Wireless Web Architecture Solutions Mike Issaa Vicky Martinez Cisco SJSU MBA/MSE
Wireless Communication Trends
WAP 1.x Architecture
WAP Next Gen 2.x Architecture
What Wireless? What Spectrum?
Frequencies For Exclusive Purchase
2.4 GHz Industrial/Scientific/Medical(ISM)- not sold but reserved for free use
2.5 GHz Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Services(MMDS)
5.7 GHz (U-NII) - not sold but reserved for free use
28 GHz Local Multipoint Distribution Services(LMDS)
Frequencies Segregated into Bands
200 MHz at 2.5 GHz (MMDS)
100 MHz at 5.7 GHz (U-NII)
1.3 GHz at 28 GHz (LMDS)
Wireless Frequency Bands Extremely Low Very Low Low Medium High Very High Ultra High Super High Infrared Visible Light Ultra- violet X-Rays Audio AM Broadcast Short Wave Radio FM Broadcast Television Infrared wireless LAN Cellular (840MHz) NPCS (1.9GHz) 902-928 MHz 26 MHz 5 GHz (IEEE 802.11) HyperLAN HyperLAN2 2.4 – 2.4835 GHz 83.5 MHz (IEEE 802.11)
Wireless Technologies INTERNET Cellular GPS Wireless LAN Fixed Wireless
PDAs, Cell Phones
“ Last Mile” Access
28GHz –LMDS vs. 5.7GHz U-NII
5 miles @ 45 Mbps P2MP
5 miles @ 155 Mbps P2P LMDS
“ Wireless Anywhere”
840Mhz @ 15Kbps to 36Kbps
Central Office Cellular
2.4 GHz DSSS vs. FHSS
Web Servers Cellular Operator CO ISPs
Wireless Access Protocol WAP 1.x
What Is WAP?
An open, global standard that empowers mobile users with wireless devices to easily access and interact with information and services instantly.
A standard created by wireless and Internet companies around the world to make accessing the Internet as easy and convenient as using a cellular phone.
WAP is published by the WAP Forum, founded in 1997 by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Unwired Planet
WAP defines connection protocols, content formats, and framework for developing value added services for wireless terminals such as mobile phones.
Bearer Independent Protocol
Allows Applications developed once to work across all networks -- today and tomorrow
Protects the Carrier’s investment in wireless data as networks evolve
Enables Mobile Device Manufacturers to use common code across product lines
Bearer examples: GPRS, TDMA, CDMA, etc..
WAP Browsing Model Web Server WML content WMLScript WAP Gateway WAP Compliant Browser HTTP WML Binary DATA WML ASCII DATA Binary Transcoding at Gateway
WAP 1.x Architecture Web Server Content CGI Scripts etc. WML Decks with WML-Script WSP/WTP WSP WSP HTTP HTTP HTTP Wireless Datagram Protocol Wireless Transport Layer Security Protocol Wireless Transaction Protocol Wireless Session Protocol WAP Protocol Internet Protocol Gateway Client WTP WTLS WDP Bearer WTP WTLS WDP Bearer SSL TCP IP Link SSL TCP IP Link
iMode is the service mark name for the DoCoMo mobile internet service Japan.
iMode service was developed by the Japanese company NTT DoCoMo and launched in February 1999.
Currently only deployed in Japan but have deals with other global GSM operators.
Based on Compact HTML (C-HTML) and proprietary protocol stack.
Japan marketed iMode as an experience not a technology
Gateways provide email, notification, DoCoMo served content tracks usage
DoCoMo collects fees, takes part of it, and sells packets. They can barely keep up with demand.
What is iMode?
Suite of applications that make up the total iMode Service including:
Browser – currently based on cHTML but changing to xHTML
iMode Email client – Proprietary HTTP Mail
Security Stack – based on SSL 3.0
iMelody – downloadable ringer tone service using MIDI
iAnimation – Animated GIF support in grayscale and color
DoCoMo pictograms – downloadable graphics such as a Pokemon (future of Japanese economy)
iMode is Evolving
Video clips being added.
More sound support/voices.
Kjava arrived in 1Q’01.
SSL coming online.
Emphasis is on what end users will find exciting and interesting.
iMode Architecture Web Server Content CGI Scripts etc. C-HTML with CHTML-Script iMode CHTML CHTML CHTML CHTML HTTP Wireless Datagram Protocol Wireless Transport Layer Security Protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol Compact Hypertext Markup Language iMode Protocol Internet Protocol Portal Client HTTP SSL W-TCP IP HTTP SSL W-TCP IP HTTP SSL TCP IP HTTP SSL TCP IP
Wireless Access Protocol Next Gen WAP NG 2.x
WAP Next Generation
Next Generation WAP standard that will closely follow the wired internet model.
Developed with input from DoCoMo Japan.
Many similarities to wireline and iMode browsing model.
TCP/IP,HTTP,TLS,HTML based content, XHTML tags.
WAP Next Generation
Convergence with Internet. Specs ready in mid 2001.
