Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. 3 October 2000 – 16 October 2000 Data Liberation Helps Market Researchers to Run Surveys Via WAP 03:04 AM GMT on Oct 16, 2000 [NMA] Data Liberation, a data service provider, is to offer new technology to help the market research industry reach WAP users. Companies that wish to use the new Instant Intelligence service select a panel of respondents who have signed up as participants from a Data Liberation database, then choose a time for the survey to be broadcast to the participants' WAP phones. Users sign up to the service online and earn credit for every survey they complete, receiving a cheque when they've completed 20 surveys. The technology allows the market research industry an instant response to their questionnaires, as they can determine a time limit for receiving data back, which can be as short as 30 minutes. The panellist controls how many surveys they receive and what time of day they receive them. Chris Morgan, MD of Data Liberation, said, "Market researchers want instant access to opinions and views, telecoms service providers want new, innovative options for their users, and the WAP users are looking for new things to do with their phones." Data Liberation is currently courting investments from a major telecoms network provider and from the market research industry. The service will be officially launched in November. WAPs Going On? 03:04 AM GMT on Oct 16, 2000 [Director] After e-commerce comes m-commerce - the ability to carry out transactions on the move thanks to WAP technology. WAP, short for "wireless application protocol", is a way of bringing the Internet to a mobile phone. Industry experts predict that within 18 months, nearly all the new mobile phones that are on sale will be WAP-enabled and that in four years' time, people will be carrying out some 14 billion m-commerce transactions a year, worth close to L13bn. Sounds unlikely? Not if recent history is anything to go buy. Forecasts by research group Forrester, though bullish, have consistently under-estimated the rate of ecommerce growth. Not so long ago, the Internet's "killer application" was seen as email: now, that view seems hopelessly naive. Also, the relatively primitive devices currently in the shops should not be confused with the kinds of WAP phones that we'll be using in the future. Today's WAP phones have screens 60 per cent larger than a "normal" mobile phone but can display nothing like the amount of information that is on a computer screen. That's why WAP requires a separate language - WML (wireless markup language) to generate tight, graphics-free fast-loading screen displays suitable for viewing on mobile devices. As mobile phone technology evolves, the phone displays will soon be more similar in size and quality to the colour screens on today's pocket organisers. Another factor in WAP's favour is that it has been designed as an open standard. This should avoid the "standard wars" that plagued the development of video in the 1980s. More than 200 mobile phone manufacturers, software firms, phone companies and Internet organisations have already signed up for WAP Indeed, businesses that fancy setting themselves up in m-commerce can download the WAP specification itself - as well as ample useful technical information - free from the Internet. Clearly, the initial prime market for WAP is travel-related. Rail tickets, traffic information, hotel reservations, "where's the nearest cash machine?" queries - WAP services for all of these exist now, and more websites are currently coming online. Another large market, of course, is providing "convenience" services to people who just happen to be on the move: online banking, stock price information, share dealing, restaurant information - even book buying. Stuck on a train? Log on to Amazon.com and order a book. Any time, any place, anywhere? Even ordinary businesses will begin to plug WAP phones into their back office systems in the same way that giant corporations do now. Travelling salespeople will be able to check on an order's status,
  2. 2. for instance, while they're in the customer's office. Delivery drivers will be able to confirm deliveries as they are made, and receive instructions or directions for the next call. Is there a catch? Is m-commerce inevitably set for assured success? Not necessarily. Observers point to two particularly awkward flies in the ointment. The first is the still-evolving WAP standard. Critics point out that it isn't fully secure and that it will in any case be overtaken by the facilities offered by third-generation mobile phones. Another problem is that the US, the driving force for all things Internet-related, lags far behind the UK and Europe in its take-up of mobile phones. Some analysts say the US's "receiving party pays" pricing is to blame. More significant from the point of view of WAP technology, however, is the fact that the country has three competing mobile standards. WAP is based on only one platform, GSM. The rush to exploit the rich new wireless market is sparking a competitive scrap over who will establish a dominant wireless data transfer standard. But why do we need a standard? What will it achieve? Oct 12, 2000 Chan Komagan, Contributing Writer Dazzled by the rich potential of the market, wireless telecommunications carriers are poised to move rapidly from offering simple voice communications to more lucrative data services. The rush to exploit this rich new market is sparking a competitive scrap over who will establish a dominant wireless data transfer standard. But why do we need a standard? What will it achieve? As consumers demand from mobile phones more services such as email, Web access and videoconferencing, the bandwidth required for those services keeps increasing. Data messaging, including multimedia content such as graphics, video, and