADJACENT CELLS SEVEN DIFFERENT SETS OF FREQUENCIES REQUIRED ACTUAL COVERAGE AREA OF CELL 1 ACTUAL COVERAGE AREA OF CELL 3
    • 11. Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) PATTERN CAN BE REPLICATED OVER THE ENTIRE EARTH 200 FREQUENCIES IN ONE CELL TOTAL NUM BER OF FREQUENCIES = 1400 WORLDWIDE MANY CELLS CAN SHARE SAME FREQUENCIES IF SEPARATED IN SPACE
    • 12. Cell Handover SOURCE: R. C. LEVINE, SMU AS PHONE MOVES FROM CELL “A” TO CELL “B”: • CELL “A” MUST HAND THE CALL OVER TO “B” • PHONE MUST CHANGE FREQUENCIES • CELL “A” MUST STOP TRANSMITTING Minimum performance contour Handover threshold contour A B x y z
    • 13. Cell Sizes GSM: 100m - 50 km 250 km/hr MACROCELL: $1M MICROCELL: $250K SLOW-MOVING SUBSCRIBERS FAST-MOVING SUBSCRIBERS PICOCELLS
    • 14. Multiple Access SOURCE: WASHINGTON UNIV. Frequency Division Code Division Time Division
    • 15. Cellular Generations
      • First
        • Analog, circuit-switched (AMPS)
      • Second
        • Digital, circuit-switched (GSM, Palm) 10 Kbps
      • Advanced second
        • Digital, circuit switched , Internet-enabled (WAP) 10 Kbps
      • 2.5
        • Digital, packet-switched , TDMA (GPRS, EDGE) 40-400 Kbps
      • Third
        • Digital, packet-switched , wideband CDMA (UMTS) 0.4 – 2 Mbps
      • Fourth
        • Data rate 100 Mbps; achieves “telepresence”
    • 16. GSM Architecture SOURCE: UWC DATA RATE: 9.6 Kbps LIST OF ROAMING VISITORS LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS IN THIS AREA STOLEN, BROKEN CELLPHONE LIST ENCRYPTION, AUTHENTICATION INTERFACE TO LAND TELEPHONE NETWORKS HIERARCHY OF CELLS CELL TRANSMITTER & RECEIVER PHONE SIM: IDENTIFIES A SUBSCRIBER
    • 17. GSM Frame Structure SOURCE: DANIEL ROLF
    • 18. From GSM to UMTS HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data GPRS = General Packet Radio System EDGE = Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecomm System SOURCE: HPY 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 HSCSD GPRS EDGE UMTS 64 170 384 2000 kbit/s 43.2 CIRCUIT SW ITCHED PACKET SW ITCHED BUILT ON TOP OF GSM VoIP WCDMA TECHNOLOGY GMSK GMSK 8 PSK
    • 19. UMTS
      • Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
      • Data at 2 megabits (> T1) but only indoors
      • Outdoors same as EDGE (384 Kbps)
      • Arthur Andersen says no wireless app needs more than 300 Kbps. WRONG!
      • Based on WCDMA (wideband CDMA)
      • Huge spectrum license costs
        • UK 40B€; German 50B€
      • GSM to EDGE costs 7% of GSM investment
      • GSM to UMTS costs 200-300% of GSM investment
      SOURCE: WAPLAND
    • 20. Satellite Systems SOURCE: WASHINGTON UNIV. GEO (22,300 mi., equatorial) high bandwidth, power, latency MEO high bandwidth, power, latency LEO (400 mi.) low power, latency more satellites small footprint V-SAT (Very Small Aperture) private WAN SATELLITE MAP GEO M EO LEO
    • 21. GPS Satellite Constellation
      • Global Positioning System
      • Operated by USAF
      • 28 satellites
      • 6 orbital planes at a height of 20,200 km
      • Positioned so a minimum of 5 satellites are visible at all times
      • Receiver measures distance to satellite
      SOURCE: NAVSTAR
    • 22. Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) SOURCE: TRIMBLE NAVIGATION
      • Benefits of AVL
      • Fast dispatch
      • Customer service
      • Safety, security
      • Digital messaging
      • Dynamic route optimization
      • Driver complicance
      • Sample AVL Users
      • Chicago 911
      • Inkombank, Moscow
      • Taxi companies
    • 23. GPS and Auto Insurance
      • Need to rate drivers accurately
        • age, residence and driving record not enough
        • driving after midnight is 10 TIMES as risky as at 8:00 a.m.
