In this slide sum up the methodology used to reach tha aims of the projects: We start with a brainstorming session conducted within the EURESCOM partners and with the aim to identify the potential market segments Contacting people representative of these market segments, we tried to find out what the users understood by “AO”, their general attitude towards this kind of connection, services and requirements for them. From the information collected during the focus groups different scenarios regarding the possible use of the AO technologies were developed. In the field trials actual behaviour usignADSL and mobile connections was tested. Different services implemnted in an Intellingent House were also tested with tha aim to verify acceptability and usability and to investigate the potential market penetration and the possible trend The project tried to get some insight into what AO can give to the users, what they want and do not want and which services seem to be the most interesting.
In Italy we identified 4 different market segments and for each of them we conducted a focus group. The contacted groups were: Techno-fun people wit high attitude towards the new technologies, that buy the new products and services even if they are in the test phase and read information on all the technological novelty. Professional man with high mobility so, probably, with the need to access to their data from different places and from different terminal People that use e-commerce in the meaning that e-commerce has become part of their business. Experts of stock-jobbing: according to the diffusion of the on line trading we suppose that people with these interest could have the requirement to be always on line. The real time is fundamental in specific field! Before to plan the focus group we conduct a sort of scouting to find adequate example of AO concept to give to the participants and to make clearer the AO concept. We prepare 4 different stimulus representing 4 different application of AO concept: intelligent wash –machine that could be manage from the mobile phone, from the pc and that could be used as a display to receive messages; push information on traffic situation that could be receive on the PDA oron the mobile phone; services offered by the 3G technology and UMTS (to book the cinema tickets choosing also the row, the place … and paying it). During the discussion group we use the techniques of the brainstorming so we start giving few details to the participants and inviting them to think and speak about all possible services wit this new technology. At the end of the creative phase we work together (experimenter and segment market) to evaluate the came out ideas trying to put in group them and to highlight the advantages/disadvantages of these solutions. In a second moment the experimenters define proposal about new AO solution according to the specific target interest/requirement.
A brief summary can be seen in the following list: · Terminals must be AO · Security must be built into mobile terminals · Open terminals allowing for third party software · Personalised terminals From the users’ point of view however, it is clear that all participants were fully aware of the possibilities of these new technologies. This demonstrates their willingness to adapt if it brings them benefit. In order for Telcos to benefit their users, they must be aware of the possibilities of AO technology, and also of the limitations. Most of the disadvantages related above can be said to be due to the fact that this is early phase technology, i.e. there are many technical issues to be resolved. One point worth noting, however, is the fact that increased use of the Internet does not necessarily mean increased E-commerce. Therefore Telcos would be well advised to instead develop the platforms and services that users find interesting; and to surround these developments with E-commerce possibilities, rather than concentrating on E-commerce per se . In order to develop AO services, Telcos must pay attention not only to what services they develop, but how they design them and how they fit the user needs to achieve a good competitive level and to target the right market segment. Rejections and requirements, just as user centred design, must be taken into account. Sevices must be personalised or include that possibility to fit the expectations and wishes of different segments. In conclusion, the user trials raised some important issues for the development of future services. Firstly, the concerns over security and privacy are clearly important Europe-wide, and these will have to be addressed when providing future services suitable for broadband and mobile access. Secondly, there was no increase in E-commerce (possibly because of the security concerns mentioned above), which has important implications for the business models presented in this document. That is, retail trade online must not be seen as a major source of revenue until security measures have been seen to be developed that address users’ concerns. Until that time, business models must suggest other ways of generating revenue, that is, the services developed for AO connections must be intrinsically useful and relevant to the user, to the point where the user is willing to pay for them. Communication, information and entertainment services have been shown by the trials and other methods to be the most useful, therefore these are the types of services that revenue generation efforts should be concentrated on.
