UMTS : La Convergence des Réseaux Mobiles et d'Internet

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  • 1. Cellular networks evolution: from 2G to 3G CEENet 2004: Wireless and Mobile Networking Budapest (Hungary) August 20th, 2004 Sami Tabbane
  • 2. Summary
    • 2G networks architecture
    • 2,5G evolution towards third generation
    • 3G services and evolution
    • Conclusions
  • 3. I. 2G networks architecture
  • 4. GSM basic network architecture BSS NSS
  • 5. BTS
    • R adio transmission/reception m anagement (modulation/demodulation, equalisation, interleaving ...)
    • Physical layer management (TDMA transmission, SFH, coding, ciphering ...)
    • Link layer management (LAPDm)
    • Received signal quality and power measures.
  • 6. BSC
    • Radio resource management: channel allocation, BTS measures processing, BTS and MS power control, handover ...
    • Interfaces management: with the MSC (gathers the traffic towards the MSC) and with the BTSs.
  • 7. MSC
    • Management of the communications between the mobiles and the fixed network.
    • Handover management.
    • Interconnection with the
    • fixed network (switching features).
    • Management of the visiting
    • users with the VLR.
    • GMSC function ( Gateway
    • MSC ): gateway for the calls
    • coming/going towards an external network.
  • 8. HLR/VLR
    • HLR (Home Location Register)
    • Subscribers database:
    • - Subscription data: IMSI, MSISDN, subscription type (restrictions, supplementary services, ...)
    • - Location information: mobile VLR number.
    • VLR (Visitor Location Register)
    • Data: IMSI, MSISDN, TMSI, MSRN, subscription type, location area, ...
  • 9. Suscriber Identity Module
    • Informations : subscriber identity, password (PIN), subscription informations (authorized networks, call restrictions, …), security algorithms, short numbers, last received/dialled numbers, last visited location area, ...
    • SIM card + GSM terminal = access to GSM services.
  • 10. GSM s ervices characterization
    • GSM = circuit switched-based technology.
    • 2 types of services (ISDN based classification):
    •  Bearer services : Telecommunications services offering transmission capabilities (bitrate, BER , synchronous/asynchronous mode ...) between network access points.
    •  Teleservices : Telecommunications services offering capacities taking into account the terminal equipment ( telephone , SMS, ...).
  • 11. Some GSM bearer services 300 to 9600 300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400, 4800, 9600 Idem 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 2400, 4800, 9600 ISDN PSTN, ISDN PSPDN PSTN, ISDN PSTN, ISDN ISDN, PSTN PSPDN 3.1 kHz External to the PLMN A synchron ous d ata circuit duplex PAD circuit asynchronous access S ynchr d ata circuit duplex. Alternate speech and data Speech followed by data S ynchronous p acket data duplex Offered throughputs (bits/sec) Target network Bearer service
  • 12. GSM teleservices
    • Radiotelephone .  Emergency calls .
    • Short message service .
    • Fax .  ...
    • - Supplementary services :
    • Calling number identification.  Call waiting,
    • Call transfer (on non reply, unconditional, on busy, ...)
    • Conference call,  Closed user group ...
  • 13. II. 2,5 G evolution towards 3G
  • 14. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)
    • Objective : High bitrates radio bearers.
    • Introduced in phase 2+ (1997).
    • Use several time slots per mobile (up to 6).
    • Bitrates : 19.2 ; 28.8 ; 28.4 ; 48 ; 56 and 64 kb/s.
    • Asymetric configurations ( n slots on the uplink and m slots on the downlink).
    • Problem : Circuit-switched (cost + capacity).
  • 15. Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)
    • Intelligent network concept
    • CAMEL defines an architecture and mechanisms based on IN.
    • Separation :
    • -1- Applications and Services specific features ( SCP : Computers for services provision + SMP : Management point for data of one or several SCPs ) ,
    • -2- Applications com o n processing ( SSP : Switch for service access )
    • Objective : Allow roaming subscribers to use their services even though these are specific to their operator.
