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  • 1. FIXED MOBILE CONVERGENCE <ul><li>Sravanthi </li></ul><ul><li>Suparna </li></ul><ul><li>Swathi </li></ul><ul><li>Shilpa </li></ul>
  • 2. Topics <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture of FMC </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies in FMC </li></ul><ul><li>FMC with IP </li></ul><ul><li>FMC with IMS </li></ul><ul><li>FMC with SIP </li></ul><ul><li>FMC with UMA </li></ul>
  • 3. Cellular Network’s <ul><li>Wide coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of users </li></ul><ul><li>Low speeds (in kbps) </li></ul><ul><li>High deployment costs </li></ul>
  • 4. Wired Networks <ul><li>High speeds </li></ul><ul><li>High Band width </li></ul><ul><li>Low coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive to set up </li></ul>
  • 5. Fixed Mobile Convergence <ul><li>Way of connecting wireless to wire line infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate goal of convergence is to deliver seamless experience across multiple locations, </li></ul><ul><li>multiple devices and </li></ul><ul><li>multiple types of use </li></ul><ul><li>(The Yankee group, Nov 2004) </li></ul>
  • 6. Features of FMC <ul><li>Multi N/w Deployment </li></ul><ul><li>(Reference:http://www.baypackets.com/fixed_mobile_convergence.html) </li></ul>
  • 7. Features of FMC <ul><li>Unified Service of fixed and mobile n/w’s with one phone, one number and one bill </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless roaming between cellular, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and what ever wireless technology comes next. </li></ul><ul><li>More reliable mobile service with wider coverage at lower cost. Closer integration between public and enterprise phone networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly user interfaces that makes it easy to make and manage calls (the user has a choice to select the type of network depending upon cost and convenience). </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><ul><li>Friendly user interface that makes it easy to make and manage calls (the user has a choice of N/w depending upon chose and convenience). </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Levels of FMC <ul><li>Network Convergence : Fixed/mobile networks physically share transportation infrastructure. (access N/w & core N/w) </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Convergence : Resources of Fixed/mobile networks are pooled. </li></ul><ul><li>Service Convergence : Seamless delivery of Fixed/mobile telephony and supporting services is achieved. (voice, IM, SMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal Convergence : </li></ul>
  • 10. FMC + Access technologies: <ul><li>Digital subscriber line (DSL) : </li></ul><ul><li>24 Mbps  downstream </li></ul><ul><li>3 Mbps  upstream. </li></ul><ul><li>converged multimedia applications </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless local area network (WLAN ) : </li></ul><ul><li>low-cost, high-bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>A user with WLAN access could be connected through appropriate multi-access (WLAN and cellular) terminals to the Internet, to the PSTN, or to mobile network(s). </li></ul>
  • 11. FMC + Access Technologies <ul><li>Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) : </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband wireless access (BWA). 2 - 11 GHz frequency band range(as per IEE specification in 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) : roaming between a cellular network and fixed IP-based wireless networks . </li></ul>
  • 12. FMC in some places include <ul><li>Multi Media Messaging Service (MMS) </li></ul><ul><li>WLAN with CDMA service </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Portal Service </li></ul>
  • 13. Multi Media Messaging Service (MMS) <ul><li>MMS allows mobile phone users send and receive messages with formatted text graphics, photographs and audio –video clips. </li></ul><ul><li>With the integration of digital camera and mobile phone, MMS usage increases. </li></ul>
  • 14. WLAN with CDMA <ul><li>In a zone where an access point is established, subscribes use WLAN service. When the subscribers are out of zone, they use CDMA . </li></ul><ul><li>High speed, low price from WLAN </li></ul><ul><li>Wide coverage from CDMA </li></ul>
