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Wireless Telephony

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  • Fixed Public Telephone Network Public Mobile Telephone Service
  • Transcript

    • 1. Comparative Telecommunications Law Spring, 2007 Prof. Karl Manheim 11: Wireless Telephony Copyright © 2007
    • 2. Wireless Telephony - A Primer
      • A form of 2-way radio communication
        • Each handset is a transmitter and receiver
        • Low-power, short-range
          • Base stations (cell towers) must be closely spaced
      • Private networks (PMRS)
        • E.g., transportation companies; public safety
      • Common carriers (subscribers) (CMRS)
        • Connected to Public Switched Telephone Network
          • Which serves as the hub for most calls
            • Except those between subscribers on same network
    • 3. Comparison of Wireless & Radio Official Glossary Half-duplex (1 channel) Duplex (2 channel) Mass Media Bureau Wireless Telecom Bureau Open & shared frequency Secure frequency End user licensed End user not licensed Not networked Connects to PSTN Point-to-multipoint Point-to-point Radio Communication Wireless Telephony
    • 4. Evolution of Wireless Telephony
      • Remote Patches
      • Mobile Telephones
      • Cellular (AMPS)
      • Personal Communications Service (PCS)
      • Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR)
      • Third Generation Wireless (3G)
      • Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 3
    • 5. Remote Patch (repeater)
      • 2-way radio connected to a phone
        • 47 CFR § 22.573
        • widely used by ham (amateur) radio
        • telephone side:
          • private line connected to PSTN
        • radio side:
          • private radio service; limited to non-commercial traffic
        • single frequency use
          • half-duplex
    • 6. Cell Concept
      • Frequency reuse
        • low power transmitters allow same frequency to be reused in small nearby areas
      1973 Motorola Patent
    • 7. Modern Cell Network
      • Computerized cell network
        • base stations (mobile telephone switching office - MTSO) linked by land lines to form a network;
        • MTSO intercon-nects with PSTN
      • graphic
    • 8. Cell Splitting
      • Typical cell size
        • Analog: 1-50km
        • PCS & GSM: < 10km
      Macro, Micro, Pico cells
    • 9.  
    • 10. Wireless Terminology
      • PMRS
        • Private Mobile Radio Svc (not PSTN connected)
      • CMRS
        • Commercial Mobile Radio Svc (common carrier)
      • Cellular (1st Generation) (analog)
        • CMRS (800, 850 Mhz bands)
      • PCS (US) / GSM (EU) (2nd Gen) (digital)
        • CMRS (1900 Mhz band) (900, 1800 MHz)
          • 2.5 generation broadband: EDGE GPRS
      • IMT-2000 (3rd Generation - 3G) (digital)
        • Broadband wireless (Int’l Mobile Telecom 2000)
          • Including UMTS (Europe), W-CDMA (Japan), EV-DO (US)
    • 11. Advanced Mobile Phone Svc (AMPS)
      • Cellular in US (47 CFR § 22.900)
        • analog band: 824.04 MHz - 893.7 MHz (70 MHz)
        • Control channels (forward and reverse)
          • forward: paging channel
          • reverse: registration (ESN, tel #) other control data
        • Voice channels (forward and reverse)
          • frequency modulation (FM)
          • full duplex Graphic
            • frequency division duplexing (FDD) Graphic
              • mobile & base on different frequencies
              • separated by a “guard band”
            • simultaneous 2-way
    • 12. Cellular Frequencies - US 800 MHz band
    • 13. Early Cellular Regulation - US
      • Cellular treated as common carrier
        • at first, extension of ILEC monopoly
        • “ duopoly” after MFJ
          • 2 “facilities-based” cell carriers per market
      • 2 licenses per market (A band, B band)
        • A Band reserved for non-wireline carriers
        • B Band reserved for wireline (i.e., ILECs)
      • Restrictions on resale prohibited
        • Encourage competition by “value-added” telcos
    • 14. Early Cellular Regulation - EU
      • ITU Allotments & CEPT Allocations
        • Analog national networks (early 80s)
        • Groupe Sp ec i al Mobile (GSM) (late 80s)
      • Council Directive 87/372/EEC
        • Allocation for pan-European digital network
        • Common specification (GSM) enables roaming
      • Council Resolution 90/C329/09
        • Members to facilitate mobile use
          • Interconnection; compensation & tarrifs
        • Promote use in Central Europe
    • 15. Cellular and EU Open Networks
      • Council/Parliament Directive 97/33/EC
        • Interconnection requirements
          • Interoperability, non-discrimination, privacy
          • Compare interconnection in US - cell/PSTN
        • Right of access
          • Negotiated terms, rates (both FPTN & PMTS)
          • Unbundled access if telco has >25% market share
            • Principles of transparency & cost orientation (unbundled)
          • Limited exceptions; not for anti-competitive purpose
        • Universal Service
          • Subsidy obligations of telcos for public telecom svcs
    • 16. CMRS/LEC Interconnection - US
      • Mutual exchange of traffic
        • Calls originating on mobile (wireless) unit
          • unless calling another mobile unit, MTSO must interconnect with PSTN
        • Calls originating on wireline (LEC)
          • if calling a mobile unit, LEC must intercon w. MTSO
      • Compare Europe
        • FPTN & PMTS interconnection obligations
          • Fixed Public Telephone Network (comp. PSTN)
          • Public Mobile Telephone Service (comp. CMRS/MTSO)
    • 17. Personal Com’n Service (PCS)
      • Broadband PCS
        • 120 MHz in 6 blocks (A-F)
        • Telephony plus other services
          • data (paging, text)
          • internet (graphics, email)
      • Narrowband PCS
        • 3 MHz in 12.5-50 KHz blocks
        • general uses
          • paging & messaging
          • telemetry (remote monitoring of field equipment)
          • other data
    • 18. Broadband PCS Frequencies 2 GHz band
    • 19. Interconnection Fixed to Mobile Rates in selected non-European countries in USD/min ITU 2000 Regulatory Survey Calling Party Pays (CPP) In US$ per minute. Receiving Party Pays (RPP) In US$ per minute.
