Metering " If you can not measure then how can you control. "


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Metering " If you can not measure then how can you control. "

  1. 1. Metering “ If you can not measure then how can you control. “ Chris Cunningham B.Eng( Hons ), C.Eng, MCIBSE UMIST Energy Manager
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To obtain accurate half hour data </li></ul><ul><li>Metering to aid VAT recovery </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to handle large amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to communicate with any meter remotely </li></ul><ul><li>1 ) At any time </li></ul><ul><li>2 ) And if necessary from any location from internal / externally </li></ul><ul><li>To provide remote alarm functions </li></ul><ul><li>1) Low consumption </li></ul><ul><li>2) High Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>3) Data retrieval loss </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to communicate with Fiscal meters </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to provide remote communication to meter data logger manufacturers for :- </li></ul><ul><li>1) Configuring meters / data loggers </li></ul><ul><li>2) Fault diagnosis </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sources Half Data <ul><li>Fiscal Meters </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Electric </li></ul><ul><li>Sub Meters </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Electric </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Steam </li></ul><ul><li>Air Flow ( for large compressed air systems ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Oil </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fiscal Meters <ul><li>Electric ( Code 5 and Code 3 meters ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Code of Practise Meters are password protected. </li></ul><ul><li>The meter manufacturers can supply data retrieval software. </li></ul><ul><li>Actaris for the Indigo £ 700 + Vat </li></ul><ul><li>PIR for the PIR Meter £ 1200 + Vat </li></ul><ul><li>Seltek for the ABB Vision Meter £ 2000 + Vat </li></ul><ul><li>The customer is entitled to be able to down load consumption data, directly from the meter. </li></ul><ul><li>The customer is entitled for the Meter Operator to fit a private meter, at customers cost, in series with Code of Practise Metering. </li></ul><ul><li>The Meter Operator can be asked to provide a pulsed output from a Code of Practise Meter. ( Typical Cost £ 200 + Vat ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fiscal Meters <ul><li>Water Meters </li></ul><ul><li>The Water Utility will fit a pulsed out put at a cost to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>A pulse out will cost between £ 70 to £ 100 + Vat </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Meter </li></ul><ul><li>Any meter installed after 1991 should be provided with a pulsed out put </li></ul><ul><li>To enable a customer to pick up the pulsed output, Transco will have to it a Chatter Box to the Gas Meter to safely connect pulsed out put. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chatter Box costs £ 576 + Vat </li></ul>
  6. 6. Communications ( Code Of Practise Meters ) <ul><li>Remote Data Collection by Utility Supplier </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone connected modem </li></ul><ul><li>Paknet communication. </li></ul><ul><li>GSM modem </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Data Collection By Customer </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone connected modem </li></ul><ul><li>Paknet communication. </li></ul><ul><li>GSM modem </li></ul><ul><li>Pulsed output from meter for pick up by BMS. </li></ul><ul><li>For remote locations radio technology may be require. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard wired RS 232 connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Main borne signaling </li></ul>
  7. 7. Communications ( Code Of Practise Meters ) <ul><li>The Paknet and GSM modem operate using mobile phone technology. The commuciation costs can be expensive </li></ul><ul><li>The telephone connected modem can be via a rented BT line. </li></ul><ul><li>The telephone connected modem can be routed via the University telephone exchange and connected via a dedicated internal line. </li></ul><ul><li>The customer has direct connection to the meter via the internal telephone network . ( No Communication Charges ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Meter Operator does not have to charge the customer for a BT, Paknet or GSM modem rental cost ( Lower Meter Operator Charges ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Communications ( Gas and Water Meters ) <ul><li>Gas Meters supplying over 250,000 Therms will be remotely monitored by the Utility Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Interruptible Gas supplies are remotely monitored by the Utility Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas and water meters can be located at inaccessible locations requiring </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Technology. ( Requires a battery source or Solar technology is also available but more costly. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Paknet or GSM modem </li></ul><ul><li>Direct telephone connects. ( A BABT approved data logger can be powered from the telephone line. ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sub Metering ( Electric Meters ) <ul><li>Code 5 approved meters . (£ 280 +Vat for the Indigo + Meter ) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide up to 12 channels of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Have two spare inputs to which can be connected to water, gas, electric, heat and steam metering. </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded power disruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded Phase losses </li></ul><ul><li>Contain memory modules ( at any extra cost the memory chip will hold up to 450 days of data. Standard modules hold at least 90 days of data ) </li></ul><ul><li>Contain alarm generation functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Instantaneous valves can be remotely accessed from meters ( Phase Voltage, Current, Phase Angles, Power factor, Frequency ) </li></ul><ul><li>Multi meter installations. Up to 225 meters can be daisy chained together for the additional cost of £ 25 per meter plus the cable connection costs </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sub Metering ( Electric Meters ) <ul><li>Low Cost pulsed output meters for connection to BMS. </li></ul><ul><li>( Cost about £ 100 to £ 150 + Vat ) </li></ul><ul><li>Typical pulsed value 1 pulse = 1 Kwh </li></ul><ul><li>Some types my provide Kwh and KVAh pulse values </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive meters provide local indication of Phase Voltage, Current, Power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Meter has No fault monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Cost Meters </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Cost £ 350 + Vat . ( £ 800 + Vat if Harmonic Metering Included ) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually provide at least Kwh and KVAh plus location indication of Phase Voltage, Current, Powerfactor, Frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be hard wired using an RS485 connection for remote monitoring and indication of meter parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>The meter may be provide with fault monitoring. CHECK specification before purchasing. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sub Metering Water <ul><li>Meter must be pre-equipped with a pulse out put </li></ul><ul><li>The pulse may be generated by :- </li></ul><ul><li>A Reed switch. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Target. </li></ul><ul><li>For the Optical Target there is no hard wired connection to the meter. Instead a battery powered pick up is used to operate a relay. There batteries usually have a 5 year live and typical pick up unit costs about £ 30 pulse Vat. </li></ul><ul><li>The meters have to be sized correctly for the flow rate. ( If too large a meter is installed then at low flows consumption will not be measured . ) </li></ul><ul><li>It the water meter is sized correctly, along with pulse value then with the knowledge of the buildings use, a leaking toilet cistern or failed urinal flush control can be quickly identified. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sub Metering Gas <ul><li>The gas meter has to be pre-equipped with a pulsed output </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to pick up the pulsed output via the BMS or a data logger a safety isolation device has to be used :- </li></ul><ul><li>Galvanic Isolation Device ( 24 V or 240 V powered ) ( Cost about £ 80 + Vat , plus cost for installation of power supply and enclosure ) </li></ul><ul><li>Chatter Box , battery Powered. ( Transco installed charge £ 576 +Vat ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sub Metering ( Heating and Cooling ) <ul><li>Heat / Chilled Meter System </li></ul><ul><li>Comprises of flow meter, supply flow and return temperature plus Integrator Unit. </li></ul><ul><li>The integrator has a pulsed output and can display locally Kwh, meter flow rate and cumulative total, and will also display the flow and return temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>The water meter should be placed in the lower temperate ( return flow ) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard water meters are rated for operation up to 90 C. ( ie for use on LTHW system ) </li></ul><ul><li>For maximum temperature up to 130 C and pipe sizes up to 150 mm a typical installation would cost £ 700 + Vat and installation. </li></ul><ul><li>For high temperatures up to 150 C the water are more expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher temperature are usually only applicable to MTHW system or for heat distribution such as for District Heating. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sub Metering ( Heating and Cooling ) <ul><li>Heat / Chilled Water Metering utilising the BMS </li></ul><ul><li>If a flow meter is installed along with a supply and return flow temperature sensor then the BMS can be programmed to measure the heat flow. </li></ul><ul><li>The BMS require three input channels </li></ul><ul><li>An BMS out station that is linked to a central data terminal is required. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sub Metering Steam <ul><li>Accurate Steam Metering is expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost steam meters </li></ul><ul><li>Bypass or Rotary Shunt type </li></ul><ul><li>Vortex Shedding type </li></ul><ul><li>Orifice Plate type </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Tube type </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Turndown Ratios are between 1 to 5 and 1 to 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost steam metering depends on stable steam conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>For accuracy they require laminar flow conditions before and after the meter. ( Typically, 20 x pipe diameter before and 10 x pipe diameter after the meter ) </li></ul><ul><li>For improved accuracy density compensation can be used along with a steam flow computer to provide a pulsed output. </li></ul><ul><li>At low flow rates, during summer season when steam is only used for for Domestic Hot Water generation, the flow rates are often too low for these types of meter to be able to record the flow. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sub Metering Steam <ul><li>High Accuracy Steam Metering. ( Variable Area Meter ) </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Turndown ratios from 1 to 50 up to 1 to 100 </li></ul><ul><li>If the steam pressure varies by + / - 0.25 bar then the steam meter recording error multiply proportionally. </li></ul><ul><li>If the steam conditions are not stable then density compensation can be provided with using either a temperature or pressure transducer modifying the steam flow signal with a steam flow computer which provides the modified pulsed out put value. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Installed Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Inline Variable Area Meter </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 100 mm diameter meter ( Turn down 1 to 50 ). The on board computer provides instantaneous flow rate and a pulsed out put. ( £ 4000 installed ) </li></ul><ul><li>Gilflo Variable Area Meter </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of Gilflow pipeline measurement unit. ( Cost depends on pipe size and flow rate, differential pressure transmitter, pressure and or temperature transducer and steam flow computer to provide pulsed output and have local indication of steam flow, cumulative total, steam pressure and temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>( Typical cost for a 200mm meter £ 7000 installed. ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Data Collection <ul><li>Building Management System </li></ul><ul><li>The main function of the BMS is to continuously monitor, control and provide feed back of a process ( heating / cooling / lighting control for a building ) </li></ul><ul><li>As the BMS is extended through a large estate the data high way can become overloaded requiring additional communications loops. </li></ul><ul><li>BMS systems have been known to crash if too historical data is requested. </li></ul><ul><li>BMS systems can become damaged during a lightening strike. </li></ul><ul><li>Most metering companies recommend that meter data is transmitted via a dedicated metering network. </li></ul><ul><li>A locate out station is required to connect in the meter pulse. </li></ul><ul><li>The BMS is limited to the quality of data and meter alarm handling </li></ul><ul><li>The BMS still requires a separate Monitoring and Targeting software package to analyses the meter data. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Data Collection <ul><li>Code 5 Electric Meter. </li></ul><ul><li>High accuracy metering billing purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Used through out the UK and cross all continents for remote monitoring by the electric Utility Companies. </li></ul><ul><li>The meters are certified for ten years of continuous operation for billing purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>For Vat Reclaim opportunities the Code 5 meters offer the high accuracy data </li></ul><ul><li>If communication system was to fail, then a meter’s data could be download locally using the meter optical communication port. </li></ul><ul><li>The meter will record and store power outages. </li></ul><ul><li>The meters can be be programmed to provide remote alarm functions. </li></ul><ul><li>The meters can be communicated with remotely via, </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Modem </li></ul><ul><li>Paknet of GSM Modem </li></ul>
  19. 19. Data Collection <ul><li>Code 5 Electric Meter. ( Continued ) </li></ul><ul><li>When used for private metering additional communications can via </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet Network ( With addition equipment ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hard wiring utilizing the on board RS232 port </li></ul><ul><li>The meter has four pulsed outputs for connection to the BMS </li></ul><ul><li>Up To 225 meter can be daisy linked together and connected to a single modem </li></ul><ul><li>The meter can be mounted remote from any communications either for temporary or permanent measurements The half hour data can be download locally using the meter optical communication port. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory modules are available to store up to 450 days of data </li></ul>
  20. 20. Techonlogy Data Logger <ul><li>Data Logger BABT approved for direct connection to telephone system </li></ul><ul><li>No 240 V power cabling required to power data logger </li></ul><ul><li>1 ) Utilog 4 channel data logger with local communications port (£ 322 + Vat Each ) </li></ul><ul><li>2 ) Newlink 8 channel data logger with local communications port (£ 510 +Vat Each ) </li></ul><ul><li>Both loggers have battery back up. </li></ul><ul><li>Used extensively by Water Utility Companies. </li></ul><ul><li>The data retrieval software provides consumption charts. </li></ul><ul><li>The software contains an Export Manager to enable automatic transfer of data. </li></ul><ul><li>The software can be programmed to automatically retrieve date from any period between one hour and one month, by day of month or time of day. </li></ul><ul><li>The software can be programmed to generate alarms for </li></ul><ul><li>Low Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>High Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Data Download failure </li></ul><ul><li>In the event of an alarm the software can be programmed to dial out to </li></ul><ul><li>A telephone land line </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile number </li></ul><ul><li>The data retrieve soft ware costs £ 400 + Vat </li></ul>