.NET Mobile Application Development The Challenge of Mobility
Introduction <ul><li>Many mobile applications are clients in larger distributed systems </li></ul><ul><li>In the last sess...
The Mobile Revolution <ul><li>Computers no longer tied to the desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Devices are increasingly mobile an...
Pervasive Computing <ul><li>A vision of 21 st  Century computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available any time, any place, in a...
Visions of Pervasive Computing <ul><li>Users are predominantly mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Computing is mobile and wirelessly...
Mobile Devices <ul><li>Many different mobile devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptops/Tablet PC’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
PDA Characteristics <ul><li>Typical spec </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU: up to 400 MHz RISC processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Mobile Phones <ul><li>Evolved over three generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st  generation – analogue phones </li></ul></...
Mobile Phone Characteristics <ul><li>Typical spec </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU: < 200 MHz RISC processors </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Common Characteristics <ul><li>Physical  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small and light enough to be carried about the person => si...
Common Characteristics… <ul><li>Memory and storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited memory capacity (compared to PC’s) </li><...
Common Characteristics… <ul><li>Telephony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many mobile devices offer voice telephony support </li></u...
Mobile Services <ul><li>Each mobile platform provides fundamental set of services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDA’s </li></ul></...
Location Awareness <ul><li>Fundamental feature of many mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Legal requirement for mobile phone...
Mobile Applications <ul><li>Mobile applications are inherently distributed client-server apps </li></ul><ul><li>Two models...
<ul><li>In this session we have discussed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common mobile devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile de...
Reading and Resources <ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Uwe Hansmann et al.,  Pervasive Computing Handbook , Springer-Verl...
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  1. 1. .NET Mobile Application Development The Challenge of Mobility
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Many mobile applications are clients in larger distributed systems </li></ul><ul><li>In the last session we considered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of distributed applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this session we will look at </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile devices as clients in distributed applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular challenges of mobile devices </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Mobile Revolution <ul><li>Computers no longer tied to the desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Devices are increasingly mobile and wirelessly enabled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistants (PDA’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart phones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile device usage is common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of UK population own a mobile phone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile devices will increasingly be used as clients in distributed applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developers must address peculiar mobile device characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pervasive Computing <ul><li>A vision of 21 st Century computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available any time, any place, in any device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pervasive computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ computing power freed from the desktop – embedded in wireless handheld devices, automobiles, home appliances and commercial tools-of-the-trade. In the enterprise it extends timely business data to workers in the field… In our personal lives, it expands our freedom to exchange information anytime, anywhere ’ IBM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Devices are becoming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more embedded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>casually connected to a ubiquitous network with wired core and wireless edges </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Visions of Pervasive Computing <ul><li>Users are predominantly mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Computing is mobile and wirelessly connected </li></ul><ul><li>Unmanaged, dynamic network environment </li></ul><ul><li>Devices/appliances containing embedded computing are clients in this distributed environment </li></ul><ul><li>Business domain / distributed wireless office is an ultimate goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phones, PDA’s, laptops, corporate servers seamlessly integrated in wireless network environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers can access info and resources needed to do their job regardless of their location </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Mobile Devices <ul><li>Many different mobile devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptops/Tablet PC’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially same as standard desktop PC’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistant’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket-sized handheld computer with </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar, contact management, note taking, Web browser & media player apps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pen interface </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>802.11/Bluetooth/GPRS connectivity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller than PDA; primarily a telephone with extra functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current devices are 2.5G digital/GSM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3G devices becoming more common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid between mobile phone and PDA with mobile phone form factor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. PDA Characteristics <ul><li>Typical spec </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU: up to 400 MHz RISC processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory: 8 – 128MB RAM for programs and file store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen: 6cm x 8cm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stylus for input with handwriting recognition </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Mobile Phones <ul><li>Evolved over three generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st generation – analogue phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice centric, GSM digital phones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low bandwidth data access via SMS, WAP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 generation – most current phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher data rates via GPRS – EMS, MMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively always on network connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal management apps – calendar, contacts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is complete personal communication system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broad bandwidth data connections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming multimedia, video telephony and full Internet access supported </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Predictions suggest that number of mobile phones connected to Internet will exceed number of Internet connected PC’s by 2007 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mobile Phone Characteristics <ul><li>Typical spec </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU: < 200 MHz RISC processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory: < 32MB RAM for programs and file store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen: Typically 3.5cm x 4.5cm or less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input: via numeric keypad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must behave as advanced (not thin) client and smoothly transition between being networked and self-sufficient device </li></ul>
