Our telemedicine platform is a user-friendly biometrics-measuring unit. It
includes peripherals to measure ECG (Electrocardiogram), body
temperature and Blood Pressure. It wirelessly transmits the data to the
nearby doctor for medical support. The usage of the GSM network for
transmission enhances the flexibility of usage. Since cellular technology is
very common, GSM enables providing service in remote areas. The data
transmitted to the doctor is encrypted to maintain the privacy of the
patient. The estimated cost of a currently available fully functional unit
ranges above $799. The existing devices in the market are used only in
private networks such as hospitals and clinics. We aim to provide a
cheaper option by simplifying the circuit to a lower cost and hence being
able to provide the same to common household.
Apart from the exorbitant cost of health care, a lot of time and resources
are spent by frequent hospital visitors on general check-ups including
ECG and blood pressure. A system that can be used as effectively to
monitor health and keep the doctor up to date might prove useful to lower
expenses and save time.
We had proposed to build a telemedicine platform for our senior design
project. The goal of this project was to design a system that would record
the biometrics of a patient and send them to a doctor as an email
attachment. We had planned to make a low cost device for assistance in
remote areas with no medical facilities. The biometric units that we
implemented for our project are:
1. Electrocardiograph (ECG)
2. Blood Pressure/ Heart rate
With the increasing cost of health care throughout the world, it is very
important to provide general health care facilities to patients who need
continuous monitoring by a doctor. We designed this platform to eliminate
a patient’s need of going to the hospital on a regular basis for a check-
up such as blood pressure and ECG and cut out on these expenses. Our
project would benefit people in the remote areas who have no or very
little access to medical facilities and require immediate attention in case
1.2 PROJECT FUNCTIONS
1. Wirelessly transmits biometric measurements using GSM
2. Accurate biometric measurement.
3. GSM compatible with AT&T and T-mobile SIM cards.
4. Uses ultra-low power micro-controller.
5. Runs on one D (9V) battery.
6. Data encryption before transmission.
Our project consists of the following units:
1. BV513 PIC 32 micro controller
2. Hardware for all biometric measuring units
• Electrocardiogram (ECG)
• Blood Pressure
3. GSM unit for data transmission
1.3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 1: Block Diagram
1.3.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BLOCK DIAGRAM
220.127.116.11 BV513 Development board:
The BV513 is a development board for the PIC32. It has easy to use
jumpers for all its pins and is interfaced with useful peripherals like a
micro SD card and USB. It can be programmed using PIC32-Basic
via a simple terminal emulator on a PC. The option of providing
power through external supply gives it a good degree of flexibility.
Electrocardiograph or ECG is used to interpret the electrical activity
of heart over time. It is useful for doctors to understand any heart
related problem in patients. It is captured and externally recorded
by skin electrodes. For our purpose we used three Ag-Cl
disposable electrodes, instrumentation amplifier and a low pass
filter to capture the heart activity. The data collected from the ECG
unit is sent to the ADC (Analog to Digital Converting) channel of
BV513 PIC for sampling and storing in a txt file on SD card that is
further sent to GSM module for transmission as email attachment.
2. Blood Pressure:
Our blood pressure unit uses a bulb and cuff system. It is measured
at the patient’s upper arm. We used a pressure sensor and
stethoscope to record the patient’s BP. Blood pressure is the
force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
During each heartbeat, the blood pressure varies between a
maximum and a minimum. It is useful for doctors in administrating
medicines and curing BP related medical problems. The data we
collect from the blood pressure unit is sent to the input/output port
of PIC for calibration and storing in a txt file on SD card that is again
sent to GSM module for transmission as email attachment.
Body temperature is very important for doctors in determining any
infections or other common diseases. We built our temperature unit
using a simple temperature sensor. The voltage from this unit is
calibrated and converted to temperature reading in PIC using the
input/output channel. The temperature reading is then stored in a
txt file on SD card and sent to GSM for transmission as email
18.104.22.168 GSM Module:
The Telit GM 862 is used to transmit data wirelessly to the FTP server
using a SIM CARD on the GSM network. The supply voltage for the GSM is
3.8V and each pin has a 2.8 V input/ output voltage range. The need for
the GM 862 comes from the fact that it is more convenient to integrate it
with the PIC than other available modems at such a price. Moreover,
programming is not such an issue as the set of instructions is made into
set of strings to be sent from the PIC once the flow control is attained.