images, will put huge traffic demands on cellular networks. These networks will have to be based on robust transmission standards if they are going to be able to handle the massive volume of data traffic without breaking down. The three major standards currently used in the wireless industry are Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Of the three, GSM is the most widely used standard comprising more than 120 million users worldwide with the largest number concentrated in Europe. CDMA is the next most widely used standard, particularly in the U.S. and in parts of Asia. Both of these standards are being rapidly enhanced to accommodate demand for additional capacity and Internet capabilities. CDMA CDMA is a "spread spectrum" technology that distributes information within the signal over a given bandwidth. CDMA offers great benefits such as: • A traffic capacity increase of 8 to 10 times the capacity of the legacy Advanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS) system and 4 to 5 times that that of GSM • Simplified system planning and privacy • Improved coverage characteristics that allow mobile carriers to service a given area with fewer cell sites • Bandwidth on demand CDMA is used almost everywhere in the world. Sprint PCS and many other network operators- including Bell Atlantic, Canada's Bell Mobility, GTE Wireless, and Vodafone AirTouch-run their digital wireless voice services using CDMA technology. CDMA network deployment and subscriber growth have developed considerable momentum. As a result, data services are now available from a number of carriers. Currently, these carriers use circuit-switched technology operating at 14.4 kbps. From the carrier perspective, network operators are turning their attention to wireless data as a way of generating additional billable traffic across their networks. Many U.S. personal communications services (PCS) operators must recoup huge investments in 1,900 MHz-frequency PCS spectrum and infrastructure equipment. As with GSM, CDMA requires a handset that specifically supports data. Connect the phone to a laptop, and the phone operates just like a modem enabling the user to establish dial-up connections to the Internet, to corporate remote access server (RAS), and so on. WAP-based micro browser applications are also being made available. In the shift to third-generation (3G) mobile communications, CDMA has become crucial to carriers that use GSM (the European standard), and to those using cdmaOne, which is widespread in the United States and in Asia. Developed by the military, CDMA gets its efficiency by spreading a signal across all
  3. 3. of the carrier's bandwidth, while keeping call channels separate by assigning them codes, which allows a carrier to use all of its frequencies in each of its cells. Two of the CDMA versions in the ITU standard are being encouraged to merge, at least by some industry proponents. One version, cdma2000, has the cdmaOne camp's support; the other version is Wideband-CDMA, (W-CDMA). cdmaOne and cdma2000 cdmaOne is a global technology that accounts for the entire wireless system and specifications, such as the air interface and the network interfaces. cdmaOne offers the superior data capacity, reliability and other features that enable Internet access on a wide range of mobile devices. Networks running cdmaOne provide both circuit and packet switched data services at speeds up to 14.4 kbps. The cdmaOne subscriber base is growing enormously both in U.S. and overseas. Third-Generation GSM The third-generation version of GSM is based on W-CDMA. This version of CDMA deviates from American standards, although it uses the same spread spectrum principles. W-CDMA has the ability to transmit data at 2 megabits per second (Mbps) indoors. The air link, using either 5 MHz, 10 MHz, or 20 MHz radio channels, is a vast increase from GSM's current 200 kHz channels. The 3G technologies are expected to support wireless Internet and multimedia transmission at 384 kbps up from today's slim 14.4 kbps. For instance, a caller could engage in a videoconference on his mobile phone while simultaneously checking his stock portfolio-functions the wired world takes for granted. 3G Service Subscribers (millions) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Americas - - 0.02 0.1 1.9 5.2 10.6 Europe - 0.02 0.8 2.7 4.9 8.6 16.9 Japan 0.02 0.12 0.9 2.1 4.2 7.8 12.5 Total 0.02 0.14 1.7 4.9 11.0 21.6 40.0 cdmaOne versus W-CDMA Standards development work by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) brought the two CDMA interfaces closer than ever, reducing their differences from 17 to three. Of those three differences, the key one in dispute is the chip rate, or speed at which the CDMA signal is spread across bandwidth. The cdmaOne community is allied with the 3.68 Mbps chip rate of cdma2000, a tripling of their present chip rate. W-CDMA supporters, however, favor 4.096 Mbps. The effort to get both sides to agree is starting to resemble world diplomacy. Earlier this year, a key prospective W-CDMA supplier, Ericsson said that without forsaking the 4.096 Mbps rate, it would also manufacture phones that would operate at a top speed of 3.84 Mbps if customers requested such gear. That sparked the interest of cdma2000 supporters. Early this year, a group of mobile carriers who support cdma2000 launched a series of secret talks that culminated in an April meeting in Tokyo. Major American mobile communications companies that participated in the talks included such cdmaOne carriers as AirTouch Communications, Bell Atlantic Mobile and Sprint PCS, as well as one American GSM user, Omnipoint Communications. Officially, the group said only that it had developed a proposal that it would submit to the ITU. The 27 carriers from around the world who gathered at that conference backed the 3.84 rate. Ubiquitous GSM GSM, which