Public Emergency Alerts over Cellular Phones: The Challenges

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Public Emergency Alerts over Cellular Phones: The Challenges

  1. 1. Communications Inc <ul><ul><ul><li>Public Emergency Alerts Over Cellular Phones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… The Challenges </li></ul></ul></ul>Gyles Panther 6 November 2003
  2. 2. Basic Alerts, Requirements <ul><ul><li>Primary Notification (Alert) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction / Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calm and Inform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Alerts, Suitability <ul><ul><li>Primary Notification (Alert)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction / Direction  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calm and Inform  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People Management  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation Analysis  </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Issues <ul><li>What constitutes Wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing Geographical Regions </li></ul><ul><li>Network Issues (Carrier) </li></ul><ul><li>Alerting Issues (Alertee) </li></ul><ul><li>HandSet Issues (Phone) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Wireless Networks <ul><li>Cellular - GSM / TDMA / CDMA / IDEN </li></ul><ul><li>Paging - One Way (POCSAG / FLEX) - Two Way (REFLEX / Data Networks) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Networks - Mobitex / Ardis </li></ul><ul><li>New cellular data capabilites - GPRS, 1xRTT </li></ul><ul><li>Chosen Focus is Cellular </li></ul>
  6. 6. Short History of Cellular (3)
  7. 7. Normal (Voice) communications <ul><li>Network : locates handset by registration </li></ul><ul><li>Control channel sets up comms </li></ul><ul><li>Single phone Address i.e. One to One </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot address One to Many </li></ul><ul><li>No intrinsic mapping of cells to location </li></ul><ul><li>Cells variable in size </li></ul>
  8. 8. Alert Transmissions <ul><li>Address ALL , i.e. Broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Registration irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Address </li></ul><ul><li>Alert Message Transmitted Digitally </li></ul><ul><li>Message Content : - Displayed Text ( Language? ) - Spoken ( Language?) - Displayed ( Video +Speech, language? ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Data Over Wireless <ul><li>GSM </li></ul><ul><li>GPRS…Packet data service 170kb/s raw; 40kb/s Usable ? EDGE…Enhanced GSM packet data 384kb/s raw; 60kb/s Usable? UMTS…3G Packet data service: 2Mb/s raw; 144kb/s Usable? </li></ul><ul><li>CDMA 1xRTT…Basic CDMA packet: 144kb/s raw; 60kb/s Usable? 3xRTT…Enhanced CDMA packet, 2Mb/s raw; 144kb/s Usable? </li></ul><ul><li>IDEN (?) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Existing Message Service <ul><li>e.g. SMS - Implemented by all carriers - Interoperable between carriers - Text Messages - Approximately 160 Character limitation </li></ul><ul><li>EMS, MMS - Large data files - spooled voice - photographic Picture quality (needs display!) </li></ul><ul><li>but…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All are Point to Point </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. GSM- Cell Broadcast <ul><li>Cell Specific Broadcasts Point to Multipoint Short messages, limited to 15 * 93 Characters (SMS-CB) Up to 64k CB “Channels” </li></ul><ul><li>Optional ETSI Standard (1993) Software upgrade to GSM network Not widely implemented Limited / no commercial payback. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cell Broadcast Forum” Standardized handset requirements User Opt IN-OUT service selection SMS-CB can trigger data “pull” ( via WAP ) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Geographic Addressability <ul><li>Return path for 2-Way devices inherently requires network location </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular handsets continuously located through “registration” process </li></ul><ul><li>Supposition of network geography on network location </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic resolution depends on cell size, likely poor </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cell Broadcast – Limitations <ul><li>Cell Resolution is variable, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network to network, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place to Place </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Selective Area Reception <ul><li>Assuming……… - A broadcast capability, regional or wide area - A population of network assisted GPS handsets… </li></ul><ul><li>A Broadcast alert message with…. - “Network assist” GPS data - “Geographic Address” (targeted area) - Emergency alert Message - Enunciation control data - Plus control fields… </li></ul><ul><li>Phones located in Geographic address respond… </li></ul>
  15. 15. Handset Function <ul><li>Special Alert - Display Standardized Message - Streaming Audio File </li></ul><ul><li>Probably amenable to commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular networks now data “pipes” </li></ul><ul><li>Alert / Handset function - Through Network definitions (eg CAB) ? - Through Handset Software ? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Limitations and Liabilities <ul><li>Some Handsets will miss alerts: - Poor local coverage - Handset in use </li></ul><ul><li>Handset use while driving banned some places </li></ul><ul><li>Warned user might consult display while driving - Injury may result - Who owns legal liability? </li></ul><ul><li>Much preferred to send voiced message - text to voice, or - Streaming audio file </li></ul>
  17. 17. A CAS System <ul><li>A CAS Server application - Highly reliable, Redundant architecture - Authentication on Clients, direct users </li></ul><ul><li>Message Gateway to each carrier </li></ul><ul><li>Client population - Generator sites (Police, EMO, Environmental Agencies) - GUI / GIS capability - Overlay of Sensitive Sites - Authentication of Users (generators) </li></ul>
  18. 18. A Cellular Alert System
  19. 19. Implementation <ul><li>Cell Broadcast Alerts - Now available GSM, Coming for CDMA - less than Ideal system could be built - Limited system, Patented </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Area Reception - New Message Types - Handset software required - Better System, no patents </li></ul><ul><li>Funding - Commercial Applications ? - Subsidies ? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Implementation <ul><li>Neither Do-able on Present Networks </li></ul><ul><li>CAB requires: - CAB Network Implementation (Expensive?) - Public take-up of CAB capable phones - Network development (Geo overlay on Network Topology) </li></ul><ul><li>SAR requires: - Extensive lobbying of specifying entities - New system message types (broadcast) - New generation of handsets/handset software </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation must be International </li></ul>
  21. 21. Implementation <ul><li>Government -Industry group to define </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Method of selective area access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Broadcast Message spec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSAAC network requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CAS system Design - Server system and Application S/W - Client Application Software </li></ul><ul><li>CAS administrative functions - System management, Training, public awareness, </li></ul>
  22. 22. Challenges (1) <ul><li>5 year horizon may require mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of common intent </li></ul><ul><li>Complex service behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through Handset Software? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through Network Standards? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agree on CAS method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Area Reception (GPS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic, Geo-referenced Advertising </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Thank You <ul><li>Gyles Panther </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Sys Communications Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>308 Legget Drive, </li></ul><ul><li>Ottawa, Ontario </li></ul><ul><li>K2K 1Y6 </li></ul><ul><li>www.wi-sys.com </li></ul>Communications Inc

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