2.1 ECG (Electrocardiograph)
2.1.1 Design procedure:
ECG unit was the hardest to implement among all peripherals. The basic
block diagram that we proposed for this unit is as in Figure 2:
Electro Low Pass
Figure 2: ECG Block Diagram
Brief description of what we had proposed:
1. The electrodes convert ECG into electrical voltage. The voltage is in
the range of 1mV to 5mV. For our system we are using AgCl
disposable electrodes. Once the electrodes convert the ECG into
electrical voltage, the voltage can be fed into an instrumentation
amplifier, and then be processed.
2. The second stage is the instrumentation amplifier. We are using
AD624 with a high gain and CMRR for amplifying the voltage.
3. A low pass filter is implemented to allow frequencies in the range of
0.04Hz to 150Hz. and remove all other noise from the signal.
We considered a lot of design options for the amplifier stage and the
filter stage. We first implemented an instrumentation amplifier with op-
amps and resistors. The circuit we designed was as in Figure 3:
Figure 3: Instrumentation Amplifier
However, we were unable to get the desired gain with this configuration
and also the output was a bit noisy. We then shifted to AD624 for
amplification, as it is a high precision, low noise instrumentation amplifier.
We initially set AD624 to give us a gain of 1000. We used the settings as
in Figure 4:
Figure 4: AD624 with gain = 1000
With the above connections we were getting a clipped output, as the gain
was too high for the output voltage. We then changed our design to have
a gain of 200. The final circuit we implemented for the amplification stage
was as described in Figure 5:
Figure 5: AD624 with gain= 200
For the filter stage, we had implemented a band pass filter by cascading
a low pass and a high pass filter. One of the major sources of noise was
the DC power supply. Due to the constant noise of 60Hz, we
implemented a simple low-pass filter which did not eliminate all the noise,
but provided a good filtered signal. After many changes in the filter, we
finally implemented a low pass filter as in Figure 6:
Figure 6: Low Pass Filter
2.1.2 Design details and testing:
The circuit we implemented for ECG is as in Figure 7:
Figure 7: ECG Schematics
We measure the ECG by connecting two electrodes on the right and
left wrist of the patient. The body should be connected to ground of
the circuits, so we connected the leg to the ground. The electrical
voltage from the electrodes goes into the first and second pin of
AD624. We choose Analog Device AD624 instrumentation amplifier to
amplify the ECG voltage from electrodes, which is in the range of
The AD624 is set up with gain of 200, and is supplied by +9 V and -9V
battery power. We use ICL7660S chip to provide -9V to the AD624. A
very high CMRR is very essential for Instrumentation Amplifier. The
small ac signal voltage (less than 5 mV) detected by the sensor on the
electrodes will be accompanied by a large ac common-mode
component (up to 1.5 V) and a large variable dc component (300 mV).
Setup we used to get -9V from ICL7660S chip is shown in Figure 8:
Figure 8: ICL7660S connection
The ECG we get from our design is as shown in Figure 9:
Figure 9: ECG output
For testing the ECG we sent the waveform output to a doctor. We
received reply saying that the ECG waveform was correct and heart
activity could be predicted with such a waveform.
2.2 Blood Pressure
2.2.1 Design Procedures:
We used bulb and cuff method for measuring blood pressure. The block
diagram for this unit is as in Figure 10:
Sensor on Amplifier
Figure 10: Blood Pressure Block Diagram
For our unit we used MPX2050 as pressure sensor, which we attached to
one of the tubes on the cuff. MPX2050 has a high sensitivity of
0.8mV/kPa. The differential voltage output of sensor is directly
proportional to the differential pressure applied. Our design involves
1. Pump air into the cuff till 180mmHg. is reached.
2. Once tight stop pumping and release the air.
3. When patient hears the first beat through stethoscope, he presses a
button. The voltage at that time gets recorded in the PIC.
4. The patient again presses the button when he stops hearing the beat.
This voltage is also recorded by the PIC.
