UMTS Lecture.ppt


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UMTS Lecture.ppt

  1. 1. PCS - UMTS Justin Champion Room C208 - Tel: 3273
  2. 2. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why 3G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of UMTS at the moment </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>The Dream (intention) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2G and 2.5G systems are incompatible around the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide devices need to have multiple technologies inside of them, i.e. tri-band phones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop a single standard that would be accepted around the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One device should be able to work anywhere ! </li></ul></ul></ul>“ Access to Information from Anyplace, Anytime”
  4. 4. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>The Dream (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide positioning available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Able to pinpoint a device and direct services to it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly to be used for “Push” services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased data rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum 2048Kbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in Europe by 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan 2001 (this was achieved) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide usage by 2005 (not going to happen) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>The reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different standards with some operators in America and the rest of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These standards will be covered in a future week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the future market forces may move towards a single standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. VHS and Betamax video tapes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World wide identical available spectrum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement on the encoding/decoding technique used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local influence groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturers who have invested in one technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic name for 3G developments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute ( ETSI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the specifications of IMT-2000 developed by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Spectrum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Specification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio and Network components </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tariffs and Billing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Assistance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>UMTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds upon the successful European GSM network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See lecture notes for week 2 on GSM for additional info </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates the developments made for the GPRS and EDGE networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five areas of standardisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core Network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>The core network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous Transfer Method (ATM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has been defined as the core networking technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATM allows circuit switched transfer of data using packets. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High speed data transfer – currently maximum 10 Gbps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantee of quality of service for the duration of packet transfer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small packets used called cells for the transfer of data to minimise the impact on the routers, network and switches. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arguments are being pushed for the core network to allow IPv6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RFC3314 , September 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This would allow packets to be transferred directly from the internet to the device with no translation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 does contain QOS headers, which can be used with the correctly configured hardware </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All 3G devices could have a single IP address that would not need to change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>UMTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full packet driven architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For voice and for data transmissions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packet based networks allow for an increased amount of traffic on a medium. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The only time part of that medium is blocked is when a device is transmitting or receiving. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider how often in your phone calls you actually say nothing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural pause between words </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taking a breath </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waiting for a response </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking of something to say </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>UMTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers voice and data services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Services offered will be classed into one of the following </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From these classes certain defined Quality of Service (QOS) specifications are guaranteed like packet delay time </li></ul></ul></ul>MMS, SMS, emails Web Pages Streaming Video Voice Best-effort, guarantee of quality delivery Real-Time Background Interactive Streaming Conversational
  11. 11. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Intended Data Rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>144 kbits/s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>satellite and rural outdoor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>384 kbits/s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>urban outdoor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2048 kbits/s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>indoor and low range outdoor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The speed that the device is moving at will effect the data rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum movement speed for high date rate is 10 Kmph a fast walker will lose this rate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Intended Data Rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual data rates will be effected by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interference (other devices, background, buildings) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over use of the frequency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of other traffic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base station / cell actually attached to </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Types of Cells and Base station to use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These cover a large area and will give slow access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>144 Kbps – max speed of 500 Km/h </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These should cover a medium area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>384 Kbps max speed 120 Km/h </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pico Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 50 metres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 Mbps – max speed of 10 Km/h </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficult to predict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual distances and bandwidth depend on local conditions </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Types of Cells and Base station to use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells will operate in a hierarchy overlaying each other </li></ul></ul>Satellite Macro-Cell Micro-Cell Urban In-Building Pico-Cell Global Suburban
  15. 15. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Types of Cells and Base station to use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells will operate in a hierarchy overlaying each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pico Cells will operate in a Time division Duplex (TDD) mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TDD mode will use the same frequency to send and receive with a time frame being allocated. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All other cells will operate in Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) Mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FDD will operate in the same manner as GSM, with a different frequencies for the Uplink and Downlink </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Radio Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocated Frequencies </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Radio Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These frequencies were auctioned at great expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The UK phone companies in June, 2003 said that they would claim the VAT back on the license purchases! About £4 Billion pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Court case started on the 9 th of Feb 2004 </li></ul></ul></ul>Cost per population $ Country $60.80 S. Korea $174.20 Italy $566.90 Germany $594.20 United Kingdom
  18. 18. 2.5G + <ul><li>3G spectrum auction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>License shows the size of the spectrum with A being the largest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the auction rules was a new company in the UK won the License type ‘A’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Auction closed on the 27 th April 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul>4,030,100,000 MM02 C 5,964,000,000 Vodafone B 4,003,600,000 One2One (T-Mobile) D E A License 4,095,000,000 Orange 4,384,700,000 TIW (3) Paid (Pounds) Company
