Information Services and Access Mechanism of Mobile Web for the Under-privileged Asoke K Talukder W3C Workshop on the Mobi...
The Author <ul><li>Asoke K Talukder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice President Software Engineering, Tyfone CDI Pvt. Ltd., Banga...
The Scenario
World Internet Usage Numbers Source: http://www.internetworldstat.com  as on 24 st  November 2006  200.9 % 100.0 % 16.7 % ...
Some Facts <ul><li>18% of World population – people in North America, Western Europe, Australia & Countries in developed e...
Mobile Phone Population <ul><li>2.5 billion mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>2 billion GSM phones </li></ul><ul><li>1 milli...
Mobile Web Access <ul><li>Asymmetric traffic – small amount of data sent with large amount of data received </li></ul><ul>...
Mobile Web (Static Content) <ul><li>Needs an Browser at the client device </li></ul><ul><li>Budget phones do not support I...
Charging in Mobile IP Environment <ul><li>Telecommunication operators always charged their customers (using voice service)...
Prepaid Phones <ul><li>30% of the subscribers in US are prepaid </li></ul><ul><li>60% of subscribers in West Europe & Aust...
Prepaid Connections <ul><li>Prepaid Subscribers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under-privileged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students...
The Problem
Prepaid Subscribers and Data <ul><li>Majority of under-privileged subscribers along with students, teenagers, and non-corp...
Data Service for Under-privileged <ul><li>Mobile Web access through SMS as data bearer (SMS-data) </li></ul><ul><li>It wil...
Short Message Service (SMS) <ul><li>Perceived as an entertainment tool for teenagers </li></ul><ul><li>SMS was originally ...
SMS Advantages <ul><li>True Ubiquitous media </li></ul><ul><li>Universal availability of SMS  </li></ul><ul><li>Pay as you...
Need of SMS-data for Under-privileged
The Proposal
Standardize SMS-data so that it Interoperates, to facilitate SMS as Data Bearer for Mobile Web over existing Infrastructur...
SMS Usage – Healthcare <ul><li>Compliance monitoring and enforcement  </li></ul><ul><li>Patient self-monitoring (chronic d...
SMS Usage – Mobile Finance <ul><li>HDFC Bank:  Mobile Banking with SMS ,  Reference: http://www.hdfcbank.com/RI/RI-EAGE-Mo...
SMS-data Applications <ul><li>Telemedicine </li></ul><ul><li>Reality TV shows </li></ul><ul><li>Reality Radio shows </li><...
Other SMS based Applications <ul><li>Sensor Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Telematics </li></ul><ul><li>Remote control for veh...
2D Barcoded Mobile Ticket over SMS Reference: http://www.convergelabs.com
SMS as Multifactor Security Enabler <ul><li>SMS uses SS#7 signaling channel that is Physically Secured </li></ul><ul><li>S...
All these Services are Network Proprietary and  DO NOT  Interoperate Network Operators are offering Mobile Web Services ov...
SMS Point-to-Point Architecture Reference: GSM Standard 03.40 SMS-GMSC H SMSC H HLR B MSC B MS A VLR A SM MO SMS-IWMSC H 1...
SMS Point-to-Point <ul><li>Both endpoints are mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperable </li></ul><ul><li>Any mobile p...
The Challenge
SMS-data Routing Challenges <ul><li>When a subscriber is roaming, outgoing voice calls are routed by the visiting MSC – Th...
SMS-data <ul><li>Does not Interoperate </li></ul><ul><li>One endpoint is service (running in computers or Web), other endp...
SMS-data Architecture Reference: GSM Standard 03.40 Origin/ Content/ Application Servers SME 2 SMSC MSC MS SMPP Not in sco...
SMS-data Interoperability <ul><li>SM MO (Short Message Mobile Originated) is not interoperable – an SMS-data from any mobi...
Cashier’s Cheque using SMS Security Reference: http://www.standardchartered.com.sg/cb/ibnk/faq/svc_ibnk_echq.html Interope...
Short Code as SDSI <ul><li>Short Codes are used as SDSI (SMS Data Service Identifier) </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcodes do not ...
Indian Railways services through SMS Source: http://www.indianrail.gov.in/railcode.html TRAIN PNR  <PNR #> 3339 Gujarat ID...
