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Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
Wireless Telephony
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Wireless Telephony

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  • Fixed Public Telephone Network Public Mobile Telephone Service
  • Transcript

    • 1. Comparative Telecommunications Law Spring, 2007 Prof. Karl Manheim 11: Wireless Telephony Copyright © 2007
    • 2. Wireless Telephony - A Primer <ul><li>A form of 2-way radio communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each handset is a transmitter and receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-power, short-range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base stations (cell towers) must be closely spaced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Private networks (PMRS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., transportation companies; public safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common carriers (subscribers) (CMRS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to Public Switched Telephone Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which serves as the hub for most calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Except those between subscribers on same network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 3. Comparison of Wireless &amp; Radio Official Glossary Half-duplex (1 channel) Duplex (2 channel) Mass Media Bureau Wireless Telecom Bureau Open &amp; shared frequency Secure frequency End user licensed End user not licensed Not networked Connects to PSTN Point-to-multipoint Point-to-point Radio Communication Wireless Telephony
    • 4. Evolution of Wireless Telephony <ul><li>Remote Patches </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular (AMPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Communications Service (PCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation Wireless (3G) </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 3 </li></ul>
    • 5. Remote Patch (repeater) <ul><li>2-way radio connected to a phone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>47 CFR § 22.573 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>widely used by ham (amateur) radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>telephone side: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>private line connected to PSTN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>radio side: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>private radio service; limited to non-commercial traffic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>single frequency use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>half-duplex </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 6. Cell Concept <ul><li>Frequency reuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low power transmitters allow same frequency to be reused in small nearby areas </li></ul></ul>1973 Motorola Patent
    • 7. Modern Cell Network <ul><li>Computerized cell network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>base stations (mobile telephone switching office - MTSO) linked by land lines to form a network; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MTSO intercon-nects with PSTN </li></ul></ul><ul><li> graphic </li></ul>
    • 8. Cell Splitting <ul><li>Typical cell size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog: 1-50km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCS &amp; GSM: &lt; 10km </li></ul></ul>Macro, Micro, Pico cells
    • 9. &nbsp;
    • 10. Wireless Terminology <ul><li>PMRS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private Mobile Radio Svc (not PSTN connected) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMRS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Mobile Radio Svc (common carrier) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular (1st Generation) (analog) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CMRS (800, 850 Mhz bands) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PCS (US) / GSM (EU) (2nd Gen) (digital) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CMRS (1900 Mhz band) (900, 1800 MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 generation broadband: EDGE GPRS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IMT-2000 (3rd Generation - 3G) (digital) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband wireless (Int’l Mobile Telecom 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Including UMTS (Europe), W-CDMA (Japan), EV-DO (US) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 11. Advanced Mobile Phone Svc (AMPS) <ul><li>Cellular in US (47 CFR § 22.900) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analog band: 824.04 MHz - 893.7 MHz (70 MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control channels (forward and reverse) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forward: paging channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reverse: registration (ESN, tel #) other control data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice channels (forward and reverse) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>frequency modulation (FM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>full duplex Graphic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>frequency division duplexing (FDD) Graphic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mobile &amp; base on different frequencies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>separated by a “guard band” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simultaneous 2-way </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 12. Cellular Frequencies - US 800 MHz band
    • 13. Early Cellular Regulation - US <ul><li>Cellular treated as common carrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at first, extension of ILEC monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ duopoly” after MFJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 “facilities-based” cell carriers per market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2 licenses per market (A band, B band) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Band reserved for non-wireline carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B Band reserved for wireline (i.e., ILECs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on resale prohibited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage competition by “value-added” telcos </li></ul></ul>
    • 14. Early Cellular Regulation - EU <ul><li>ITU Allotments &amp; CEPT Allocations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog national networks (early 80s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupe Sp ec i al Mobile (GSM) (late 80s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Council Directive 87/372/EEC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocation for pan-European digital network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common specification (GSM) enables roaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Council Resolution 90/C329/09 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members to facilitate mobile use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnection; compensation &amp; tarrifs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote use in Central Europe </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. Cellular and EU Open Networks <ul><li>Council/Parliament Directive 97/33/EC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnection requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability, non-discrimination, privacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare interconnection in US - cell/PSTN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right of access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated terms, rates (both FPTN &amp; PMTS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unbundled access if telco has &gt;25% market share </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of transparency &amp; cost orientation (unbundled) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited exceptions; not for anti-competitive purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidy obligations of telcos for public telecom svcs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 16. CMRS/LEC Interconnection - US <ul><li>Mutual exchange of traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls originating on mobile (wireless) unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unless calling another mobile unit, MTSO must interconnect with PSTN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls originating