        • commuting is the safest kind of driving
        • parking in high-crime neighborhoods increases payout
      • Progressive Insurance (Mayfield, Ohio)
      • “ Autograph” policy: car is outfitted with GPS, cellular modem, microprocessor + 256KB memory
      • When ignition is turned on, car records location every six minutes
      • Once a month, uploaded to Progressive by cellphone
    • 24. GPS and Auto Insurance
      • Customer is billed retrospectively every month
      • 25-50% savings in premiums
      • Increases Progressive’s share but also gives them the right share (safe drivers)
    • 25. Location-Aware Applications
      • Vehicle tracking
      • Firemen in buildings, vital signs, oxygen remaining
      • Asset tracking
      • Baggage
      • Shoppers assistance
      • Robots
      • Corporate visitors
    • 26. Wireless LAN
      • Idea: just a LAN, but without wires
      • Not as easy since signals are of limited range
      • Uses unlicensed frequencies, low power
      • 2.4 GHz
        • IEEE 802.11 (wireless ethernet)
        • WaveLAN 2 Mbps moving to 11 Mbps
      • 5.2 GHz
        • OFDM (orthogonal FDMA) modem technology (30 Mbps) IEEE 802.11
      • Bluetooth
    • 27. Wireless LAN Components SOURCE: LUCENT WavePOINT II Transmitter Extended Range Antenna Ethernet Converter 11 Mbps WaveLAN PCMCIA Card WaveLAN ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) Card
    • 28. Wireless LAN Configurations SOURCE: PROXIM.COM WIRELESS PEER-TO-PEER CLIENT AND ACCESS POINT MULTIPLE ACCESS POINTS + ROAMING BRIDGING WITH DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS UP TO 17 KM !
    • 29. Bluetooth
      • A standard permitting for wireless connection of:
      • Personal computers
      • Printers
      • Mobile phones
      • Handsfree headsets
      • LCD projectors
      • Modems
      • Wireless LAN devices
      • Notebooks
      • Desktop PCs
      • PDAs
    • 30. Bluetooth Characteristics
      • Operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM) (unlicensed)! band. Packet switched. 1 milliwatt. Low cost.
      • 10m to 100m range
      • Uses Frequency Hop (FH) spread spectrum, which divides the frequency band into a number of hop channels. During connection, devices hop from one channel to another 1600 times per second
      • Bandwidth 1-2 megabits/second
      • Supports up to 8 devices in a piconet (two or more Bluetooth units sharing a channel).
      • Built-in security.
      • Non line-of-sight transmission through walls and briefcases.
      • Easy integration of TCP/IP for networking.
    • 31. Bluetooth Devices NOKIA 9110 + FUJI DIGITAL CAMERA ERICSSON COMMUNICATOR ERICSSON R520 GSM 900/1800/1900 ALCATEL One Touch TM 700 GPRS, WAP ERICSSON BLUETOOTH CELLPHONE HEADSET SEE MORE BLUETOOTH
    • 32. Wireless Application Support
      • WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and iMode
      • High-level protocols that use cellular transport
      • WAP:
        • Uses WML (Wireless Markup Language)
        • Divides content into “cards” equal to one telephone screen
        • Simplified but incompatible form of HTML
        • To send to a WAP phone, must broadcast WML content
    • 33. WAP Applications Web Content Server Mobile Terminal WAP Gateway Non Mobile Internet User Database Server SOURCE: DANET WAP simulator iNexware Mobile Network Internet
    • 34. iMode
      • Telephone, pager, email, browser, location tracking, banking , airline tickets , entertainment tickets , games
      • NTT DoCoMo ( ドコモ means “anywhere”)
      • Japan is the wireless Internet leader:
      SOURCE: EUROTECHNOLOGY JAPAN K.K.
    • 35. iMode
      • Sits on top of packet voice/data transport
      • As of March 2002, > 32 million subscribers
        • 28,000 new ones per day
      • 24% of Japan
      • >1400 “official” sites
      • >800 application partners
      • >40,000 unofficial sites
      • Fee based on amount of data transmitted
      SOURCES: XML.COM , EUROTECHNOLOGY.COM
    • 36. iMode
      • Phonetic text input (better for Japanese)
      • SLOW: 9.6 Kbps, but 3G will raise to 384 K
      • Uses cHTML (compact HTML)
        • same rendering model as HTML (whole page at a time)
        • low memory footprint (no tables or frames)
      • Java port coming
      • Standby time: 400 min., device weight 2.4 oz. (74g)
      SOURCES: XML.COM , NTT
    • 37. iMode Operation DoCoMo Packet Network (PDC-P) iMode Servers PACKET DATA HTTP SOURCE: SAITO & SHIN IP IP INFO PROVIDER INTERNET BILLING DB USER DB
    • 38. Key Takeaways
      • Mobile growing very rapidly
      • Cell systems need large infrastructure
      • Wireless LAN does not
      • Content preparation is a problem
      • Wireless business models largely unexplored
      • Bandwidth, bandwidth, bandwidth
    • 39. Q A &