  10. 10. Common Characteristics <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small and light enough to be carried about the person => size & screen resolution constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery powered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be designed to minimize power consumption, maximize battery life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Devices never completely powered down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boot sequence must be short </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor speeds/power consumption increased greatly over recent years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battery technology improvements have not kept pace </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Common Characteristics… <ul><li>Memory and storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited memory capacity (compared to PC’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slower than desktop memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory used for file storage and running programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermittent connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Devices do not have permanent connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to cope gracefully with service interruptions and disconnected operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different networks encountered at different times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must manage and use these seamlessly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device often contain valuable/sensitive data – personal and business (e.g. connection to corporate gateway) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small devices easily lost or stolen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good range of security and authentication features required (e.g. biometrics) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Common Characteristics… <ul><li>Telephony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many mobile devices offer voice telephony support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS’s must provide comprehensive telephony services and make these available to other devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly ARM-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar architecture to desktop CPU’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack some features of general purpose desktop processors due to competing constraints of size, power consumption and hardware features </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized OS’s required targeted at custom chipsets used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trimmed down desktop OS’s not appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three key OS’s used in majority of mobile devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PalmOS – PDA’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbian – Mainly phones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows CE .NET – Pocket PC (PDA) and SmartPhone (Mobile phones) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Mobile Services <ul><li>Each mobile platform provides fundamental set of services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDA’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet access, e-mail, personal information management (PIM), office apps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configurable by owner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SmartPhones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As PDA’s, plus voice telephony and messaging (SMS/EMS/MMS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice telephony, WAP, SMS/MMS, limited PIM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration fixed by manufacturer/network provider </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User personalisation possible </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Location Awareness <ul><li>Fundamental feature of many mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Legal requirement for mobile phones in UK/USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location determination for calls to emergency services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial applications also leverage this location awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking and logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded devices in delivery trucks to monitor operations and deliveries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automobile remote diagnostics and telemetry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location-based information and data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Services provided to mobile user based on geographical location (e.g. maps, nearest chemist, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Location awareness becoming increasingly important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubating new business models and applications (e.g. smart environments) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Mobile Applications <ul><li>Mobile applications are inherently distributed client-server apps </li></ul><ul><li>Two models of interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull products / services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional model – most desktop apps are pull-based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User makes explicit request for info/service (e.g. Web browser) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push products / services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic - no explicit request required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data sent to user based on known user preferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fit well with mobile devices due to availability of messaging services, etc (e.g. delivery of stock quotes or sports results via SMS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative services result from combining with location-awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovative uses of mobile technology and mobile applications are emerging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. wireless vending machines, information kiosks, wearable computing </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>In this session we have discussed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common mobile devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile device characteristics and limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile applications and services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the next session we will begin to consider the software technologies used in implementing mobile applications </li></ul>Summary
  17. 17. Reading and Resources <ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Uwe Hansmann et al., Pervasive Computing Handbook , Springer-Verlag, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Geoffrey Elliot and Nigel Phillips, Mobile Commerce and Wireless Computing Systems , Addison-Wesley, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Deitel, Deitel, Nieto & Steinbuhler, Wireless Internet and Mobile Business – How to Program, Prentice Hall, 2002 </li></ul>

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