  • 15. Integrated Portal Service <ul><li>Integration of mobile and Web-based portals. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides aggregated content and services through a mobile Internet network. </li></ul>
  • 16. Current Typical Solutions for FMC <ul><li>IP-PBX or soft-switch with mobile n/w interface </li></ul><ul><li>IMS based coverage solution </li></ul><ul><li>UMA Dual Mode solution </li></ul>
  • 17. What is IP-PBX??? <ul><li>The Internet Protocol Private Branch eXchange (IP PBX) is telephone switching equipment that resides in a private business instead of the telephone company. </li></ul><ul><li>An IP PBX delivers employees dial-tone, the ability to conference, transfer, and dial other employees by extension number as well as many other features. (Virtual Private Network Services..) </li></ul><ul><li>Voice transmissions are sent via data packets over a data network instead of the traditional phone network </li></ul><ul><li>Least Routing of cellular. </li></ul><ul><li>3G ???(not applicable to 3G)… </li></ul>
  • 18. Converged Fixed-Mobile solution IP Phone IPPBX WLAN AP Dual Mode Device (IP-PBX client) Fixed N/W Mobile N/W
  • 19. Reference: http://www.nmscommunications.com/file/WebinarNov05 FixedMobileConvergence.pdf
  • 20. <ul><li>IP Enabled PBX functions on one device while on campus utilizing the WLA|N (802.11 b/g) infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces on-campus and inter-campus calls. </li></ul><ul><li>Only with in campus </li></ul><ul><li>3G????(not applicable because IP-PBX does not support) </li></ul><ul><li>(companies like Nokia, Avaya, Motorola use this technology). </li></ul>
  • 21. IP Multimedia Subsystem - Suparna
  • 22. Introduction to IMS <ul><li>IMS stands for IP Multimedia Subsystem </li></ul><ul><li>IMS is a key enabler of Fixed-Mobile Convergence </li></ul><ul><li>IMS is an architecture that merges the applications and capabilities of the Internet with both wireless and wire line telephony, and promotes fixed/mobile convergence. </li></ul><ul><li>An IMS/SIP approach enables both voice and data applications to run over IP, rather than locking it into the mobile carriers' legacy networks . </li></ul>
  • 23. Layered Approach <ul><li>Access Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport ( Connectivity) layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Core Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Layer </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. IMS Architecture Overview
  • 25. Functional Architecture
  • 26. Horizontal Integration of IMS
  • 27. Advantages of Horizontal Integration <ul><li>Service Enablers and common functions can be reused for multiple operations </li></ul><ul><li>Operations competence required is more generic </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to provide interoperability and reaming and other such functions more economically to the consumer </li></ul>
  • 28. Interoperability in IMS
  • 29. Advantages over Existing Systems <ul><li>The core network is independent of a particular access technology ( GSM, WCDMA, CDMA and also WLAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated mobility for all network applications </li></ul><ul><li>Easier migration of applications from fixed to mobile users </li></ul><ul><li>Faster deployment of new services based on standardized architecture </li></ul>
  • 30. Advantages over Existing Systems <ul><li>New applications such as presence information , videoconferencing , Push to talk over cellular (POC), multiparty gaming, community services and content sharing. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution to combinational services, for example by combining instant messaging and voice </li></ul><ul><li>User profiles are stored in a central location </li></ul>
  • 31. Issues Related to IMS <ul><li>Benefits need to be further articulated in terms of actual savings. </li></ul><ul><li>IMS is &quot;operator friendly&quot; which means that it provides the operator with comprehensive control of content at the expense of the consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>IMS uses the 3GPP variant of SIP, which needs to interoperate with the IETF SIP. </li></ul><ul><li>IMS is an optimization of the network, and investments for such optimization are questionable. </li></ul>
  • 32. Substitution of legacy system
  • 33.  
