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  1. 1. The Future of the New 3 rd Generation and Wireless LAN Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, WAP ARABCOM 2004 The 7 th Arab International Telecom & IT Development Telecom & IT Development Wireless Technologies Forum and Expo June 16-17, 2004 Beirut – Lebanon By General Dr. Mohamed Atwi [email_address] [email_address]
  2. 2. Questions to be Answered <ul><li>What is our wireless World? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the different generations of wireless networks? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the driving forces behind these wireless technologies? </li></ul><ul><li>What exactly are these Wireless Networks? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, WAP? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of services can they give us? </li></ul><ul><li>The future of wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
  3. 3. Our Wireless World <ul><li>We now live in a W eird, W ild, W ireless W orld where wireless networks are networked to others </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose is to identify the concepts of wireless networks technology and how to use them effectively </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The word wireless is one of those industry buzzwords that has many different meanings, and each is different depending on the circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>In general, you can safely divide the world of wireless into two types of technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The biggest difference between these wireless technologies is the range, the frequency, and the hardware </li></ul>What is Wireless?
  5. 5. Types of wireless technology is all that has to do with transferring data between devices over a short range: wireless LAN, Bluetooth networking for PDAs, and wireless keyboards. Wi-Fi wireless technology encompasses all that has to do with long-range wireless communication: cellular phones, pagers, SMS, MMS. Cellular
  6. 6. The Cellular Network
  7. 7. <ul><li>1G/Analog wireless Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is also known as the 1G technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMPS used in the US since 1983, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is still in use, but losing ground to digital cellular </li></ul></ul>The generation gap
  8. 8. <ul><li>2G/Digital Wireless Networks: GSM/IS-136/IS-95 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses same frequencies as analog cellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal is broken into tiny chunks ( sampled ), then encoded and broadcast as binary numbers, and then reassembled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal is transmitted in a binary format means that additional information can be added to the signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better use of bandwidth (i.e., more calls), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better security , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced service </li></ul></ul>The generation gap
  9. 9. <ul><li>GSM is the predominant digital cellular technology in Europe and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>GSM uses a combination of two digital formats: TDMA and FDMA . </li></ul><ul><li>GSM technology splits the calls into their own time slots , but also spreads the chunks across a number of frequencies . </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, as GSM moves towards 3G technology, it is more like a combination of TDMA with CDMA. </li></ul>The Global Standard for Mobile communications ( GSM)
  10. 10. GSM Network Architecture MSC HLR VLR BSS BSS BSS Other MSCs PSTN/ ISDN All user data: Billing Security, Service data Data needed to mange mobile calls. It contains a subset of HLR data
  11. 11. <ul><li>3G/W-CDMA/UMTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is to provide fairly high speed to support multimedia, data, and video in addition to voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the trend toward universal personal telecommunication and universal communication access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCS and PCN are names attached to these concepts and they also form objectives for 3G wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA means that each call is assigned a unique code , and is then transmitted across multiple frequencies, depending on what is available. Because each digital call has a unique code, many calls can occupy the same frequencies at the same time </li></ul></ul>The generation gap
  12. 12. <ul><li>3 rd G (Third generation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an ITU standard for the next generation, designed over and above the 2G technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can work with GSM and CDMA signals. Essentially, 3G offers a much higher bandwidth than the previous technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full media Web browsing because of the faster bandwidth. Color LCD screens can display images and even animation , and the networks are fast enough to download files in acceptable amounts of time, and even small movies , from one phone to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 th G (Fourth generation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still under development </li></ul></ul>The generation gap (Cntd)
  13. 13. IMT-2000 <ul><li>First planned in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>ITU adopted the friendlier name IMT-2000: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The year 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate of 2000 Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequencies in the 2000 MHZ region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None of these aspirations were fulfilled entirely, data rate is achievable, but under optimal conditions </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Wideband- CDMA <ul><li>Favored by most operators </li></ul><ul><li>Allow hard handovers to GSM </li></ul><ul><li>GSM can not be upgraded to W-CDMA without GPRS backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Wider BW allow higher data rates </li></ul><ul><li>Using Gold coding technique </li></ul><ul><li>Need for time synchronization </li></ul>
  15. 15. UMTS <ul><li>Since 1996, W-CDMA standard has been known as UMTS </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal was picked up by Japanese and first network deployed by NTT Do Co Mo and J-Phone and have commercial services in operation by 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Successful as GSM, quickly spreading to the rest of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with GSM </li></ul>
  16. 16. UMTS Architecture UTRAN RNS BTS BTS BTS Site Contr. B Node I ur RNC I ub I u ISDN network GSM network B-ISDN network Core Network Local Control for handover Macrodiversity B Node BTS BTS BTS Site Contr. BTS BTS BTS Site Contr. B Node BTS BTS BTS Site Contr. B Node RNC RNS I ub Controlling Radio Access RNS: Radio Network Subsystem UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
  17. 17. Convergence of Services in IMT-2000
  18. 18. Service Type Available over IMT-2000
  19. 19. Use of spectrum by different mobile communications services