is available in 120 countries, uses a variation of TDMA technology, which is generally regarded as inferior to the more advanced CDMA standard. However, one of the key advantages of GSM system is that its users can roam. Because GSM operators have roaming agreements with foreign operators, users can continue to use their cell phones when travel to other countries. Analog cellular systems such as AMPS and Total Access Communication System (TACS) are considered first-generation (1G) technologies. Second generation (2G) wireless technology refers to today's digital cellular systems, including GSM, cdmaOne, IS-136, and Japan's Personal Digital Cellular (PDC). Second-generation systems were originally designed for voice, although they now also transport a limited amount of low-speed data communication. Third generation (3G) cellular systems will begin to appear in this decade and will communicate voice, video, and data at speeds of up two megabits per second. The first commercial 3G cellular system is scheduled to begin service in March 2001 in Japan. Third generation cellular telephone technologies will be needed to meet the future demand for high- speed wireless data services such as Internet browsing, database access, multimedia services, and real-time video. Even without the introduction of new high-bandwidth wireless services, today's 2G
  4. 4. digital cellular telephone systems will have to be replaced in the next decade to take advantage of advances in technology, improve capacity, and to expand service. International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) is the name for the UTI's initiative to develop the standards and technologies to make worldwide Any-to-Any wireless access a reality. IMT-2000 is best understood as a minimum set of capabilities for delivering communications services; it is not intended to define the air interface that will deliver the services, nor does it specify what the IMT-2000 services will be. IMT-2000 recommendations call for a wireless data speed of 144 kilobits per second for high-speed mobile users, 384 kilobits per second for users moving at pedestrian speeds, and two megabits per second for stationary users. Once 3G systems are in place, wireless services and their customers will use them for applications not yet envisioned today; however, one can speculate. The table below shows some probable 3G applications, and the bandwidth that they might require. High-fidelity voice communication could be easily accomplished with a data speed of 28 kilobits per second in each direction. Two-way multimedia services such as videoconferencing would use several hundred kilobits per second in each direction. Possible 3G Services Service Upstream speed (kb/s) Downstream speed (kb/s) Voice 28 28 Messaging 28 28 Circuit-switched data 56 56 Internet 28 560 One-way multimedia 56 560 Most members of the cellular industry believe that a CDMA-based technology will be clearly superior to one based on TDMA. However, both Qualcomm and Ericsson are withholding the rights to patents, which they claim to hold, that are required to implement a CDMA-based system. In frustration, the ITU informed the two companies that if by January 1, 1999 they did not release the rights to any CDMA-related intellectual property which might affect a 3G CDMA proposal, the ITU would proceed with a TDMA standard and would no longer consider a CDMA-based solution. Qualcomm and Ericsson called the ITU's bluff. This puts the ITU in a quandary. Under its own rules it cannot consider a CDMA-based technology unless that technology is available to all who wish to use it. If the ITU were to drop CDMA and give its blessing only to a TDMA-based air interface, the industry would thumb its nose at the ITU, and deploy CDMA-based systems by working with regional standards groups. In late February 1999, Qualcomm and Ericsson announced that they would cross-license some of their patents related to CDMA. The discussions between the two companies could result in an agreement that would allow work on CDMA-based 3G technologies to progress. IMT-2000 recommends that radio frequencies in the two-GHz range be reserved throughout the world for 3G cellular systems. In Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Japan, and Korea two 60 MHz-wide blocks of spectrum have been designated for IMT-2000. These blocks are 1,885 to 2,025 MHz and 2,110 to 2,200 MHz. There has been endless debate over whether to harmonize the wireless standards and, if wireless standards are to be harmonized, whether harmonization should be done by an industry standards group, or let the private carrier corporations take care of it. Service providers and consumers are concerned about leaving the job to the carriers because, while there is plenty of competition and free- market choices in the U.S., there is significantly less competition in Europe. And, with less competition, European carriers could impose a restrictive, propriety standard that conflicts with a more worldwide standard, or which would cost consumers more. But U.S. carriers' participation in IMT-2000 shows their interest in achieving a harmonized wireless standard. Most carriers, including Qualcomm, have made many investments in CDMA technology, and would prefer to see the 3G system adopt their standard. CDPD A consortium of U.S. telecommunications companies developed Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) network standard in 1993. The advantage of CDPD is that it uses a digital packet switched network on top of the networks that were designed for voice communications only. Also CDPD leverages the investment in existing systems in a relatively economical way. Major network carriers including AT&T, Bell Atlantic, and GTE completed implementation of CDPD-enabled networks. While CDMA and TDMA networks are compatible with CDPD, GSM standards are not.