  • 34. References <ul><li>http://www.motorola.com/networkoperators/pdfs/new/IMS-WhitePaper.pdf#search='IP%20multimedia%20subsystem ‘ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ericsson.com/technology/whitepapers/ims_ip_multimedia_subsystem.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.insightcorp.com/ExecSummaries/fmc05ExecSum.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_Multimedia_Subsystem#Basic_Principles </li></ul>
  • 35. FMC using SIP
  • 36. FMC using SIP <ul><li>FMC solutions aimed at wireline operators take an opposite approach from those aimed at wireless providers </li></ul><ul><li>Wireline-oriented FMC solutions are based on SIP standards </li></ul><ul><li>SIP approach has benefits since SIP has already entered the emerging wireless network (via 3GPP) and is inherently compatible with IMS architecture </li></ul>
  • 37. INTRODUCTION to SIP <ul><li>H.323 protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Session initiation protocol </li></ul><ul><li>SIP considered to be a simpler, more flexible alternative to H.323 with the ability to support advanced services. </li></ul>
  • 38. What is SIP <ul><li>SIP or Session Initiation Protocol is an application-level control protocol for setting up, changing and terminating multimedia sessions between participants on IP data networks. </li></ul><ul><li>SIP is a text-based protocol, similar to HTTP and SMTP, for initiating interactive communication sessions between users. Such sessions include voice, video, chat, interactive games, and virtual reality. </li></ul>
  • 39. SIP Architecture
  • 40. SIP Entities <ul><li>User Agent </li></ul><ul><li>User Agent Client </li></ul><ul><li>User Agent Server </li></ul><ul><li>Proxy Server </li></ul><ul><li>Redirect Server </li></ul><ul><li>Registrar Server </li></ul>
  • 41. How SIP works <ul><li>Long distance calls through the traditional telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Telephony system works via a cog and wheel setup </li></ul><ul><li>SIP refers to a protocol that allows computers to talk to each other without going through a central station. </li></ul><ul><li>SIP is typically offered in two formats, computer based and hardware based </li></ul>
  • 42. SIP based telephony
  • 43. SIP Session Establishment and Termination
  • 44. Services that SIP can provide <ul><li>Call Hold </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation Hold </li></ul><ul><li>Unattended Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Call forward on Busy/NoAnswer/Unconditiona </li></ul><ul><li>3-Way Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Find-Me </li></ul><ul><li>Incoming/Outgoing Call Screening </li></ul><ul><li>Call Waiting </li></ul>
  • 45. SIP structure
  • 46. SIP based session management
  • 47. SIP in IMS <ul><li>The key technology behind IMS is the SIP protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of SIP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiar </li></ul></ul>
  • 48. SIP in IMS
  • 49. SIP based FMC solution
  • 50. SIP in FMC <ul><li>FMC is likely to bring to reality the following scenarios hitherto considered impossible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A cell phone user may start receiving calls on his SIP home phone when he enters his home, saving spectrum and charges for the ‘home roaming usage’. This kind of hand-off is both extremely non-intrusive and cost beneficial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise subscribers may roam their mobile number into a business environment via one to many SIP devices. This may be offered by a service bureau as a managed service . </li></ul></ul>
  • 51. Contd… <ul><li>Enterprise subscribers may roam their mobile numbers in their enterprise network via one to several SIP devices. This further establishes that none of the existing infrastructure will be rendered a waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile subscribers may continue enjoying all enhanced services available on their home PLMN networks in any roaming network they are visiting and on their landline networks as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile subscribers may seamlessly roam between locations with calls transparently following them irrespective of whether they are in a cable zone or a public WiFi hot spot. </li></ul>
  • 52. UMA
  • 53. What is UMA? <ul><li>Unlicensed Mobile Access </li></ul><ul><li>Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) technology provides access to GSM and GPRS mobile services over unlicensed spectrum technologies, including Bluetooth and 802.11. </li></ul><ul><li>It establishes a standard for seamless hand-off and roaming between a cellular network and fixed IP-based wireless networks . </li></ul>