Park and pay with SMS in downtown Wellington (New Zealand) <ul><li>The motorist sends an SMS with the machine’s unique cod...
Pay Your Rail Parking by SMS in the UK Source: http://www.smstextnews.com/2006/08/pay_your_rail_p.html Service not availab...
Telephone Number is the Identity In Developing Countries Mobile number is the Storefronts  Source: Africa: The Impact of M...
Mobile Number Portability (MNP) <ul><li>Helps the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Increases competition </li></ul><ul><li>Helps ...
The Solution
SMS-data Routing for Mobile Web <ul><li>For Mobile Web access, we need Interoperable SMS-data that can be routed from any ...
Existing SMS-data Technologies <ul><li>SMS Gateway (SMPP – Short Message Peer-to-peer Protocol): This uses shortcodes (SDS...
Ubiquitous SMS Routing Service <ul><li>Ubiquitous SMS Routing Service (USRS) routes an SMS-data from any mobile phone of a...
USRS Tunneling <ul><li>Ubiquitous SMS Routing Service Tunneling routes an SMS-data from any mobile phone of any network ro...
Universal SMS Routing Service <ul><li>Universal SMS Routing Service (USRS) routes an SMS-data from any mobile phone of any...
USRS  <ul><li>USRS Technology offers SMS-data routing algorithm that is Interoperable and Scalable </li></ul><ul><li>USRS ...
USRS Compatibility <ul><li>USRS Technology is backward & forward compatible </li></ul><ul><li>USRS coexists with all other...
USRS Routing Architecture Just add the USRS server in SS#7 network within the existing GSM/GPRS network.  It uses the exis...
The Proposal
Requirement for SMS-data <ul><li>SMS-data should be interoperable </li></ul><ul><li>SMS-data from any network should be po...
Recommendation for SMS-data <ul><li>USRS routing algorithm be made international standard for SMS-data routing because it ...
Questions? Thank you Email:
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  1. 1. Information Services and Access Mechanism of Mobile Web for the Under-privileged Asoke K Talukder W3C Workshop on the Mobile Web in Developing Countries, December 5/6, 2006: Bangalore, India
  2. 2. The Author <ul><li>Asoke K Talukder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice President Software Engineering, Tyfone CDI Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DaimlerChrysler Chair and Associate Professor, IIIT – Bangalore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information System for the Under-privileged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next Generation Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Hygiene </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Scenario
  4. 4. World Internet Usage Numbers Source: http://www.internetworldstat.com as on 24 st November 2006 200.9 % 100.0 % 16.7 % 1,086,250,903 100.0 % 6,499,697,060 WORLD TOTAL 141.0 % 1.7 % 54.1 % 18,364,772 0.5 % 33,956,977 Oceania / Australia 361.4 % 7.7 % 15.1 % 83,368,209 8.5 % 553,908,632 Latin America/Caribbean 112.0 % 21.1 % 69.1 % 229,138,706 5.1 % 331,473,276 North America 479.3 % 1.8 % 10.0 % 19,028,400 2.9 % 190,084,161 Middle East 193.7 % 28.4 % 38.2 % 308,712,903 12.4 % 807,289,020 Europe 245.5 % 36.4 % 10.8 % 394,872,213 56.4 % 3,667,774,066 Asia 625.8 % 3.0 % 3.6 % 32,765,700 14.1 % 915,210,928 Africa Usage Growth 2000-2006 Usage % of World % Population (Penetration) Internet Usage, Latest Data Population % of World Population (2006 Est.) World Regions
  5. 5. Some Facts <ul><li>18% of World population – people in North America, Western Europe, Australia & Countries in developed economies contribute to 60% of Internet users </li></ul><ul><li>About 10% of the population in Asia use Internet </li></ul><ul><li>In China, mobile phone users are 430 million against 123 million of Internet users </li></ul><ul><li>In India, there are 125 million mobile phones against 60 million Internet users </li></ul><ul><li>Source: http://www.internetstatistics.com and http://www.gsmworld.com (October 2006) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mobile Phone Population <ul><li>2.5 billion mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>2 billion GSM phones </li></ul><ul><li>1 million subscribers are added everyday </li></ul><ul><li>It took 12.5 years for GSM to reach first billion </li></ul><ul><li>Next 1 billion was achieved in 2.5 years – out of this 1 billion, 82% is in China, India, Africa, and South America </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile phone population is expected to be 4 billions by end of 2010 – every 2 persons in 3 people will have a mobile phone </li></ul>Source: http://www.gsmworld.com and http://psdblog.worldbank.org/psdblog/2006/06/more_cell_phone.html