  5. 5. PCS The Personal Communication Service (PCS) standard currently incorporate Short Messaging System (SMS) protocols for managing message-based communications. It is a two-way 1900 MHz digital offering now being rolled out across the United States. PCS is another widely used data transmission standard that incorporates CDMA, GSM, and TDMA. Wireless Devices Wireless devices, such as the Palm Pilot, PDAs, two-way pagers, devices running the Windows CE operating system, and other smart appliances, offer a variety of functions including interactive applications. Smart phones are cellular phones equipped with an Internet browser. They are large enough to accommodate powerful electronics, which gives them more processing power. Different vendors provide different features such as data transmission standards, GUI, etc. Some GSM-based devices do not support advanced functionality because at this time SMS only allows for exchange of short emails and digital fax transfer. Some smart phones come with a UP Browser that enables wireless technology. UP Browser displays Handheld Devices Markup Language (HDML) and uses WAP to achieve wireless Internet. Market Share Worldwide mobile phone use exceeded 300 million users. 1999 Mobile Phone Users (millions) Internet Users (millions) Worldwide 300 327 US 96 80 Europe 141 31 Japan 50 11 Mobile Phone Categories Digital technologies offer "multiple access" to radio spectrum. Several subscribers can access the same channel at one time. Voice quality and capacity differs markedly among the various digital technologies. 1. Analog/AMPS Technology: Analog Offered by: Nokia Sold by: Ameritech Cellular, AT&T Wireless Services 2. PCS Technology: Full CDMA These are nothing but Single-Mode phones that work in 1900 frequency range. Frequency Range: 1850-1910 MHz transmitter, 1930-1990 MHz Receiver Offered by: Qualcomm, Nokia 3. Dual Mode phones Technology: CDMA digital Analog Data capable Frequency Range: 824-848 transmitter and 869-893 Receiver Offered By: Qualcomm 4. Dual band dual-mode phone that works in the 800 MHz digital cellular and analog / 1900 MHz digital PCS. Technology: Both Digital CDMA and analog Dual mode means it supports communications on both digital and analog cellular systems as well as dual band (supports telephone service on two separate frequencies: 800 MHz and 1900 MHz.) Analog Data capable Offered By: Qualcomm 5. DualBand/TriMode Technology: TDMA 800/TDMA 900/Analog A TriMode phone operates on 2 frequency bands, such as 800 MHz and 1900 MHz, as well as operating in both digital and analog networks. Offered By: Nokia. What do analysts say about the cellular future?
  6. 6. Frost & Sullivan: The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for wireless data from 1996 through 2003 is projected to be 35 percent. The market is expected to grow to ten times its current value, and reach close to $2.5 billion by the year 2002. Yankee Group: The Yankee Group projects that more than one million wireless intelligent terminals (WITs) will be sold in the year 2000, comprising almost 4 percent of total wireless terminal sales that year. Gartner Group: The opportunity for wireless data communication in the United States is huge, with 25.3 million of the 112.1 million workforce having a mobile job requirement, but growth will be slow and steady. Strategis: Two million wireless data subscribers exist in 1997 and the market is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of over 40 percent through 2002. Ovum: By the end of the year 2000, there will be over three million users of data over GSM services in Western Europe, rising from a current installed base of around 300,000. In the UK, there will be 900,000 users of data over GSM services by 2000, rising from the current installed base of around 90,000. Conclusion The wireless industry is currently the fastest growing industry in the world. Wireless carriers and phone manufacturers are striving for an open access standard to make mobile eBusiness an economically potent option. As noted by Forrester Research, all three major wireless standards, CDMA, TDMA and GSM will converge to a single standard in this decade. Major portals, Internet service providers, and other content providers are aggressively investing in this market. Last year, Qualcomm and Ericsson reached a settlement to end their longstanding dispute regarding the intellectual property, and have agreed to unify the digital CDMA standard. Japanese telecom operators are working with 3G Partnership Project (3GPP) to find a better way to integrate W-CDMA into the next generation wireless standard 3G. We are seeing more consolidation in the wireless market than ever before. Consolidation will offer a great advantage to the customer in providing a standard way for accessing the service from anywhere in the world without needing to change services or phones. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and i-Mode technologies will open up a whole new way for the service providers to offer Internet- based services to the customers. Both are open standard technologies that offer wireless telephony services on digital mobile phones and other smart devices. Chan Komagan is a consultant at Scient specializing in wireless technologies. His expertise includes WAP, Bluetooth, and mobile eBusiness. Mirapoint Introduces WAP Access Without a WAP Gateway 14:00 PM GMT on Oct 12, 2000 [Messaging Online, Inc.] Mirapoint Inc., building upon its Global Open Access Strategy, is introducing WAPmail Direct , a mailbox connector for mobile phones running the Wireless Application Protocol. As with the WebMail Direct connector introduced in May, the key to the new product is its elimination of the need for a separate gateway with protocol conversion, and the elimination of the need for a second message store and for synchronization between the two message stores. Mobile phones connect to WAPmail Direct and are given direct access to the MessageBase message store. If they read and delete a message on their mobile phones, it will be deleted from their POP3 and/or IMAP4 views of the same message store. If they send a message from a WAP phone, it will appear in the sent folder of their desktop view of the message store. There's only one view for the multiple devices, so there's no need to synchronize between them. Message Filtering Needed The subscriber, however, will have to establish filters and special folders for their most important messages. If they log into their standard inbox, they'll see listings for all their messages -- spam and business messages alike. They'll also see listings for messages they can't view because they contain large attachments. But if they create a wireless folder, and create filters that move messages from certain senders there, then they will be better able to manage the influx while on the road.