  • 16. CAMEL services introduction
  • 17. SIM Toolkit
    •  Principle : The SIM card can initiate actions on the terminal.
    •  Objectives : Allow exchanges between the network and the SIM through SMSs (without displaying them)
    • Value-added services provision.
    •  Examples :
    • - Reservation in a restaurant (send a menu by the network, manages user choices and the SIM card sends back the reservation in an SMS).
    • - Menus management (kiosk services ).
  • 18. General Packet Radio Service: 2,5 G
  • 19. Introduction of packet-switching
    • Packet switching advantages
    • Transmission of non-periodic and bursty data (e.g.: mails ),
    • Frequent small packets (e.g.: telematic , billing and micro-payments ),
    • Large but unfrequent packets (e.g.: ftp ).
  • 20. GPRS principles
    •  Higher bit - rates per TCH (9.05 ; 13.4 ; 15.6 ; 21.4 kb/s),
    •  Higher bit - rates with up to 8 time slots per user,
    •  Channel sharing by active terminals,
    •  Separate allocation of uplink and downlink channels,
    • Separate packet transmission network between the BSC and external packet transmission networks : GSS (based on SGSN and GGSN) .
  • 21. GGSN ( Gateway GPRS Support Node ) Functions
    • Routing : IP router which supports dynamic or static routing,
    • Security: Ciphers the communications towards or from the mobiles.
    • Mobility management: Use of routing areas . Handover management between the BSCs and other SGSNs.
    • Authentication: At Attach and inter-SGSN RA updates.
    • Sessions management: At each session, the SGSN activates a PDP ( Packet Data Protocol ) context.
    • Billing: Production of the CDRs according to the quantity of information and the session duration (attachment, duration of active PDP context).
    • SMS: Supports the Gd interface for the communications with the SMS-GMSC and the SMS-IWMSC.
  • 22. GGSN ( Gateway GPRS Support Node ) functions
    • Routing : IP router which supports dynamic or static routing,
    • Security: Includes firewalls for filtering the packets coming from external IP networks.
    • Gateway: Allows the connection to other IP or GPRS networks.
    • Mobility management: Allows the routing of the packets towards the users SGSNs, according to their mobility.
    • Sessions management: At each session, the GGSN allocates an IP address to the mobile.
    • Billing: Production of the CDRs according to the quantity of information and the session duration (attachment, duration of active PDP context).
  • 23. GPRS introduction i n a GSM network
  • 24. GSM to GPRS Evolution  BSS Evolution : -  Replace/Upgrade existing elements: BTS, BSC, O&M, Network planning, Links (Abis, Ater, …). -  New element: PCU ( Packet Controller Unit ).  NSS Evolution : - A new core network (GSS) dedicated to GPRS: IP/ATM based, network packet nodes (SGSN, GGSN), Internet equipment (DNS servers, Firewalls, …). -  Evolution of the network elements: HLR, MSC/VLR, SS7.
  • 25. Main characteristics
    •  Same physical layer as GSM.
    • Service separated from GSM: Different fixed networks (new network entities and new protocols).
    • New m obile s , 3 types:
    • -   A : GSM and GPRS at the same time,
    • -   B : GSM or GPRS (« dual mode » in idle mode),
    • - C : GSM or GPRS a priori .
  • 26. Services classification Data packet transfer between two points via a connection-less service (e.g. Internet) or via connection oriented service (e.g. X25) PtP – Connectionless Network Service (CNLS) Data packet transfer towards a predefined group of users in a geographical area PtM – IP Multicast (IP – M) Multicast service (cf. IP) PtM – Multicast (PtM-M) Point-to-Multipoint (PtM) Data packet transfer from a point towards a geographical area (group of cells) PtP – Connection Oriented Network Service (CONS) Point-to-Point (PtP) Characteristics Sub-types Service type Services
  • 27. Enhanced Data rates for the GSM Evolution: 3G
  • 28. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
    • Objective :
    • Increase the data bitrates (GPRS  EGPRS).