The two values recorded are the high and low points of blood pressure.
These are calibrated and converted to mmHg pressure in the PIC using
simple calculations discussed in design detail section.
As the person keeps pumping air into the cuff the pressure increases and
likewise the output voltage drop supplied to the PIC increases. The
voltage corresponding to 180mmHg is 1.8V at the output supplied to the
PIC. As the pumping of air into the cuff is stopped the pressure begins to
drop and slowly reaches the systolic pressure. MPX2050 produces an
oscillating voltage when this pressure is acquired. This is why there are
two outputs one to denote the 1.8V threshold and the other to denote the
beginning of oscillations. This is the first reading the PIC 32 records. Now
as the pressure begins to drop, at one point the oscillating voltage is
stopped and the voltage is dropped back to DC but now at a lower value,
as the pressure is no longer 180mmHg. The point where the oscillations
stop or the ac current is no longer received gives the second reading.
There are a number of alternate ways of designing a blood pressure
module. One of the designs that we were considering involved using two
sensors. One sensor would be used for measuring pressure and the
other for heart rate. Once the sensor captures heart rate, it would send a
signal to PIC to indicate that high blood pressure point is reached and it
should read the value from the pressure sensor. Similarly for low point,
the sensor would send a signal to the PIC. This was an easier design in
we would need a highly sensitive sensor for recording the heart rate. This
sensor was expensive as opposed to using a stethoscope and one
pressure sensor. Since our main aim was to reduce the cost of the
module, we decided to use our original design.
2.2.2 Design details and testing
The schematic for blood pressure is as shown in Figure 11:
Figure 10: Blood Pressure Schematics
As already explained we used bulb and cuff method for measuring blood
pressure. The pressure sensor we used is MPX2050. The output voltage
of the sensor is fed into the instrumentation amplifier, which amplifies the
voltage and sends it to the PIC for calibration.
For Figure 12, let R1= R2= R3= R4= R5= R7= R= 100KΩ
Gain equations for instrumentation amplifier:
Gain= 1+(2R/R6) (1)
For our design we chose R6=1KΩ and R= 100KΩ. Thus from Equation 2 we
Gain= 1+(200000/1000) ≅ 200
This gain was enough to get an accurate BP reading. The voltage
produced by amplifier was sent to the input/output channel of PIC where
it was calibrated. We used sphygmomanometer to calibrate blood
pressure. From the sphygmomanometer we got 180mmHg = 1.8V. So we
devised the following equation to convert voltage from sensor into
BP= Vout/1023*180 mmHg
We divide Vout by 1023 to get a voltage reading from digital data stored
in PIC. PIC has a precision of 10 bits and so every reading in the PIC
needs to b divided by 1023 to get back the original data.
For testing the blood pressure unit we used a sphygmomanometer to
check the pressure reading. Once we checked the reading we saw the
corresponding voltage. The pressure to voltage relationship was found to
be linear. At 180 mmHg we observed 1.8V, at 120 mmHg it was 1.2V and
at 80mmHg it was 0.8V. Hence, the sensor had a linear pressure voltage
function as specified in the datasheet.
2.3.1 Design Procedure:
The Temperature unit was easiest in terms of design, as it required only
one temperature sensor. We used a highly sensitive LM235 sensor with a
typical sensitivity of 10mV/0K. This unit required no amplification, as the
response from the sensor was extremely good. For calibration purpose
and setting a reference voltage and temperature we used a 10K
potentiometer. We adjusted the potentiometer in a way that sensor gave
an output of 2.83V at 250C or 298.15K. We set this as reference to
calculate the body temperature according to simple mathematical
calculation discussed in Design Detail section. The basic design structure
we followed for measuring temperature is as in Figure 12:
r to calibrate
Figure 12: Temperature Block Diagram
We were initially using AD592 as temperature sensor. However it was not
very sensitive to temperature change. It was giving a current change of
about few micro amps for every degree Celsius. The design we had with
AD592 was as in Figure 13:
Figure 11: Temperature circuit with AD592 thermistor
The gain that we were getting was also not enough to maintain the
accuracy. The gain according to our design was:
1+ (R2/R1) = 1+ (100/10) = 11
Even after increasing our gain we could not get the desired response. So
we then decided to use LM235 as it was a more sensitive thermistor and
required no amplification. It was also less expensive than the above
2.3.2 Design details and testing:
As mentioned earlier we used LM 235 precision temperature sensor to provide a voltage corresponding
to temperature input. Figure 14 is the schematic diagram for the temperature circuit:
Figure 12: Temperature Schematic
The temperature sensor has three pins Adjustment, V+ and a V- pin . The
V+ pin is connected to the supply voltage end; the V- pin is connected to
the Ground. The Adjustment is connected to the potentiometer
We use a 10K potentiometer and resistor R1 = 10K ohm. The temperature
sensor is active in the temperature range of -40 to 1000C. The human
body temperature, which is about 370C falls well between this range. The
voltage supplied is 9V and is not directly connected to the sensor. There
is a resistor R1 supplied for the safety of the device.