  7. 7. What they don't read and delete from the road will still be there when they return to their desktop. Mirapoint provides spam and virus filtering for the entire server no matter what the client access protocol, so of course these types of messages can be eliminated before they can reach the wireless user. More Protocols Besides WAP Ramachandran said WAP and i-mode are just the beginning of a series of developments for wireless messaging that will carry the company into the era of third-generation UMTS networks. "In addition to WAP, we look at supporting protocols such as i-mode (cHTML), or additionally anything that rides on top of the GPRS infrastructure, and XML, and we're not quite sure what the transition between GPRS and UMTS is going to be, but we'll be supporting anything involving the UMTS protocols as well." ( 7 ) PROFILE: Location-based Consumer App Vindigo Ear to the Ground: Vindigo Builds Model for Content in the Wireless Space Quentin Mendoza, Staff Writer It was in March that Vindigo premiered its PalmOS location-based consumer service. Since the product's initial launch in New York City to 50 users, the service has grown to include 170,000 registered users in nearly a dozen cities. More cities will soon be added and Vindigo is currently conducting a closed-beta of its WAP service. Amidst the all the industry hype, the company offers a compelling success story. Logically, the idea for location-based services fits neatly within the intrinsic utility of the mobile device. Unlike the stationary desktop machine, the handheld computer, two-way pager, and wireless handset offer users the opportunity to take advantage of real-world functionality. This was the concept that led to Vindigo's conception. The fundamental tenet of Vindigo's product philosophy is that of practicality. The real-world mobile user needs to know how to find the people, places, and things around her. From the consumer's standpoint, the information that is most useful regards where in her neighborhood she can go to "Eat, Shop, and Play". To this end Vindigo is developing a single platform, through which its content partners, such as NYTimes.com and Gap.com, can reach consumer's using regardless of the device they are using. "We are working to design custom client solutions that integrate with the mobile device to do what that device does best," said Vindigo co-founder and President, David Joerg. For both the back and front ends, the application is seamless. The content provider need only supply his information once; from there, Vindigo is responsible for resolving all present and future interoperability issues. Similarly, the consumer need not worry about the technical details of her device, which operating system, browser version, or markup language it supports. Based on this model, the company is hoping to create a reliable and trusted brand name in the wireless space. Partnerships are a primary component of Vindigo's strategy. "Content providers are not usually technology partners," said Joerg. "But Vindigo¹s technology enables content providers to publish data to us once, but to get it to every device on the planet." With Vindigo's XML-based feed application, the platform on which the original data is published is inconsequential and therefore not a concern to the contributing party.
  8. 8. And the contributor is not limited to Vindigo's content partners. Realizing that "mobile information services are not a one way channel," the company allows users to review the various services listed in the Vindigo directory. With approximately 80,000 reviews logged so far, Vindigo has discovered a powerful tool for proving its worth back to advertisers, many of whom are skeptical of doing business in the wireless industry, but Vindigo is in the process of creating an entirely new method of advertising in the wireless space. "Advertisements on a wireless device are highly targetable," says Joerg. "Different ads can be displayed based on where the user is, what time it is, and which part of the Vindigo application the user is browsing. Ads give you different ideas for spending your time and money, and we are looking to become a provider of this technology to portals and carriers." Joerg points out the differences between Web-based advertising and the off-line model that Vindigo uses for its Palm application. Yet despite the creative, technical and logistical difference, the company's advertising initiatives have shown an average 4% success rate, with new campaigns yielding as much as 15% success rate. They have also begun offering instant coupon offers by which users can receive discounts from their local partners such as restaurants. The utility of coupons takes on a new meaning when they are uploaded to your device, based on your location and preferences, and offered to you when are searching for a related service or product. Like other applications for the Palm platform, client functionality generally outstrips network availability. Although Vindigo for Palm can be updated via a wireless Internet connection, the company realized the impracticality of this solution. Hence, updates of information, software, and bug fixes are generally done whenever the user syncs the device with her desktop machine where the network connection is faster and more reliable. This in turn drives customer satisfaction and loyalty, both for Vindigo as well as their partners. For Vindigo, its 170,000 "fanatically happy users" are just the tip of the iceberg. With versions of the applications planned for virtually every wireless device on the market, the company is working to assemble the most comprehensive database representation of street-level reality ever. As network technology evolves, the company will adapt its application to further increase its functionality. With another partner, Rand McNally, Vindigo has already added GPS capability and within months the company will release version for WAP. Undoubtedly, Vindigo has discovered the elixir of success in the wireless market, that is sensitivity to the market from the device in the user's hand to the device itself, technology partners, content providers, and advertisers who drive consumer markets. For a list of cities where Vindigo is available or to download the application for PalmOS go to http://www.vindigo.com. Understanding WAP Technologies 22:45 PM GMT on Oct 07, 2000 [123jump.com] WAP Architecture Intended to define application framework and network protocols for information exchange between wireless devices, the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) architecture specification acts as a starting