    • Bitrates :
    • - 473 kb/s for the terminals of 100 km/h maximum.
    • - 80-130 kb/s on average.
    • - 144 kb/s for the terminals of 250 km/h maximum.
    • Means :
    • -1- New m odulation (8-PSK) .
    • -2- Link adaptation .
    • New mobiles, upgrade/replacement of TRXs and capacity enhancement (Abis, …).
  • 29. EDGE introduction
  • 30. III. 3G services and evolution
  • 31. Internet and GSM
  • 32. Motivations for a new system
    •  Convergence: computer, telecommunications and audio applications.
    •  Present services : Mainly voice (> 70 % of cellular operators revenues).
    •  Extend to data and combination of voice/data.
    •  New frequency bands ( WARC 92).
    •  Migration (operators and providers) towards more diverse and developed applications and services.
    •  Technological progress (networks, systems, DSP, …)
    •  Definition and development of new systems .
  • 33. Development initial planning 3G commercially available Mid-2004 3G applications develop ment 2002-2003 3G pilot networks in Western Europe. 2002 3G terminals available (first specifications) Mid-2002 First 3G networks opened in countries such as Japan, based on first 3G specifications Mid-2001 3G licenses allocation in Europe 2000-2001 IMT-2000 specifications validation by ITU-R May 2000 First demonstrations of 3G systems 2000 Radio interface definition 1998-1999
  • 34. UMTS main features (1)
    •  Integration of existing mobile services (cellular, cordless, paging, PMR, …) and introduction of service portability ( Virtual Home Environment , …).
    •  Choice among various terminals and service providers.
    •  Flexible terminals supporting several radio interfaces ( software radio ).
    •  Global roaming for terminals and services.
  • 35. UMTS main features (2)
    •  Voice quality similar to that of fixed networks.
    •  Satellites services for areas non covered by terrestrial BTS.
    •  UMTS frequency spectrum : 1885-2025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz.
    •  Security and anti-fraud techniques against access to data by non-authorized persons or entities.
  • 36. UMTS main features (3)  Wideband multimedia mobile services:  2 Mb/s for indoor , reduced mobility (10 km/h),  384 kb/s for urban outdoor (120 km/h),  144 kb/s for rural outdoor , important mobility (500 km/h).  Variable quality of service (BER between 10 -3 and 10 -6 , delays between 30 and 300 ms).  Asymetric and variable bitrate transmission.  Multiples services per user:  Speech : 8 kb/s,  Data : 2,4 at 6x64 = 384 kb/s,  Video : 384 kb/s,  Multimedia .
  • 37. Objectives and Features (1)  Wideband .  Service integration .  Packet access .  Techniques for capacity enhancement : multi-user detection, interference cancel l a t ion, adaptive antennas, MIMO, …  Inter-system (GSM – 3G) and inter-frequencies (hierarchical networks) handover .
  • 38. Objectives and Features (2)
    • Main challenge : Merge mobile phone radio coverage to Internet and other multimedia applications.
    •  3G systems must provide:
    • Flexible multimedia services management,
    •   Internet access,
    • Flexible services support,
    • Packet access at an interesting cost for «  Best Effort  » services.
    • Most of multimedia applications accessible through Internet:
    •  3G access = Mobile Internet .