Initially, the temperature – voltage ratio needs to be calibrated. As
already explained in design procedure, we supply the necessary voltage
to the circuit and tune the potentiometer to get 2.83V at 298K or 25 0C.
Once calibrated, the sensor is now ready for any temperature
measurement. It is to be noted that the linear relationship is assumed as
given on the datasheet of LM 235. When the sensor is introduced to any
object, voltage increases from VoutT0 to VoutT. We use Equation 3 to
calculate the temperature:
T=VoutT/VoutTo X TO (4)
Where VoutT = Output voltage at unknown temperature T
VoutTo = Voltage at known temperature T0 (298K)
T0 = Known Calibrated Temperature
T= Unknown temperature
So if the body temperature is 310K or 98.40F, output voltage we will get:
VoutT = 310/298.15 X 2.83 = 2.96V
3.1 Architecture and Programming:
Our designs required a micro-controller that was powerful enough to
process and store the data at a considerable speed. PIC32 is a high
performance 32-Bit MCU. The PIC is one of the simplest and cheapest
micro-controllers available in the market. It is built upon the Harvard
architecture, in which instructions and data come from different sources.
This improves the MCU’s performance in areas such as clock speed and
power consumption. It works at a clock speed of 80 MHz owing to its
single cycle multiply and divide architecture. It can be easily programmed
using Microchip’s MPLAB Development Environment. The PIC32
compilers are based on the GCC compilers. It also has a 32K RAM and
512K Flash memory.
Our application required a large amount of storage for the peripheral data
files. We came across the BV513 development board for the PIC32
(PIC32MX340F512H). The BV513 is an evaluation board based on the
PIC32. A certain Jim Spence from the United Kingdom makes these
boards. Apart from the benefit of providing on-board jumpers for the
micro-controller’s pins, it also has a micro SD card interface. It had been
successfully tested to be compatible with 2GB micro SD cards. The
BV513 can be connected to a host PC through a USB. It is programmed
using the PIC32-Basic interpreted language. There are certain
advantages and disadvantages in using BASIC instead of C. BASIC give
us the flexibility in that all actions are interactive. This product works via a
simple terminal emulator and needs no special software. It has 16 10-Bit
ADC channels that can work at maximum clock speed of 40 MHz. A
connector layout diagram of the BV513 is shown below in Figure 15.
Figure 15: Component layout Diagram
The ADC channels are all connected in the JP3 while the general
input/output pins are connected to JP4, JP5 and JP6. JP8 connects to the
PIC’s UART ports. While connected to a PC, the device draws power
from the USB. It can be connected to external DC power supplies and has
on-board voltage regulators to allow a supply of anywhere between 5V
and 10V. The standard board is fitted with sockets that take 2x8 pin
connectors and can be amounted over any standard prototype board.
The FT232RL chip provides the USB interface and the driver required is
the Virtual Com driver, which creates a virtual COM port. There is a micro
SD cardholder built onto the PCB and is wired through the SPI2 interface.
The software contains two layers, boot and the Micro-BOS. The Micro-
BOS is a layer that sits between the boot and the application layers. It is
compatible with the FAT16 disk format. The PIC32 memory layout is
shown below in Figure 16.