"The mobile phone from GSM to UMTS: A changing paradigm"
“ The mobile phone from GSM to UMTS: A changing paradigm”
The umts network <ul><li>More bandwith more possibilities to provide new services but: </li></ul><ul><li>Are people ready to understand and </li></ul><ul><li>consequently to use them? </li></ul>
User-centred approach Field check Analisys of user demands User centred planning Specifications Evaluation (Laboratory) Emulation
<ul><li>Four test rooms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two residential premises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two business premises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Show room for demos and Focus Group </li></ul>Service Lab: the test rooms <ul><li>Touchscreen to emulate terminals </li></ul><ul><li>PC to emulate business services </li></ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul><ul><li>Slides projector </li></ul>Features:
The Service lab experience in designing new 3G services Brainstorming and creative groups about the daily user needs that could be satisfied by new mobile services Panel of creative consumers to collect information to design the services specification Definition and emulation of terminal and services prototype Usability evaluation to evaluate whit sample of potential customers the usability of the services Concepts test to identify the service concepts with more appealing and to define user target profile
Brainstorming and creative groups <ul><li>Objetives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuation of known or latent needs of specific target groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuation of new concept services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To verify if different requirements come up from different target groups (residential vs. business) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To collect information on the feature of the hypothetical terminal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6 groups in three different cities (Turin, Rome and Naples according the Nielsen geographical areas): </li></ul><ul><li>25 – 55 years old </li></ul><ul><li>male / female </li></ul><ul><li>business vs. residential </li></ul>
Creative groups: results <ul><li>A strong will to put together different equipments in only one (camera, organizer, videocamera, enhanced agenda …) </li></ul><ul><li>Will to optimise the time spent: modifying the interaction with public offices, trying to solve the traffic problems, into cinemas /theatre…. </li></ul><ul><li>An high demand on security aspects: “ global network but secure ” </li></ul><ul><li>An only one device to satisfy different context: free time and business needs </li></ul><ul><li>Merging of different tools to pay in the mobile device: bancomat, credit card, money, … </li></ul>
Creative groups: arisen suggestions by the customers We collected 242 different ideas that have been grouped in the following categories: RECEPTION/TRASMISSION IMMAGES AND VIDEOS INTERACTION/MESSAGING INFORMATION (push and pull) PAYMENTS/PURCHASES TELEWORKING CONTROL GAME/ENTERTAINMENT ENHANCED PHONE SERVICES
<ul><li>We contacted about 100 users by phone with medium/high education and defined technofan </li></ul><ul><li>Through phone contact we use an screening questionnaire to select 30 customers (about 50% male and 50% female) with knowledge on new technologies and creative dowry </li></ul><ul><li>The 30 selected customer have been contacted all together to fill in two different tests: </li></ul><ul><li>Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking to evaluate the creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Gordon Personal Profile Inventory (GPP-I) to evaluate the personal profile according the characteristics: responsibility, authority, sociable ness, original thinking and personal relationship </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of this process we obtained a group of 14 customers that became the creative panel </li></ul>Panel of creative consumers
Usability test: Methodology Each participant was invited to carry out the tasks prepared in the experimental setting according to the thinking aloud method After every task the participant was invited to fill in a post-task questionnaire with the aim to collect precise information on the performed procedures (these information were elaborated with the observed information made by the experimenter) At the end of the test the subject filled in a final questionnaire to investigate in general the prototype usability, the chosen navigation way, the prototype appealing, the learnability, ….
Usability test: sample <ul><li>16 clustomers </li></ul><ul><li>Age: between 20 and 55 years </li></ul><ul><li>Skill: Mobile Phone usage skill, </li></ul><ul><li>PCs usage skill </li></ul><ul><li>(none, medium, high) </li></ul><ul><li>I nternet n avigation </li></ul><ul><li> (none, medium, high) </li></ul><ul><li>U sage and ownership of PDA and WAP devices </li></ul>
Usability test: evaluated items <ul><li>Ergonomics </li></ul><ul><li>D evices design </li></ul><ul><li>D imensions of device and display </li></ul><ul><li>C omprehensibly of function keys </li></ul><ul><li>Usability </li></ul><ul><li>P rocedures to use the services </li></ul><ul><li>N avigation easiness </li></ul><ul><li>S peed of interaction with the stylus </li></ul><ul><li>C larity and L earnability of graphical and textual elements </li></ul>
Usability test: results <ul><li>I n general the user opinion was very positive </li></ul><ul><li>T he basic tasks of mobile phone (phone call, to send messages, the address book management) were evaluated very simple and fast (even at first attempt and by unskilled users) </li></ul><ul><li>T he procedures are easily learned even after a short interaction period and even in the case of no presence of manual (for the test was provided only an one-page guide with the principal functionalities correlated to keys) </li></ul><ul><li>T he prototype obtained a medium score 8,3 over a 1 – 10 scale (1 = worst device, 10 = best device) from the easiness and intuitiveness point of view </li></ul>
Concept test: two steps 1° Definition concepts and commercial bundles for 3G services 2° Concepts evaluation with estimation on usage & pricing for each service and in general among different target groups
ROME TURIN Students 14 – 18 Students 19 – 25 Travelling workers Permanent workers Students 14 – 18 Students 19 – 25 Travelling workers Permanent workers 1° step: methodology FOCUS GROUP
To enhance the audio-communication satisfying the pleasure of seeing the called people To enhance the life quality reducing the queue, receiving information on traffic in real time, finding the nearest services (shops and not) or interesting areas <ul><li>To enhance the messaging characteristic: </li></ul><ul><li>possibility to write longer messages </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal input to type message text (speech </li></ul><ul><li>to text) </li></ul><ul><li>Attached files (audio, video, images,..) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>Infotraffic/Maps Service Finder … Videocall… MMS … 1° step: arising needs
Usability LOCALIZATION CUSTOMIZATION RESPONSE TIME UPDATING INFORMATION Key elements desired for every concept/service categories 1° step: results
Usefullness Entertainment Comfort MMS Service finder Video calls Infotraffic/ trails Audio streaming Game Alternative bearer services Video streaming Booking on-line Device as payment tool E-commerce 1° step: results
2° step: concepts evaluation, usage & pricing (running activities) <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To verify the more interesting benefit for each prepared concepts identifying the profile of potential early adopters </li></ul><ul><li>To verify the “price awareness” analysing the changing demand according to the price variation </li></ul><ul><li>To estimate adoption time, attitudes and utilize situation for each concept service </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology: </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS GROUP </li></ul><ul><li>Sample: </li></ul><ul><li>Students that spend a lot of time out of home vs students focused in-home activities, travelling workers vs. permanent workers </li></ul>
Conclusion We hope to have reached the aim to design new 3G services according “real” user needs and following the mental model of potential customers. Up to now the users responses have confirmed the value of the user centred design process. The involvement of potential users from the first designing phase has been a very valuable experience.