on wireline (LEC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if calling a mobile unit, LEC must intercon w. MTSO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Compare Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FPTN &amp; PMTS interconnection obligations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Public Telephone Network (comp. PSTN) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Mobile Telephone Service (comp. CMRS/MTSO) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 17. Personal Com’n Service (PCS) <ul><li>Broadband PCS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 MHz in 6 blocks (A-F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephony plus other services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data (paging, text) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internet (graphics, email) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrowband PCS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 MHz in 12.5-50 KHz blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>general uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>paging &amp; messaging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>telemetry (remote monitoring of field equipment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>other data </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 18. Broadband PCS Frequencies 2 GHz band
    • 19. Interconnection Fixed to Mobile Rates in selected non-European countries in USD/min ITU 2000 Regulatory Survey Calling Party Pays (CPP) In US$ per minute. Receiving Party Pays (RPP) In US$ per minute.
    • 20. Third Generation Wireless (G3) <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth on demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric rates up to 2 Mbits/sec </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-use wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data, multimedia NTIA 3G web site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Air Interfaces (advanced multiplexing; CDMA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency allotment in US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current (approx 210 MHz in various bands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional bandwidth needed for buildout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Notice NOI </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 21. 3G Possibilities
    • 22. Deploying 3G - EU <ul><li>Decision 128/1999/EC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Member states to authorize UMTS by 1/1/2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And deploy UMTS by 1/1/2002 (coord. by CEPT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability/interconnection (roaming) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom’n System) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile multimedia capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP-based services (bandwidth on demand) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full convergence with FPTN </li></ul></ul>
    • 23. Deploying 3G - EU <ul><li>Decision 128/1999/EC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relation to Authorization Directive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it necessary to limit the number of UMTS users to promote efficient use of frequencies? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If not, UMTS should be unlicensed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Is it still necessary to license 3G wireless? </li></ul>
    • 24. Deploying 3G - US [FCC 2002] <ul><li>Band Clearing (reallocation &amp; relocation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower 700 Mhz (TV channels 52-59) [FCC 2001] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1710-1755 MHz band relinquished by fed gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2110-2155 MHz previously for fixed microwave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These bands have good characteristics for 3G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Per ITU report and coordination request </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating a new Band Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocation of incumbent users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Secondary Markets (R&amp;O 2003) </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. Comparing 3G in US, Europe, Asia <ul><li>US (as of 2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced CMRS up to 144 Kbs (typically 25-60) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS (General Packet Radio Service); EDGE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Band clearing required for further deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W-CDMA (wideband CDMA) up to 384 Kbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS </li></ul></ul>
    • 26. Physics of Wireless Broadband <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase information capacity of existing bands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal to Noise Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signal = information encoded onto EM waves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intentionally modulated waves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noise = unencoded waves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unintentional modulations (lack useful information) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scarcity/interference are products of S/N </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High S/N ratios needed for “dumb” receivers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 27. Physics of Wireless Broadband <ul><li>Shannon Information Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low S/Ns are useable if bandwidth is high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achieved through “antenna gain” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achieved through “processing gain” (eg, addressing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more sophisticated (costly) the receiver’s processor is, the lower the power needed &amp; greater the band’s capacity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSS (Direct Sequencing [Digital] Spread Spectrum) is an example of higher information capacity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower power requirements enable the use of micro and pico cells in cell networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See Yochai Benkler (NYU Law) </li></ul>
    • 28. Further Advancements in Wireless <ul><li>Distributed Networking (“Mesh Networks”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Diversity” or “Cooperation” Gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each receiver acts as repeater for others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency re-use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adding users adds capacity (as well as demand) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers power requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications for spectrum management? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is property rights model (licensing) still best? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or has technology (open wireless networks) removed need for regulation? </li></ul></ul>
    • 29. Spectrum Flexibility &amp; Deregulation <ul><li>Open Wireless Networks (per Benkler) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not adopted yet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-exclusive Primary Licenses (US) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t : Non-Gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site-specific coordination required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Gov’t : Non-Gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ad hoc registration priority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because non-exclusive, no competitive allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Licenses (US) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows negotiated interference plans </li></ul></ul>
    • 30. EC v. Luxembourg (ECJ 1999) <ul><li>Directive 87/372/EEC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires member states to implement pan-European GSM frequency bands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transposition by R è glement Grand-Ducal 25/4/97 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Court finds this adequate for terrestrial GSM networks but not for satellite communications </li></ul></ul></ul>

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