Figure 16: Memory Layout Diagram
The application works on top of this layer. When the system is booted
properly, it responds with ‘ok’ on the host terminal. One of the other
important features of the PIC32 is scheduling. Processes such as
scanning input pins for switches can be scheduled to run at specific
intervals. Some subroutines are more useful if they can be made to
monitor events or be made to run every so often.
The built in ADC in the PIC has 16 channels with 10-bit (0 to 1023)
resolution. Opening an ADC channel disables the digital I/O and sets the
port to be an input. It can work at a maximum speed of 1.5µs and an
additional time of 1.5µs for conversion. Since we required relatively slower
sampling rates (around 250Hz), we chose to operate the ADC channels
at 48µs (including conversion time), which is the slowest the BV513
firmware architecture can offer.
The more recent firmware for the BV513 also supports C code plug-ins. C
snippets can be compiled using Microchip MPLAB IDE and called through
the PIC32-Basic using a memory mapper. Unfortunately, this feature is a
relatively new addition and has a lot of bugs. It is also a very complicated
process to generate a useful C plug-in.
BASIC offers the input and print statements, but these are a bit too
restrictive for microcontroller use. All the input and output are done
through the Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART).
The PIC32 has two UART ports and are software buffered, with 128 bytes
each. Hardware Flow Control options are also easily available.
Working with files: The ‘function’ is the basic unit of BASIC. A program is
a collection of user functions that will ultimately lead to the main function
that runs the program. This enables each ‘function’ to be tested before
adding to the main program. A function can be written directly on the
console if required. Alternatively, they can be written in a file (.bas
extension) and saved in the flash or the SD card. They can also directly
be executed from the RAM, but may be erased in case of a power cycle
or by resetting the RAM. A file saved on the SD card or the flash memory
can be loaded onto the RAM and executed.
3.2 Software Design and Testing:
Our goal was to provide the user with an easy to use and hassle-free
software interface. Since we did not have any kind of display interfaced
with the module, it was necessary to provide instructions to the user
through LEDs. Since the BASIC language is built around user functions, it
was relatively easy to write and debug different functions. We decided to
have different functions regulating different peripherals to improve the
system modularity and make debugging easier, which can generally be
very difficult in the case of interpreted languages. General I/O pins can be
used to read in switch status and regulate LEDs. Individual bits of the I/O
ports can be configured to be used either as input or output. All ports
from c through g (51 bits in total) are 5V tolerant. Port b pins, which also
serve as the ADC channels are 3.3V tolerant. Our software design was
controlled by a main function that initializes startup functions and
variables apart from scheduling repetitive tasks.
The ADC channels are read according to user input through push buttons.
The main function schedules the switch_scan function to scan for buttons
continuously. Once the input is determined, the appropriate function is
called. The main program was divided into the following parts:
1. Function ‘auto’
This is the main function of the program. It initializes the ‘init’
function used for port setup. It also schedules the process_get
function for execution every 50ms.
2. Function ‘init’
A total of five inputs and four outputs were set for push buttons and
LEDs respectively. It also schedules the switch_scan function to
execute every 30ms.
3. Function ‘switch_scan’
Five push buttons were interfaced to the general I/O pins. The
switch_scan function scanned these pins for user input. It was
scheduled to run every 30ms. Once a switch is pressed, a global
variable is set as an indicator to determine which operation is to be
4. Function ‘process_get’
This function calls the appropriate peripheral function depending on
the button pressed. It is scheduled for every 50ms.
The peripheral functions were similar in their data flow. First, the
appropriate ADC channel was opened. It was then read at a sampling
interval of 48µs (including conversion time). In case of ECG, the data was
encrypted and continuously written in a text file. For the blood pressure
and temperature functions stored only the relevant data, which encrypted
before being written on their respective text files. The text files were then
stored on the SD card.
A separate function for communicating with the GSM module was also
written. This function first initializes the UART port for serial
communication at 9600 baud. AT commands were then sent to the GSM
module with hardware handshaking to detect inputs and outputs. It was
very essential to ensure that the PIC and the GSM communicated at the
same baud rate. For this, the test command ‘AT’ was sent a few times
until the GM862 responds positively.