WTLS replaced by TLS
TLS Profile document being finalized within WAP. Expected approval: June 2001
Architecture will allow Mobile Terminal to “tunnel” through the proxy using HTTP CONNECT method providing end-to-end transport security layer
WAP NG will be backwards compatible with WAP 1.x
Proposed Architecture for WAP Next Gen 2.x Web Server Content CGI Scripts etc. WML Decks with WML-Script HTTP TLS/SSL W-TCP IP WSP/WTP XML HTTP TLS/SSL W-TCP IP XML HTTP TCP IP XML HTTP HTTP Wireless profiled TCP Security Socket Layer Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Extensible Markup Language Wireless Internet Protocol Internet Protocol SSL Gateway Client SSL TCP IP Link
Comparison WAP vs. iMode
iMode vs. WAP Network
Neither WAP nor iMode rely on one particular underlying network type.
WAP in Europe has been deployed on a circuit-switched network.
iMode in Japan has been deployed on a packet-switched network.
WAP users will have to endure waiting during connection set-up and being charged for time spent on-line until their network operators upgrade to a packet-switched network.
iMode users enjoys almost-instant downloads and the response times needed for online gaming with their "always-on" network.
iMode vs. WAP Markup Language
WAP uses WML which is a new language.
iMode uses cHTML which is simply an extended subset of the existing HTML Web standard.
iMode can immediately make use of the skills of current WWW developers, but those interested in producing content for WAP browsers must learn WML from scratch.
As the WWW community migrates away from HTML and towards XML in the next few years, iMode may find that it's short-term stop-gap approach loses out to WAP's longer-term measured approach.
iMode vs. WAP Deployed Applications
WAP in Europe uses text and no images small screen.
iMode in Japan uses text and color images and larger screen.
WAP is Marketed for business application (banking, stock portfolio, business news, flight booking).
iMode marketed for consumer applications (restaurant guide, fun images, ringing melodies).
Future of WAP and iMode WSP WML WDP UDP WTP WTLS IP Network Bearer WSP WML WDP UDP WSP WML WDP UDP HTTP XML WSP WML WDP UDP SSL/TLS W-TCP IP Network Bearer IMT 2000 HTTP XML WSP WML WDP UDP SSL TL IP Network Bearer PDC-P HTTP CHTML Future Protocol Proposed Stack WTP WTLS IP Network Bearer WAP 1.x WTP WTLS IP Network Bearer WAP 2.0 TLS W-TCP IP Network Bearer WTP WTLS IP Network Bearer iMode on IMT-2000 WTP WTLS IP Network Bearer Current iMode
WAP is incompatible with HTML.
WAP is not graphics-based and lacks colors.
Slow Data Transfer
WAP uses circuit switched network.
WTLS does not provide end-to-end security.
Limited application layer security.
WAP Security Support
Wireless connection must provide security features designed in the stack protocol and and supported by Client and Gateway.
Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) is based on and provides the same function in WAP that SSL or TLS provides on the internet.
The WTLS and SSL/TLS protocols provide connection endpoint security that have three basic properties:
Privacy is created through the use of symmetric encryption after a handshake to define a secret key
Authentication of each peer is possible through asymmetric/public key encryption and digital certificates
Integrity of messages is ensured through the use of keyed MAC.
Certificate on WAP Gateway
Server operator generates a new private/public key pair on gateway and generates a certificate request file for this public key.
Server operator sends certificate request to certificate authority.
Certificate authority validates content, creates, and sign the digital certificate.
Certificate Authority sends signed certificate to server operator.
Server operator installs Certificate.
iMode's content seems to be heavily tied to Japanese culture and may not easily translate to other countries.
CHTML is incompatible with full HTML.
iMode does not support security layer because it is not required for consumer applications.
iMode uses the PDC-P network which is not a world standard while other parts of the world like Asia and Europe have circuit switched networks in place.
What is being done for WAP and iMode End-To-End Security
Gap in WAP
Application Layer Security
WTLS based on SSL 3.0.
WMLScript Crypto Library being developed.
WAP Identity Module (WIM) specification.
Custom applications on client devices.
Same security concerns as WAP.
Security model is currently being revised by NTT DoCoMo. A resolution has not been made public.
Decide on application to be supported, and business model of service (Business Class application or Consumer class application)
Both WAP and iMode next generation will be able to provide both classes of services, as well as interoperability with each other.
Until then, the current WAP seem to be suited for Business class applications, it also have the necessary architecture to provide consumer class applications as well.
The WAP server will include both Java Servlet or as a standalone HTTP Web-Server, and have the following features:
On-demand gathering of HTML content from the Web
Content-based, semi-automatic Mediator
Mediates HTML to WML (WAP)
Automatically splits content into small blocks
Uses a simple but very flexible scripting language
Simple WAP-Stack for direct access via connectionless WSP (GSM SMS or IP/UDP)
WMLScript Crypto Library for end-to-end Security.
Eurotechnology Japan K. K. The Unofficial independent imode FAQ . 1996-2001 http://www.eurotechnology.com/imode/faq.html
Niskanen, Pekka. Inside WAP Programming Applications with WML and WML Script. 2000. Addison-Wesley Publication.