  19. 19. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>UK 3G Winners ?? </li></ul>
  20. 20. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Radio Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS uses Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as “IMT-2000 Direct Spread” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely complex algorithms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses 10x the current 2G processing power! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports two modes of operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time Division Duplex (TDD) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>W-CDMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How it works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment 1!  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Radio Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Antenna technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These will allow the maximum radio efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Antenna’s are omni-directional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They transfer the radio signal in 360 0 from the transmission point </li></ul></ul></ul>Top View Side View
  23. 23. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Radio Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the quality of the signals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only installed at the BS, not the handset </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the usage of the BS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased frequency reuse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Radio Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two types at the moment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switched Beam </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A finite number of patterns or technologies are built into these </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive Array </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infinite Number of patterns available, these patterns will adjust in real-time to conditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. PCS – 3G UMTS Switched Beam Adaptive Array Antenna ( , 2003)
  26. 26. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Smart Antenna Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( , 2003) </li></ul></ul>reduced expense —Lower amplifier costs, power consumption, and higher reliability will result. power efficiency —combines the inputs to multiple elements to optimize available processing gain in the downlink (toward the user) Multi Path rejection —can reduce the effective delay spread of the channel, allowing higher bit rates to be supported without the use of an equalizer spatial diversity —Composite information from the array is used to minimize fading and other undesirable effects of multi path propagation. increased capacity —Precise control of signal nulls quality and mitigation of interference combine to frequency reuse reduce distance (or cluster size), improving capacity. Certain adaptive technologies (such as space division multiple access) support the reuse of frequencies within the same cell. interference rejection —Antenna pattern can be generated toward co channel interference sources, improving the signal-to-interference ratio of the received signals. better range/coverage —Focusing the energy sent out into the cell increases base station range and coverage. Lower power requirements also enable a greater battery life and smaller/lighter handset size. signal gain —Inputs from multiple antennas are combined to optimize available power required to establish given level of coverage. Benefit Feature
  27. 27. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Radio Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switched Beam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple direction orientated fixed beams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple beams can be combined to improve the quality of the signal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each of the beams is referred to as a Macro sector </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The macro sector with the strongest signal in the centre of the antenna will be the one which communications will be directed through </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As the user moves the Macro sector to the new highest power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Done by monitoring the strength of the signal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Darker colour shows more sensitive part of antenna
  28. 28. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Radio Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive Array Antennas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These devices track a communicating device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The power can be adjusted to exactly what is required for successful communications </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They can minimise interference by controlling the power in a particular direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The transmission of the signal can be directed to the user and follow them. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This removes any interference from other users </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the effect of signal propagation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As the signal is directed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switched beam can be added to current infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive antenna, require consideration to the network and there use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switched beam can increase range between 20 – 200% over a normal cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on local conditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switched beam power can not be adapted as the user moves, as the power and shape are pre-defined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive Array can cover larger area due to the directing of the signals to a device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interference Suppression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switched beam Interference from beams which are away from where they are expected are ignored </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As the beams are pre-determined at the development stage, interference is still possible </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switched Beam has problems with interference from device which are close to the BS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive array is more resistant to interference as the signal is narrowed towards the actual device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See next slide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Smart Antenna Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient use of the allocated frequency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By controlling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of interference </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-path Propagation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-path interference </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing 2 users in the same cell to use the same transmission slot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially having a single user per allocation slot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is more of a consideration with WCDMA rather than GSM tech </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Smart Antenna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where can this technology be used? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Although it is now being discussed for 3G </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It can be use anywhere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GSM, GPRS, EDGE, PDC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UMTS, CDMA2000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WI-FI, HIPERLAN </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The technology is now coming available and this respect it is considered more for 3G </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>Virtual Home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a part of the ITU standard the Virtual Home Environment (VHE) will be supported. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2G a VLR was used to allow the transfer of personal information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A VHE will take this one stage further </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This will provide a common look and feel interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is independent of the location, connecting network and device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is envisaged that this will be used on both circuit switched and packet switched networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How this will be achieved is undecided at the moment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>3G UMTS is working in one part of the UK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isle of man has the equipment to use 3G </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This equipment is run and operated by O2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The license spectrum used on this island was given free by the government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The actual devices used were given to some of the islanders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The idea was to trial the equipment in a limited manner </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also they wanted to see if there was a pattern of usage for the technology i.e. the killer app </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As it is known now they have not found the single killer app, like SMS was for GSM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When we consider Japan for the killer app it was email! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3G bandwidth is not needed for email! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. PCS – 3G UMTS <ul><li>UMTS Worldwide usage </li></ul>
  35. 35. UMTS <ul><li>Links </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>