An example of a dummy function with a few features is shown below:
setport “d0” as input //set d0 as input
openadc 31 1 // open ADC 1 with 48µs sampling interval
fn=openfile(“ex.txt”,’w’) //open file ex.txt in write mode
dim z%=port(“d0”) //read port d0 into z%
if z%=1 then // if switch pressed, read data and write
write$ fn x#
The peripheral function could all be tested and debugged separately.
Some problems encountered with these functions included failure in
opening files and writing data to them. It was during integration of the
entire program that more serious bugs were identifies. One of our main
problems was in scheduling tasks. When task is scheduled, it must be
ensured that the execution time of the process is smaller than its
scheduled time. If not, the system hangs up and needs a reset. Another
bug we identified was related to waiting in an ideal loop that might hinder
the execution of a scheduled task. Since we had a couple of tasks
scheduled to run at relatively short period of intervals, it was difficult to
judge the flow of the program and the execution time of each function
under different circumstances had to be taken into account. We also had
to ensure that our application executed whenever the system was
switched on using an external power supply. For this purpose, the BV513
firmware searches for a file named auto.bas in the flash and the SD card.
If this file is found, it is loaded onto the RAM and executed. Stored data in
Figure 17: Stored data in ECG.txt (sample)
3.3 Problems encountered:
The BV513 assigns its general I/O pins as either inputs or outputs
randomly during boot up. Unfortunately, due to some unknown problem,
we could not make the BV513 set its I/O ports as we required and we
could not demo our project with the integrated user interface.
Nevertheless, the ADC channels were working fine and we could read in
and store data.
4. GM682 (GSM MODULE)
4.1 Design Procedures:
Our goal was to transmit the data from the PIC somehow to a client
server accessible by a doctor. The first solution was to send data as an
email on a computer by having a USB connection from the PIC to the
computer; a simple data transfer could accomplish the same. It seemed
to be of less usage in remote areas, and the limitations extended with the
need of having a computer for data transmission.
Our second alternative was to integrate the PIC with the cell phone and
have data transmitted through the data network. This required intensive
reverse engineering of the phone if we weren’t using the USB
connection. However, this lead to final design decision of using the TELIT
GSM modem which is a PIC compatible modem which sends data
through the GSM network by inserting a SIM card. The benefits are
enhanced as now the data transmission can be accomplished in remote
areas since cell network is expanding globally over remote areas, and the
handshaking was assumed to be comfortable.
Apart from the means to transmit the data, the destination for data to be
sent also required preliminary decisions. Sending a SMS text was ruled
out since data to be sent was large. Sending data as an email was also
considered, but as attachments to email was not possible using GM 862
we settled for transmitting data on an FTP server.
Initial programming on GM 862 was on the widow’s HyperTerminal and
the Real term software. These software tools were used as preliminary
programming tools and also for testing the functionality of the GSM
module. For handshaking between the PIC and GM862 the PIC
HyperTerminal was used.
For firmware upgrade, used as a testing measure, we installed the Xfp
software available on the TELIT site.
4.2 Design details:
For the integration of the PIC and the GSM we connected the RX of the
PIC to the RX of the GM 862, and the corresponding TX ports. The reason
is that the RX ports of the GM862 are the output ports and the RX ports
of the PIC are the reception ports. The connections are shown in Figure
Figure 18: PIC GM862 interface Diagram
To test the handshaking is successful between the PIC and the GSM the
RX and TX ports were seen on the oscilloscope and compared for the
similar ASCII character transmission. Since it was known that the AT
commands and the carriage return echo after being sent we saw the
observed ASCII output was similar. We used a simple voltage comparator
circuit for the PIC and the GSM to talk.
With our GSM module we faced mainly the network registration problem.
We did figure out the settings favored T-mobil SIM cards, but not AT&T.
For troubles with registration we did the following, which proved
1) Used a different module. Changed the QUAD- PY to QUAD.
2) Used different antenna.
3) We tried several resets –
ATZ // soft reset
AT&F1 // factory setting restore
4) Force registration:
ERROR // No OK.
5) On board DTR switch transition.
6) RTS – CTS pins short
The solution was to use the band command to mode 3 for AT&T SIM
HyperTerminal was used to test the commands functionality before we
went to programming GM 862 from the PIC. We wrote AT commands and
listed down what response we get from the GSM module.