  7. 7. Mobile Web Access <ul><li>Asymmetric traffic – small amount of data sent with large amount of data received </li></ul><ul><li>Requires high bandwidth GPRS or UMTS/3G networks </li></ul><ul><li>Requires high-end phones </li></ul><ul><li>One hand or Two hand Operation Phones are not suitable (user friendly) for Mobile Web access </li></ul><ul><li>Best user experience is possible with UMTS and Mobile Phones with Pen </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mobile Web (Static Content) <ul><li>Needs an Browser at the client device </li></ul><ul><li>Budget phones do not support Internet browser </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP perform badly over wireless cellular networks </li></ul><ul><li>Handover (at vehicular state) with TCP/IP is still a challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Roaming with TCP/IP is not universal </li></ul>
  9. 9. Charging in Mobile IP Environment <ul><li>Telecommunication operators always charged their customers (using voice service) based on volume (time and distance) – service provided by the network </li></ul><ul><li>In data service – charging will be on volume (time, mega bytes), QoS, Contents, and Events; service provided by third party </li></ul><ul><li>IP billing (postpaid and prepaid) is a major challenge for mobile operators. Many of them do not have it yet (other than volume) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Prepaid Phones <ul><li>30% of the subscribers in US are prepaid </li></ul><ul><li>60% of subscribers in West Europe & Australia are prepaid </li></ul><ul><li>70% of subscribers in East Europe, Russia, New Zealand are prepaid </li></ul><ul><li>In Asia, Africa, South America 75%-95% of subscribers are prepaid </li></ul>
  11. 11. Prepaid Connections <ul><li>Prepaid Subscribers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under-privileged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teenagers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual subscribers (non corporate) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepaid Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MMS </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Problem
  13. 13. Prepaid Subscribers and Data <ul><li>Majority of under-privileged subscribers along with students, teenagers, and non-corporate mobile subscribers use prepaid connections </li></ul><ul><li>Due to challenges in Realtime billing infrastructure, TCP/IP based data service is not available to prepaid customers (in general) </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Majority of mobile subscribers in Developing countries today use budget phones or prepaid connections, these users do not have access to generic TCP/IP data service </li></ul>
  14. 14. Data Service for Under-privileged <ul><li>Mobile Web access through SMS as data bearer (SMS-data) </li></ul><ul><li>It will be short input to application and short response </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle based transactions and Information services do not need large input or output – they are symmetric and small in size </li></ul><ul><li>SMS gateway can convert the Web content into small messages even in local languages (through transcoding) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Short Message Service (SMS) <ul><li>Perceived as an entertainment tool for teenagers </li></ul><ul><li>SMS was originally designed for messaging between mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by ETSI Standard 03.40 </li></ul><ul><li>Is increasingly being used as data </li></ul><ul><li>On September 11, 2001 following the twin tower attack at New York City, telephone lines became inaccessible; SMS was used for communication between emergency service personnel [ Reference: The President’s National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee – “Wireless Task Force Report, Wireless Priority Service”, August 2002 ] </li></ul>
  16. 16. SMS Advantages <ul><li>True Ubiquitous media </li></ul><ul><li>Universal availability of SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Pay as you use (no license fee or entry barrier) </li></ul><ul><li>Stateless & Peer-to-peer </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous (store and forward) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Configurable </li></ul><ul><li>Always ON (always connected) – best for alerts </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Works at vehicular conditions (across Network boundaries) </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to many conditions that break TCP/IP data connection (low signal strength, channel unavailability, weak & intermittent signal) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Need of SMS-data for Under-privileged