  9. 9. point for understanding WAP technologies and resulting specifications. Its programming model has been developed to resemble the Internet World-Wide Web (WWW) under which, applications and content are presented in standard data formats and are browsed by applications known as web browsers. This similarity provides several benefits to the application developer community, such as a familiar programming model, a proven architecture, together with the ability to make use of existing appliances including web servers, eXtensible Markup Language (XML) tools etc. In addition, optimizations and extensions have been made to match the characteristics of the wireless environment. WAP content and applications are specified in a set of well-known content formats based on familiar WWW content formats. Also, content is transported using a set of standard communications protocols based on the WWW communications protocols. A micro-browser in the wireless terminal controls the user interface and is analogous to a standard web browser. A set of standard components are defined by the architecture specification to enable communication between mobile terminals and network servers including: standard naming models - WWW-standard Uniform Resource Locators (URL) are used for WAP content on origin servers; content typing - all WAP content is given in a specific type consistent with WWW typing; standard content formats - WAP content formats are based on WWW technology and include display markup, calendar information, electronic business card objects, images and scripting language; and standard communication protocols - WAP communication protocols enable the communication of browser requests from the mobile terminal to the network web server. Wireless Application Environment The WAP architecture provides a scalable and extensible environment for application development for mobile communications devices - achieved by a layered design of the entire protocol stack. The Wireless Application Environment (WAE) is a result of WAP's efforts to promote industry-wide standards and specifications for developing applications and services. Principally, the WAE architecture includes all elements of the WAP architecture related to application specification and execution. At this point, the WAE is predominately focused on the client-side aspect of the system architecture. Specifically, WAE architecture is defined primarily in terms of networking schemes, content formats, programming languages and shared services. Since the Internet and the Web are the inspiration and motivation behind significant parts of the WAE specification, a similar approach is being used within. Because interfaces are not standardized and are specific to a particular implementation, the WAE can be applied without compromising interoperability or portability. WAE also adopts and closely follows the WWW model. For example, all content is specified in formats that are similar to the standard Internet formats and is transported using standard protocols in the Web domain, along with an optimized HTTP-like protocol in the wireless domain. Some authoring and publishing methods have been borrowed as well. However, WAE enhances some of the WWW standards in ways that reflect device and network traits. WAE extensions are added to support Mobile Network Services such as Call Control and Messaging. Careful attention is paid to memory and CPU processing constraints in conjunction with support for low bandwidth and high latency networks. WAE assumes the existence of gateway functionality responsible for encoding and decoding data transferred from and to the mobile client; serving to minimize the size of data sent to the client over- the-air and minimize the computational energy required by the client to same-time process that data. WAE is divided into two logical layers - user agents, a client-side in-device software that provides specific functionality (display content, for instance) to the end-user and includes such items as browsers, phonebooks and message editors; and services and formats, which cover common elements and formats accessible to user agents such as Wireless Markup Language (WML), WMLScript, image formats etc. The WML, a tag-based document language, is a fundamental user agent of the WAE. It interacts with the user through a set of cards, which can be grouped together into a document ensuring navigation. The user navigates to a card, reviews its content, may enter requested information, may make choices, and then moves on to another card. The WML does not specify how implementations request input from a user but focuses instead on the intent in an abstract manner. Thus, it can be implemented in a wide variety of input devices and mechanisms. Wireless Telephony Application On the other hand, WAE is not limited to a WML but allows the integration of domain-specific user agents with varying architectures and environments. In particular, a Wireless Telephony Application (WTA) user agent has been specified as an extension and application framework for the mobile telephony environments. To enable simple telephony functions from within a WAE user agent, a special WTA library has been created - which can be called from any WAE application. For example, it