  20. 20. Spectrum allocation for 3G and MSS in major world economies
  21. 21. Up Grade Path to 3 rd Generation
  22. 22. Understanding Wi-Fi <ul><li>Wi-fi wireless devices operate at a much higher wireless frequency than cellular </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi wireless is also intended to be used within a much shorter range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually, anywhere from 100 to 500 feet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mainly due to battery life constraints (most wi-fi devices are portable computers or handheld devices like PDAs). </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Versions of IEEE 802.11/ moniker wi-fi A wireless alternative for Internet and LAN access Offers the best of both worlds Wireless-A speed and Wireless-B range Is still very new 802.11g Wireless-G 1. Is similar to 802.11b 2. Use the 5 GHz spectrum (clear of interference) 3. allows a higher bandwidth (54 Mbps) . However, the higher frequency means it takes more power to transmit the signal, resulting in a shorter range (50 feet) - about half that of 802.11b 802.11a Wireless-A Designed to extend the original 802.11 technology specification to: use the 2.4 GHz spectrum handle higher bandwidths (11 Mbps) The lower frequency gives the technology a better range (300 feet) “longwire” replacement technology 802.11b Wireless-B
  24. 24. Bluetooth <ul><li>Was named after the tenth century King Haralad Blatland (translated Bluetooth) of Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth “unites” a variety of personal devices and designed specifically with handheld devices in mind: PCs, cellular telephones, headsets, handheld PCs, PDAs, printers, digital cameras, MP3, players, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Is slower than Wi-Fi (1 Mbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Operates in the 2.4 – 2.5 Ghz spectrum , has very good power consumption , and wireless alternative to cables “shortwire” replacement technology a range of about 150 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Expect to see more Bluetooth enabled devices around home and office </li></ul><ul><li>Is ideal for networking all sorts of devices together, called piconet, up to 8 devices </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>What is WAP? Not a communication protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a specification for transmitting data & information at high speeds along CDMA and GSM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the de facto standard for wireless Internet access via handheld devices, such as cellular phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most popular original use for WAP technology was to browse the Web over the cellular network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These &quot;micro-browsers&quot; combined WAP for data transfer with HTML to display Web content (text only) on the cellular phone's tiny LCD display </li></ul></ul>Wireless Application Protocol
  26. 26. <ul><li>What can you do now with WAP? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAP's largest use is still for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet and information services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text Web browsing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail access, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>up-to-the-minute stock symbol tickers </li></ul></ul></ul>Wireless Application Protocol
  27. 27. <ul><li>What is on the horizon? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAP has recently introduced its second incarnation. WAP 2.0 uses a form of XML called WML (Wireless Markup Language) for markup display on cellular phones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The biggest advantage to WML is that content written using the language can be easily scaled to fit any device from tiny two line, text-only displays all the way to the larger graphic screens found in 3G cellular phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WML micro browsers will be able to display color graphics, and is optimized for one-handed navigation </li></ul></ul>Wireless Application Protocol
  28. 28. <ul><li>Warchalking is the term given to the activity of walking/driving around public places with an open laptop, trying to find unprotected Wi-Fi hotspots. </li></ul><ul><li>When a warchalker finds such a spot, marks it with a particular symbol, indicating to others that unprotected wireless access is available at that point </li></ul><ul><li>Used for networks that are intentionally left open to the public </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Coffeehouse Wi-Fi </li></ul>Warchalking
  29. 29. <ul><li>Wireless Home Network </li></ul><ul><li>Very high speed wireless Internet service may be headed to our doorstep </li></ul><ul><li>Line of sight microwave technologies provide as fiber optic-level speeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS) as 1 G bps within a 35 miles radius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) is a wireless solution to bringing very high BW to homes and offices on the last mile of connectivity </li></ul></ul>The Future of Wireless
  30. 30. Wireless Home Network
  31. 31. Wireless Home Network
  32. 32. Wireless Home Network
  33. 33. Results <ul><li>3G UMTS is compatible with the 2G GSM system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>144 Kbps for High - Mobility Users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>384 kbps available to pedestrians/medium mobility users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2Mbit/s for Low- Mobility Users office use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetrical/asymmetrical data transmission rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for both packet & circuit switched data services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UMTS Terminals are Dual Mode Units i.e. They Are Able to Operate as GSM Terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Major Difference Is the New Radio Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Bit Rate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater Flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Summary <ul><li>There are 3 main 3G systems, Collectively known as IMT-2000 and will offer packet switched data at rates exceeding 384 kbps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W-CDMA is designed to be backward-compatible with GSM, and requires new spectrum. It is also known as UMTS and deployed in Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cdma2000 is a straightforward upgrade to cdmaOne, but itself consists of two competing proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDGE is a straightforward upgrade to GSM and is also compatible with other TDMA systems, such as D-AMPS and PDC </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Summary <ul><li>Wireless encompasses many types of devices and many brands of technology , but the trick to sorting through it all is to know exactly what you need to use the technology for, then branching out from there. </li></ul><ul><li>There's a best wireless solution for all computing needs </li></ul>
  36. 36. Recommendations Are Arab States in Need of 3G and Wireless LAN?
  37. 37. Thank you

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