  18. 18. The Proposal
  19. 19. Standardize SMS-data so that it Interoperates, to facilitate SMS as Data Bearer for Mobile Web over existing Infrastructure for Budget phones, Prepaid, and Under-privileged users
  20. 20. SMS Usage – Healthcare <ul><li>Compliance monitoring and enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Patient self-monitoring (chronic disease management) </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment reminders </li></ul><ul><li>Health promotion, e.g., diabetic healthcare, smoking cessation messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted service notification, e.g., flu vaccination season </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment confirmation/ cancellation/ modification </li></ul>
  21. 21. SMS Usage – Mobile Finance <ul><li>HDFC Bank: Mobile Banking with SMS , Reference: http://www.hdfcbank.com/RI/RI-EAGE-MobileBanking-withSMS.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobey Forum carried through an extensive evaluation on the future development of the mobile financial services business ecosystem. [ Reference: http://www.mobeyforum.org /] </li></ul><ul><li>San Francisco 15-Nov-2006 -- Visa USA today advanced its mobile strategy through the launch of a new pilot at its California headquarters. Following the successful completion of the industry's first large-scale U.S. mobile payment trial at Philips Arena in Atlanta earlier this year, Visa is now testing the delivery of mobile payment coupons and rewards via text message, graphic and bar code images direct to consumers' mobile devices. [ Reference: http://www.mobiletechnews.com/info/2006/11/15/173005.html ] </li></ul>
  22. 22. SMS-data Applications <ul><li>Telemedicine </li></ul><ul><li>Reality TV shows </li></ul><ul><li>Reality Radio shows </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Value Added Service (VAS) </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency & Weather alerts </li></ul>
  23. 23. Other SMS based Applications <ul><li>Sensor Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Telematics </li></ul><ul><li>Remote control for vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet Management </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Automation </li></ul><ul><li>Notifications and Reminders </li></ul><ul><li>Tickets, Boarding Pass etc </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2D Barcoded Mobile Ticket over SMS Reference: http://www.convergelabs.com
  25. 25. SMS as Multifactor Security Enabler <ul><li>SMS uses SS#7 signaling channel that is Physically Secured </li></ul><ul><li>SS#7 & SMS media is not accessible to general public </li></ul><ul><li>SMS can be used for Mutual Authentication </li></ul><ul><li>SMS can be used to distribute Security keys </li></ul><ul><li>SMS and Web can be used for Multifactor, Multi-communication security protocol </li></ul><ul><li>SMS can be used for Presence, Spatial, and Contextual security </li></ul>
  26. 26. All these Services are Network Proprietary and DO NOT Interoperate Network Operators are offering Mobile Web Services over SMS (only to its subscribers) An Independent Service Provider or an Enterprise cannot offer Mobile Web Services over SMS – Unless this happens, Mobile Web usage will be limited
  27. 27. SMS Point-to-Point Architecture Reference: GSM Standard 03.40 SMS-GMSC H SMSC H HLR B MSC B MS A VLR A SM MO SMS-IWMSC H 1 2 3 4 7 6 8 11 MS B SM MT Receiver’s Home Network Serving Network Sender’s Home Network 5 MSC A VLR B 9 10 PLMN B PLMN A HLR – Home Location Register MS – Mobile Station MSC – Mobile Switching Center PLMN – Public Land Mobile Network SMSC – SMS Center SMS-GMSC – SMS Gateway MSC SMS-IWMSC – SMS Interworking MSC SM MO – Short Message Mobile Originated SM MO – Short Message Mobile Terminated VLR – Visitor Location Register
  28. 28. SMS Point-to-Point <ul><li>Both endpoints are mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperable </li></ul><ul><li>Any mobile phone from any network roaming in any network can send SMS to any phone from any other network roaming in some other network </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Challenge
  30. 30. SMS-data Routing Challenges <ul><li>When a subscriber is roaming, outgoing voice calls are routed by the visiting MSC – The call can be routed from any mobile phone to any other mobile phone or fixedline phone </li></ul><ul><li>When a subscriber is roaming, outgoing SMS is routed by the home SMSC – The SMS can be routed from any mobile phone to any mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>As an SMS-data service is connected to the home network, SMS-data can never be routed to non-home services – This is against the fundamental philosophy of telecommunication or data communication </li></ul>