  • 54. UMA (Unlicensed Mobile Access) <ul><li>UMA lets mobile operators deliver voice, data and IMS/SIP(IP Multi media Subsystem /Session Initiated Protocol) applications to mobile phones on Wi-Fi access network using dual-mode mobile handsets. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to promote the widespread adoption of UMA technology, a number of leading companies within the wireless industry have jointly developed a set of open specifications. </li></ul>
  • 55. UMA Protocols <ul><li>UMA is on top of it at the transport layer (Layer 4) and has its own set of control protocols . </li></ul>
  • 56. UNC <ul><li>The UMA specification is based around UNC. </li></ul><ul><li>What is UNC??? </li></ul><ul><li>A UMA Network Controller (UNC) acts as a virtual base station, </li></ul><ul><li>providing handoff </li></ul><ul><li>between cellular </li></ul><ul><li>and Wi-Fi networks. </li></ul>
  • 57. Cellular /UMA
  • 58. How UMA Technology Works <ul><li>A mobile subscriber with a UMA-enabled, dual-mode handset moves within range of an unlicensed wireless network to which the handset is allowed to connect. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon connecting, the handset contacts the UMA Network Controller (UNC) over the broadband IP access network to be authenticated and authorized to access GSM voice and GPRS data services via the unlicensed wireless network. </li></ul>
  • 59. (Contd..) <ul><li>If approved, the subscriber’s current location information stored in the core network is updated, and from that point on all mobile voice and data traffic is routed to the handset via the Unlicensed Mobile Access Network (UMAN) rather than the cellular radio access network (RAN). </li></ul>
  • 60. Roaming <ul><li>When a UMA-enabled subscriber moves outside the range of an unlicensed wireless network to which they are connected, the UNC and handset facilitate roaming back to the licensed outdoor network. This roaming process is completely transparent to the subscriber. </li></ul>
  • 61. Handover <ul><li>Handover in: </li></ul><ul><li>The mobile station moves from macro network to a UMAN. </li></ul><ul><li>Handover out: </li></ul><ul><li>The mobile station moves from UMAN to macro network. </li></ul><ul><li>Handover UMA: </li></ul><ul><li>The mobile station moves with in a UMAN or from UMAN to UMAN. </li></ul>
  • 62. Handoff Specifications <ul><li>Subject to mode selection, UMA shall support seamless handover in and handover out ,provided the following conditions are true: </li></ul><ul><li>The mobile station stays within the limits of service (pedestrian state of motion) </li></ul><ul><li>The mobile station remains during the time of handover within the coverage of both the networks. </li></ul><ul><li>UMA shall manage bandwidth during handover between macro network and UMAN. </li></ul>
  • 63.  
  • 64. Security in UMA <ul><li>Different security mechanism operate at different levels: </li></ul><ul><li>MS to AP – UMA does not mandate any security mechanism, but can coexist with those available, such WPA, WPA2, or WEP. </li></ul><ul><li>MS to UNC – The UNC includes a security gateway that provides mutual authentication and encryption for the traffic across the WLAN and the broadband connection. </li></ul><ul><li>MS to core mobile network – The encryption and authentication methods used by the MS when using the GERAN are also used to protect UMA connections. </li></ul><ul><li>MS to application server – An additional end-to-end data application mechanism (for example, HTTPS) may be used if needed. </li></ul>
  • 65. Advantages Availability &Pricing <ul><li>UMA could be used to provide better in-building coverage for customers who don't get a good cellular signal in some areas, including basements. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables service providers to deliver voice at a lower cost when handsets are within range of an unlicensed wireless network. </li></ul>
  • 66. Issues <ul><li>If a customer doesn't have a wireless network already in the house, a wireless access point would be needed in addition to a broadband link . </li></ul><ul><li>The most expensive and technologically challenging component of UMA solution is the Wi-Fi and cellular handset, because of battery-life limitations, cost, and size . </li></ul><ul><li>UMA cannot guarantee the quality of a voice call or the throughput of a data connection and traffic prioritization with QoS can significantly improve performance, especially in a residential environment where traffic is likely to be less heavy than in the enterprise. </li></ul>http:// www.arcchart.com/blueprint/show.asp?id =368
  • 67. Conclusion: <ul><li>FMC will mean a greater flexibility, more freedom, lower costs and simplified communications and is more advance than many other technologies by giving the user best of both worlds. </li></ul>

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