    • 20. Third Generation Wireless (G3)
      • Features
        • Bandwidth on demand
          • Asymmetric rates up to 2 Mbits/sec
        • Multi-use wireless
          • Data, multimedia NTIA 3G web site
          • Digital Air Interfaces (advanced multiplexing; CDMA)
      • Frequency allotment in US
        • Current (approx 210 MHz in various bands)
        • Additional bandwidth needed for buildout
          • Public Notice NOI
    • 21. 3G Possibilities
    • 22. Deploying 3G - EU
      • Decision 128/1999/EC
        • Member states to authorize UMTS by 1/1/2000
        • And deploy UMTS by 1/1/2002 (coord. by CEPT)
        • Interoperability/interconnection (roaming)
      • UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom’n System)
        • Mobile multimedia capabilities
        • IP-based services (bandwidth on demand)
        • Full convergence with FPTN
    • 23. Deploying 3G - EU
      • Decision 128/1999/EC
        • Relation to Authorization Directive
          • Is it necessary to limit the number of UMTS users to promote efficient use of frequencies?
          • If not, UMTS should be unlicensed
      • Is it still necessary to license 3G wireless?
    • 24. Deploying 3G - US [FCC 2002]
      • Band Clearing (reallocation & relocation)
        • Lower 700 Mhz (TV channels 52-59) [FCC 2001]
        • 1710-1755 MHz band relinquished by fed gov’t
        • 2110-2155 MHz previously for fixed microwave
        • These bands have good characteristics for 3G
          • Per ITU report and coordination request
      • Creating a new Band Plan
        • Relocation of incumbent users
        • Development of Secondary Markets (R&O 2003)
    • 25. Comparing 3G in US, Europe, Asia
      • US (as of 2001)
        • Advanced CMRS up to 144 Kbs (typically 25-60)
          • GPRS (General Packet Radio Service); EDGE
        • Band clearing required for further deployment
      • Japan
        • W-CDMA (wideband CDMA) up to 384 Kbs
      • Europe
        • GPRS
        • UMTS
    • 26. Physics of Wireless Broadband
      • Challenge:
        • Increase information capacity of existing bands
      • Background
        • Signal to Noise Ratio
          • Signal = information encoded onto EM waves
            • intentionally modulated waves
          • Noise = unencoded waves
            • Unintentional modulations (lack useful information)
          • Scarcity/interference are products of S/N
          • High S/N ratios needed for “dumb” receivers
    • 27. Physics of Wireless Broadband
      • Shannon Information Theory
        • Low S/Ns are useable if bandwidth is high
          • Achieved through “antenna gain”
          • Achieved through “processing gain” (eg, addressing)
            • The more sophisticated (costly) the receiver’s processor is, the lower the power needed & greater the band’s capacity
            • DSS (Direct Sequencing [Digital] Spread Spectrum) is an example of higher information capacity
        • Lower power requirements enable the use of micro and pico cells in cell networks
      • See Yochai Benkler (NYU Law)
    • 28. Further Advancements in Wireless
      • Distributed Networking (“Mesh Networks”)
        • “ Diversity” or “Cooperation” Gain
        • Each receiver acts as repeater for others
          • Frequency re-use
            • Adding users adds capacity (as well as demand)
          • Lowers power requirements
      • Implications for spectrum management?
        • Is property rights model (licensing) still best?
        • Or has technology (open wireless networks) removed need for regulation?
    • 29. Spectrum Flexibility & Deregulation
      • Open Wireless Networks (per Benkler)
        • Not adopted yet
      • Non-exclusive Primary Licenses (US)
        • Gov’t : Non-Gov’t
          • Site-specific coordination required
        • Non-Gov’t : Non-Gov’t
          • Ad hoc registration priority
        • Because non-exclusive, no competitive allocation
      • Secondary Licenses (US)
        • Allows negotiated interference plans
    • 30. EC v. Luxembourg (ECJ 1999)
      • Directive 87/372/EEC
        • Requires member states to implement pan-European GSM frequency bands
        • Transposition by R è glement Grand-Ducal 25/4/97
          • Court finds this adequate for terrestrial GSM networks but not for satellite communications