As on HyperTerminal:
To test whether the data has been sent as an email, we first wrote
commands on HyperTerminal.
Later we received the following as the message on GMAIL account. Now,
as the commands are used as strings from the PIC to the GSM, similar
commands can be used after handshaking is accomplished between the
PIC and the GSM.
Figure 19: E-mail sent through GM862 using a T-Mobile SIM
4.4 Encryption and Decryption:
For the encryption of data we came up with an algorithm which could be
implemented on the PIC. A private Key is XORED with the first value of the
data list. This now acts as a Key for further computations.
We now define a function F as:
F=0 : Add values
F=1 : Multiply values
F=2 : Divide values
F=3 : Subtract values
Where the value of F is decided by a rand (0, 3) function which randomly
generates a number between 0 and 3.
Now for each sampled data we find the respective F value and compute
the encrypted value. Since F is changing on each loop, it has a different
functionality for each data sample. Naturally for the decryption we must
provide the F too.
Following is the sample encryption code once the key is made. Note this
code is run through each loop of data sample:
a# = adc(3) // b3: ADC channel used.
The main intention was to make the product low cost and having good
accurate measurements. One such unit in the market ranges from $799
and above. By using simpler circuit units we were able to reduce the
price range far below than the ones available.
Table 1: COST OF PARTS
Part Cost Number Used Total Cost
BV513 module $70 1 $70
GM 862 module $80 1 $80
Ag-AgCl Electrodes $25 1 box $25
Blood Pressure Unit $17 1 $17
AD624 amp $22 1 $22
MPX2050 $5.89 1 $5.89
LM235 $2.39 1 $2.39
The above mentioned estimate does not include the labor charges. With
the input averaging more than 10hr/week in the semester a considerable
salary per person is $35/hr.
Using formula 5.2 to estimate the cost, the labor will end up costing us
$13,125. The total cost comes out to be $13,347.28 .
Total Cost = Parts + Labor
Total Cost = Parts + (Ideal Hourly Salary × (Hours Spent + Shop
Hours) × 2.5) (5.2)
We were successful when it came to hardware as all the three circuits
namely ECG, temperature and Blood Pressure provided good results. The
accuracy of the measurements made was appreciable.
We were also able to sample the data and save them on the memory
card on the PIC as .txt file.
The sampling rate was high enough to gather information on all samples.
The handshaking between the PIC and the GSM was accomplished once
the voltage conversion was made. There was a problem on the ports
which turned the same to a failure. However, it was shown that
communication between the PIC and the GSM was once accomplished.
After the network registration was done, sending data as a text message
and also as an email was not a difficult task. The sending of data requires
a set of simple AT commands which can be made into strings and can be
programmed from the PIC.
In short, we were able to accomplish whatever we had once proposed.
There was a minor problem in the ports in the BV 513 module which was
unavoidable as it was a hardware problem.
Apart from the port failure in the PIC module all the parts of the product
performed as desired. The ports were also functional at once and hence
we cannot categorize it as being uncertain in its functionality.
6.3 Future Work
As an improvement on our design we could add extra peripheral devices
to make the Telemedicine platform more functional. Pulse Oximeter, Peak
flow meter and slit lamp with a camera could be included to the
peripheral devices. Pulse Oximeter measures oxygen saturation in blood,
Peak flow meter measures the lung capacity and the slip lamp would be
helpful for eye examinations and taking snap shots of skin areas for
infections. One can integrate all these the same way we integrated the
rest of the peripherals.
6.4 Ethical Considerations
1 We need to take care about all our biometric units. During simulation
we tested our design against all special cases to see the result. We
need to have a high precision accuracy.
1 Another area that we think is important is data encryption. Privacy of
the user is very important and so we will do our best to come up with
powerful encryption software.
2 We need to take care about all voltages and power unit to avoid any
shocks. Special care will be taken to insulate all wires and package the
system carefully. The wattage and voltage readings for all peripherals
will be clearly stated.
3 A direction page will be provided to avoid any confusion and wrong
data transfer. Special care will be taken to avoid any data loss.
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