Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Mobile Data Networks Topics General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Mobile Data Networks Topics General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Mobile Data Networks
  • 2. Topics
    • General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
    • Short Messaging Service (SMS)
    • Mobility Management and Mobile IP
    • Application Protocols
    • Security
  • 3. GPRS - Overview
    • GPRS is an overlay on top of the GSM physical layer and network entities
    • Extends data capabilities of GSM
    • Provides connections to external packet data networks through the GSM infrastructure with short access time to the network for independent short packets (500-1000 bytes)
    • No hardware changes required for Base Station
    • Scalable, high throughput (21.4 kbps), support for voice and data
  • 4. Operations
    • GPRS uses same physical radio channels, only new logical GPRS radio channels are defined
    • Active users share timeslots using TDMA; uplink and downlink are allocated separately
    • Capacity allocation in GPRS is based on the “on-demand” principle
    • GPRS terminals:
      • Class A: Operates GPRS and GSM services simultaneously
      • Class B: Operate either GPRS or GSM service at one time
      • Class C: Only GPRS service
    • Limitations:
      • Limited cell capacity
      • No store-and-forward service (SMS provides this service)
  • 5. GPRS Network Services
    • Point-to-point (PTP): packet data transfer
      • Connectionless based on IP
      • Connection oriented based on X.25
    • Point-to-multipoint (PTM-M): multicast service to all subscriber in one area
    • Point-to-multipoint (PTM-G): multicast source to a predetermined group
    • Short messaging service (SMS)
    • GPRS has parameters that specify a QoS based on service precedence, priority, reliability and required transmission characteristics
  • 6. Reference Architecture
    • Refer to handout
    • Uses GSM architecture
    • GPRS support nodes (GSN): responsible for delivery and routing of data packets between the MS and the external network
    • Serving GPRS support node (SGSN)
      • Controls access to MSs that are attached to a group of BSCs (routing area (RA) of SGSN)
    • Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN)
      • Logical interface to the Internet
    • GPRS Register (GR)
      • Colocated with HLR and stores routing information
  • 7. Mobility Support: Attachment
    • Before accessing GPRS services, the MS must register with the GPRS network
    • MS performs an attachment procedure with an SGSN that authenticates it by checking the GR
    • The MS is allocated a temporary logical link identity (TLLI)
    • A packet data protocol (PDP) context is created for the MS for each session and is stored at the MS, SGSN, and GGSN
    • PDP context: PDP type, address, QoS, GGSN address
    • A user may have several PDP context enabled. The PDP address may be statically or dynamically assigned
    • PDP context is used to route packets
  • 8. Location Management
    • Location management depends on three states as shown in the figure
    • In the IDLE state, the MS is not reachable
    • In the STANDBY state, movement across routing areas is updated to the SGSN but not across cells
    • In the READY state, every movement of the MS is indicated to the SGSN
    READY STANDBY IDLE GPRS Dettach GPRS Attach Timer Expiry Packet Tx Timer Expiry
  • 9. Routing Area Updates
    • Intra-SGSN Update
      • The SGSN already has the user profile and PDP context
      • The home location register (HLR) need not be updated
      • A new temporary mobile subscriber identity is issued as a part of the RA update
    • Inter-SGSN Update
      • The new RA is serviced by a new SGSN
      • The new SGSN requests the old SGSN to send the PDP context
      • The SGSN informs the home GGSN, the GR, and other GGSNs about the user’s new routing context
  • 10. Handoff Management
    • The MS listens to the broadcast control channel (BCCH) and decides which cell to connect using the RSS, cell ranking, path loss, etc.
    • The location is updated using the routing update procedure (see handout)
    • The SGSN updates the GGSN of the home network with the new SGSN and the tunneling information
  • 11. Uplink/Downlink Transmissions
    • The uplink and downlink transmissions are independent
    • The Mac protocol is called “Master-Slave Dynamic Rate Access” or MSDRA
    • The organization of the time-slot assignment is done centrally by the BSS
    • Refer to the handout
  • 12. Short Message Services (SMS)
    • Extremely popular service, similar to the peer-to-peer instant messaging services in the Internet
    • Allows exchange of alphanumeric messages up to 160 characters
    • Two types of services:
      • Broadcast
      • Peer to peer
    • Uses the same infrastructure as GSM
    • SMS has instant delivery service as well as store-and-forward service
  • 13. Operations
    • SMS makes use of the GSM infrastructure, protocols, and the physical layer to manage the delivery of messages
    • Each message is treated individually, and is maintained and transmitted by the SMS center (SMSC)
    • Short messages (160 char mapped into 140 bytes) are transmitted through the GSM infrastructure using SS-7
    • Short messages are transmitted in time slots that are freed up in the control channels
  • 14. Reference Architecture HLR VLR SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC MSC MS SMSC
  • 15. Cases of Short Messages
    • SM originating from an MS
      • Goes to MSC for processing
      • SMS-interworking MSC (SMS-IWMSC forwards the SM to the SMSC
    • Mobile terminated short message
      • SM is forwarded by the SMSC to the SMS-gateway MSC (SMS-GMSC)
      • Either the HLR or VLR is queried
      • SM is either delivered to the BSC or forwarded to another MSC