  10. 10. allows WML authors to include "click-to-phone" functionality within their content to save users from typing a number using the default interface. In addition, the WAE includes a set of agreed-upon content formats that facilitate interoperable data exchange. The two most important formats are the encoded WML and the WMLScript bytecode. In order to provide the highest technically possible probability that two WAP products independently developed by different vendors will be able to interoperate, WAP Forum has created a WAP Conformance Specification (WAPConf), which maintains all current information relating to that issue. Successful interoperability can only be achieved by testing products. A process that can be divided into two broad categories of static and dynamic testing. Static testing is a manufacturer's statement of the capabilities and functions of a product and is used to identify obvious areas of incompatibility between two products - for example, if one implements a feature not supported by the other. Dynamic testing is the real form of testing, involving the execution and exercise of a product in a live environment, finally proving that the product meets the claims made in the static test phase. WAP Industry Confident in Face of I-Mode Arrival 13:00 PM GMT on Oct 05, 2000 [NMA] The UK wireless industry is still confident about the future of WAP following last week's announcement that NTT DoCoMo and KPN Mobile plan to form a joint venture to roll out the hugely successful i-mode service across Europe KPN and DoCoMo plan to launch i-mode mobile Internet services concurrently with the roll out of GPRS networks across Europe. Based on cHTML, these could emerge as a serious competitor to WML- based WAP services. Tom Dibble, founder of Eurowireless, believes i-mode's underlying language could give it the edge over existing WAP services. "Applications like games and email fly a lot easier around an i-mode system," he said. "WML will be faster through GPRS, but it's not as intuitive or easy to work with." DoCoMo plans to search for further European mobile partners to drive adoption of i-mode. However, investment in WAP means UK wireless companies may be reluctant to adopt an alternative technology. "Don't write off WAP. In an always-on world it will come into its own," said Smith. "I-mode will be seen as what it is: a nice service targeted at the youth market." The success of i-mode must also be put in context of the cultural environment in which it operates. "In Japan there's a lack of PC distribution and a youth culture used to games and comics," said Smith. But KPN Mobile believes the technology will find a foothold in the European market. "We're going to launch different products based on i-mode," said a spokesman. One stumbling block for take-up of these services is the lack of suitable handsets. Ericsson has no plans to introduce support for i-mode. Steve Walker, Ericsson marketing director for UMTS, said, "I'm not convinced i-mode will arrive." He believes the future of the mobile Internet lies in WAP via GPRS, rather than the relationship that exists in Japan between the technology and a single operator. Most observers believe the openness of the WAP standard will stave off the threat of i-mode. "WAP is a really strong worldwide phenomenon so i-mode won't be a threat," said Stuart Newstead of BT Cellnet's GM wireless data services. UK new media investment in WAP appears safe. The arrival of i-mode is unlikely to topple the protocol, with its success more likely to rest on existing side by side with WAP, if not merging altogether as the standards converge on xHTML. Slippery Road Ahead for Wireless Location Apps 20:15 PM GMT on Oct 09, 2000 [Computerworld] Worries about loss of privacy caused by the use of wireless devices will rock the budding wireless location industry, analysts and users warned last week. "I think there are huge land mines with wireless ahead," said Alan Davidson, staff counsel at the Center for Democracy and Technology in Washington, a public interest group that works with industry and government on social issues involving technology.
  11. 11. The issue is especially acute with wireless vendors preparing location-based applications that will allow carriers and marketers to track the location of users and send them alerts about sales on services or personal goods, he said. Compared to the privacy uproar over the wired Internet in recent years, privacy concerns over wireless will be "exponentially bigger," Davidson said at a conference of the Personal Communications Industry Association here. "The first time somebody steals location information on the whereabouts of a kid and he goes missing, there will be a backlash and lawsuits," he added. Or a phone company employee could have a crush on a woman with a cell phone and use the purloined data to follow her around, he said. While vendors downplayed the potential hazards of location-based services, market analysts Risto Perttunen and William J. Passmore at New Yorkbased McKinsey & Co. said that the concerns are real and that the industry isn't addressing the issue sufficiently "People have not realized the value of location services and have not realized the loss of privacy involved," Perttunen said. For a company considering rolling out wireless applications to consumers or workers, having the ability to track the whereabouts of customers or employees will require a higher level of corporate readiness, Passmore said. "Companies need to realize they will be scrutinized by all sorts of groups," he said. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has set Oct. 1 of next year as the deadline for carriers to begin providing location services for wireless phones, which would help public safety officials respond to emergency calls from cell phones to find someone lost or injured in a car crash. Ironically, the public safety protections of that FCC provision could cause privacy and safety concerns of their own, some analysts said. "We ought to build systems that encourage 911 location services but that aren't just personal tracking systems," said Davidson. The location of a wireless user could fall into the hands of the police, threatening the innocent, he added. On Location The FCC has set rules for wireless carriers to provide emergency dispatchers with information on the location from which a wireless call is made. Recently, the FCC delayed the requirement for carriers to begin selling and activating automatic location identification wireless phones from March 1, 2001, to Oct. 1, 2001. ( 1 ) MOBILE INSIGHTS: TOTALLY USELESS? OR CAN'T LIVE WITHOUT? YOU DECIDE I have to admit that since it seems that everyone in the mobile commerce space is essentially making it up as they go along, since we all have no clue what will turn out to be the most useful applications and services in the coming years as wireless technology starts to hit its stride, that I frequently find myself making strange faces at my laptop when reading some of the news and announcements that make their way into my e-mailbox each day. Here's an example: "Senada.com Announces Wireless Partnership with AmericanGreetings.com." Of course! The killer app for mobile commerce has arrived: the ability to send an electronic greeting card from your Palm to your honey's WAP phone. I'm such a dolt; why didn't I think of that? Granted, I actually view this partnership as another example of one popular web company's attempt to muscle in on the wireless web, basically because someone at the company knows that other ventures that make even less sense wirelessly enabled have already staked their claim in the mobile Internet... "Now where's the nearest bakery for dogs in case Rowfy throws a tantrum during obedience training and won't settle down until he gets a treat from the Bow Wow Bakery?" (Of course, I know I wrote about the two mobile sites that web designer Refinery produced for Jeremy's Microbatch Ice Cream, but hey, to me, this is essential stuff, not dog biscuits.) In fact, if I hold a Palm Pilot up to my forehead and close my eyes, I clearly see a vision of people looking back at these early optimistic days of mobile commerce and saying things similar to what we're saying now about boo.com: What drugs were they on? Along the same lines, there have been a few items this week heralding a new
  12. 12. age of wireless video. Kanakaris Wireless did it (http://allnetdevices.com/wireless/news/2000/10/05/vendor_sends.html), as did Sprint and Qualcomm last month, when they both declared the effortless delivery of video images over the web. (And yes, I also know that I wrote about the streaming video produced by Tornado at GlobalXChange, but I don't know, all of these similar announcements have too much of a me-too flavor to them, as if Sprint went around the GlobalXChange floor looking for the latest and greatest technologies and then proceeded to issue press releases the following week announcing their grand foray into these cutting-edge fields, never mind that they don't have enough staff to fill one cubicle of this new division.) Pardon me a minute while I shock you and serve as skeptical questioner, but aren't traditional websites still working out the details on video to PCs? And now wireless providers and manufacturers announce it's available on handhelds? Of course, the quality of such images -- whether desktop bound or wirelessly enabled -- is pretty primitive, even those I witnessed at the Tornado booth, which makes me wonder what the fuss was all about a couple of weeks ago when the Japanese police honed in on a mobile porn site that contained nothing but static pictures. With video via wireless Internet in its current state, well, while streaming porn video to handhelds would undoubtedly be very popular, the resulting images would be akin to hiccupping low-resolution images of silicon queens covering no more than a couple of square inches in area. Like I said, what kinds of hallucinogens are these people on? Greeting cards? Next thing you know, PetSmart will be selling WAP phones for dogs and sending wireless coupons for 15 percent off your next purchase of kibble whenever you and Rowfy pass within two miles of the nearest location. Please. Just as not every business needs a website (I know there are those who will respectfully disagree with me), it's more true when it comes to the development arena of wireless Internet. Yes, early movers do have an advantage in some categories, but given the extremely low penetration of wireless devices that are mobile Internet-ready, not everyone needs to be rushing the gates at once. 17 october 2000 – 29 October 2000 o GoAmerica Becomes Founding Member of Oracle Wireless Partner Initiative http://www.ayg.com/R.po?t=dfix101900&l=/wireless/Article.po?id=411631 o WAP Goes Open Source http://www.ayg.com/R.po?t=dfix101900&l=/wap/Article.po?id=430059 o Mobile Auctions Via SMS a Reality http://www.ayg.com/R.po?t=dfix102500&l=/sms/Article.po?id=592962 o Double WAMMI Sonata's ad-serving platform and Advertising.com's Wireless Advertising Marketing and Measurement Initiative (WAMMI) were introduced separately last week to measure the effectiveness of wireless advertising. http://allnetdevices.com/wireless/news/2000/10/19/firms_test.html o DHL Introduces SMS, WAP Tracking http://www.ayg.com/R.po?t=dfix103000&l=/wap/Article.po?id=708538
  13. 13. o Survey Reveals Huge Growth in Use of SMS, E-Mail http://www.ayg.com/R.po?t=dfix103000&l=/sms/Article.po?id=708658 30 October 2000 o Digital Airways Introduces Online WAP Simulator http://www.ayg.com/R.po?t=wb103100&l=/wireless/Article.po?id=667654