  • 39. Introduction of UMTS
  • 40. 3G environment and multi-mode terminals (UMTS Forum) Zone 4 Global Zone 1 in building Zone 2 Urban Zone 3 Suburban UTRA/TDD UTRA/FDD GSM MSS Basic terminal PDA Audio/video terminal
  • 41. Evolution from 2,5G to 3G networks
  • 42. UMTS R99 main features
  • 43. UMTS R4 Features
  • 44. UMTS R99/R4 and GSM/GPRS Core Network IP/ATM Core Network(s) UMTS Radio GSM Radio PSTN/ ISDN Public IP GGSN VMSC VLR SGSN GPRS VLR HLR CAMEL PS CS GMSC
  • 45. UMTS R5 Features
  • 46. Introduction of IMS
  • 47. UMTS R6 Features
  • 48. Roadmap to All-IP Networks - 3GPP R6+ PS + IM Domain All-IP IPv4 & IPv6 Networks IP in UTRAN E-GGSN E-SGSN RNC RNC E-GGSN
  • 49. UMTS features and sub-systems for service provision Introduction of IP D e velopment of multim e dia IP services with hardware and software componants integration Customization User framework portability Provision by third parties Services de velopment by external applications and contents providers Terminal related Adaptation of the service to the user terminal according to its c h aract e risti c s, task sharing with the network MeXE Mobile eXecution Environment VHE Virtual Home Environment OSA Open Service Access IMS IP Multimedia Service
  • 50. IMS - IP Multimedia Service
    • Implementation of many e quipments, software s, interfaces, protocols , which may cause integration, interworking and optimisation probl e ms
      • Ex.: S- CSCF ( Call Status Control Function ); SIP AS ( SIP Application Server ); OSA SCS ( Service Capability Server ); IM-SSF ( Inter-working Module ); CSE ( Camel Service Environment ); HSS (Home Subscriber Server)
    • S e curit y and QoS with Internet interconne ct ion
    Princip l es Drawbacks
    • QoS characteristics d iff e ren t iation for voice or video associated with a multimedia session (streaming, IM, etc.)
    • S e paration of the plan e s IP data and session contr ol (SIP)
    • Ind e pendan t from the access network
    • Introduction of multim e dia services with QoS management
    • Integration with other networks (WLANs, fixe d , CDMA2000, …)
    • Flexible billing : billing / service, connectivit y , QoS, time , destination
    A d vantages IMS for mobile networks GPRS, EDGE, UMTS & CDMA2000 N on re a l time s ervices IP multim e dia applications p late-form IETF specifications based IMS extended to wideband fixe d network s (xDSL, WLAN, c a ble, …) Support s services convergence on fixe d and mobile network s (conversion CS voi ce tra f fic i n IP) R6 R5
  • 51. Compo n ants and interactions between IMS and other networks Application Servers (SIP, OSA, CAMEL) Session Control Media Control IMS User Data Media Gateway PSTN Pa ck et network ISUP Packet Support Node Backbone IP Packet Gateway RNC RAN Core pa ck et SIP SIP Media Gateway PCM AMR
  • 52. VHE - Virtual Home Environment Princip l es
    • PSE ( Personal Service Environment ) p ortabilit y between networks and terminals : user – services interaction modes, multiple subscriptions management (pro/perso), multiple termina ls and pr e f e rences according to the location .
    • Same features always available to the user : interface and services customization , whatever the network and the terminal .
    • Ind e pendanc y relatively to the network (roaming) and the terminal
    Applications VAB Virtual Address Book Use of many types of terminals to access and update user data Customer Care service Support to the users: interacti ve tutorials, problems d e tection and solutions proposal , on-line assistance, … Calender multiparty application C oord i n ated calendar management among remote users : answers collect ion , meeting dates determination , … Multimedia Delivery service Adaptation of the video to the user terminal
  • 53. OSA - Open Service Access
    • Supervision of the services and contents by the operator
    • QoS management by external providers for offered services
    Princip l es Drawbacks
    • Introduction of   SCF  ( Service Capability Features ) to provide applications with service features : call control , user location,…
    • Acc es s to network features which application developpers will use to develop or improve services
    • Introduction of services by third parties through standardized interfaces and applicati on s
    • Easier introduction of application and service providers
    A d vantages VPN, t ele conf e renc ing , LBS Applications impl emented in one or many application servers Applications
  • 54. MExE - Mobile Execution Environment
    • Définition, standardisation and impl eme ntation of these terminal classes
    Princip l es Drawbacks
    • Standardised execution e nvironment for the mobiles
    • N e gociation of the features between UE and MExE server during service initiation or dynamically
    • Ex e cution of service applications inside the UE or in the MExE server
    • MExE d e fin es the classmarks to support various termina ls (Classmark 1: WAP e nvironment, Classmark 2: PersonalJava, Classmark 3: J2ME CLDC MIDP e nvironment )
    • Adaptation of the services to user termina ls
    A d vantages
  • 55. U SIM characteristics
    • 64K, 128K, eventually 1Mo
    Capacit ie s
    • Operator and user profiles management through radio interface ( OTA, Over The Air ): VAS real-time impl e mentation, with updates and applets downloading, file management, …
    Profile management
    • Point-to-point messages exchange security provision in OTA
    S e curit y
    • Pro-active SIM card for execution of features; management of UE by USIM and thus by the operato r
    SIM Application Toolkit (STK)
    • OTA based on SMS transport , then via other bearers (CSD, GPRS, UMTS)
    Op e rations
  • 56. Interactions for service provision in UMTS IMS Multimedia IP servers Application and Content providers A pplication s ervers BDD & user profil e s (PSE, VHE, …) OSA RAN (CAC, LC) QoS management USAT, MeXE, OTA, CAMEL, LCS, …
  • 57. Services evolution in UMTS R99/R4/R5/R6 networks Evolution of the services (voice and interpersonal services) Voice SMS/MMS Voice Messaging Videotelephony Voice/Videotelephony Instant Messaging/Presence Rich Call Services Messaging Voice/Videotelephony IM/Presence Messaging RCS LCS GTT MBMS, IMS phase 2 R6 VoD, IMS, HSDPA, Wideband AMR, GTT R5 TrFO, VHE, OSA, LCS in PS and CS, R4 MMS, streaming, LCS (cell), MExE, SAT, VHE, R99 Services Release
  • 58. QoS and planning problems in UMTS
  • 59. QoS problems i n UMTS
    • Necessary de finition of end-to-end QoS management functions
    • No 3GPP specifications for QoS in PS and in IMS
    • Implementation choice d e pend s on the operator preferences, the network, the service model, equipment providers, …
    • Resources n egociated between operators through DiffServ, DSCP at network borders
    QoS g u arant eed in CS but not in IP: QoS problems similar in UM TS as in any IP network QoS provision in IP ?
  • 60. QoS provision i n UMTS Radio access
    • RSVP, overprovisionning , DiffServ/ IntServ, MPLS
    • I n R5, d e finition of 5 signalling sc e narios for end-to-end QoS :
      • 3 with PDP/DiffServ inter working ,
      • 2 with RSVP signalling
    Core network CAC - Call Admission Control
    • RNC : adm i t s o r reje c t s new users or new RAB ( Radio Access Bearers ) according to network load , users priorities and resource availability
    • U sed at network UE access : RAB reconfiguration o r allocation and HO according to the events
    • UL channel interference and DL power related
    Load/Congestion Control
    • RNC : supervise s , d e tect s and manages congestion situations during users conne ct ion
    • Load reduction via queueing mechanisms,, by delaying the packets of the best effort traffic
    • M e c h anisms no t standardised , designed by the equipment vendors and optimised by the operators
    • Princip l es : CAC bas ed on the interference level , on the admission politics/load factor , etc.
  • 61. Cell breathing phenomena Case 1: 20 users Case 2: 10 users Radio phenomena cells
  • 62. Capacity, cell radius and noise rise Cell load = 20% of the maximum capacity Interference level= y dB R and R’ are the cell radius in the 2 load situations Cell load = 50% of the maximum capacity Interference level= y + 2 dB
  • 63. WCDMA systems and planning
    • Interaction between coverage and capacity (estimation of interference level, relation between user number and cells bitrates),
    • Multi-services aspect (differents services with different Eb/N0),
    • Power control (minimum transmission power of the MSs and BTSs, difference between UL and DL),
    • Rake receiver and Soft HO .
  • 64. Conclusions
    • UMTS introdu ces :
      •  an environment to develop and provide services : wideband , flexible, customized , accessible from outside , open on Internet, … with Internet and computer-related technologies.
      • Richer and wideband services
      • But:
      • More complexity (design, planning, integration, deployment, security, optimisation, operation).