  31. 31. SMS-data <ul><li>Does not Interoperate </li></ul><ul><li>One endpoint is service (running in computers or Web), other endpoint is mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcode as SMS Data Service Identifier (SDSI), the port address where SMS gateway is connected </li></ul><ul><li>A mobile subscriber can access only these services offered by the home operator </li></ul><ul><li>A subscriber from network “A” cannot access services offered by “B” or any service in Web </li></ul><ul><li>A subscriber roaming in a foreign network still accesses the service at home network </li></ul>
  32. 32. SMS-data Architecture Reference: GSM Standard 03.40 Origin/ Content/ Application Servers SME 2 SMSC MSC MS SMPP Not in scope of GSM Specification Within scope of GSM Specification Serving Network Home Network Data Network SME 1 App 1 App N SME N HTTP App 2 . . . .. : . . . .. : SMS-IWMSC/ SMS-GMSC Intranet 1234 10816 SDSI
  33. 33. SMS-data Interoperability <ul><li>SM MO (Short Message Mobile Originated) is not interoperable – an SMS-data from any mobile phone from any network roaming in some other network can be routed to only these applications connected to the home SMSC and offered by the home network </li></ul><ul><li>SM MT (Short Message Mobile Terminated) is interoperable – an SMS-data from any application can be routed to any mobile phone from any network roaming in any other network </li></ul>
  34. 34. Cashier’s Cheque using SMS Security Reference: http://www.standardchartered.com.sg/cb/ibnk/faq/svc_ibnk_echq.html Interoperable SMS MT Message is used to send the security code to payee who can have mobile phone from any network operator
  35. 35. Short Code as SDSI <ul><li>Short Codes are used as SDSI (SMS Data Service Identifier) </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcodes do not follow E.164 standard for numbering </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcodes are Proprietary and does not have any meaning outside of home network </li></ul><ul><li>In the US, shortcodes are reserved through , a centralized body [ http://www.usshortcodes.com ] to have unique shortcode across USA; though, there is no guarantee that this short code will be available in all networks. It is also possible to find out who owns a mobile short code in the United States [ http://www.usshortcodeswhois.com ] </li></ul><ul><li>This is not possible in other countries </li></ul>
  36. 36. Indian Railways services through SMS Source: http://www.indianrail.gov.in/railcode.html TRAIN PNR <PNR #> 3339 Gujarat IDEA IRAVB  <Train #> <Date> IRPNR <PNR #> 1234 Delhi HUTCH RSK  <Train #> <Date> PNR  <PNR #> 99111 Andhra Pradesh IDEA RAIL  <Train #> <Date> PNR  <PNR #> 555 Punjab SPICE RSK  <Train #> <Date> PNR <PNR #> 456 Chennai RPG RSK  <Train #> <Date> PNR  <PNR #> 500 Kolkata  AIRTEL RSK  <Train #> <Date> PNR <PNR #> 333 Rajasthan OASIS IRAVB  <Train #> <Date> IRPNR <PNR #> 12324 Mumbai HUTCH Seat Availability Passenger Status Short Access Code Circle Operator
  37. 37. Park and pay with SMS in downtown Wellington (New Zealand) <ul><li>The motorist sends an SMS with the machine’s unique code to 7275 (PARK) . </li></ul><ul><li>The machine vends a ‘pay and display’ ticket and the motorist displays the ticket in the car as normal. </li></ul><ul><li>The motorist receives an SMS confirming receipt of funds from their Vodafone account or Prepay credit </li></ul><ul><li>Source: http://www.geekzone.co.nz/content.asp?contentid=2187 </li></ul>Service not available to non-Vodafone customers or Roaming subscribers
  38. 38. Pay Your Rail Parking by SMS in the UK Source: http://www.smstextnews.com/2006/08/pay_your_rail_p.html Service not available to visitors
  39. 39. Telephone Number is the Identity In Developing Countries Mobile number is the Storefronts Source: Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones, The Vodafone Policy Paper Series, Number 2, March 2005
  40. 40. Mobile Number Portability (MNP) <ul><li>Helps the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Increases competition </li></ul><ul><li>Helps the consumer </li></ul><ul><li>In developing countries mobile number plays the role of a Storefront </li></ul><ul><li>In MNP, Subscriber carries the old number to new operator </li></ul><ul><li>SMS-data accessed through shortcode will cease to operate in MNP (same service may not be available, or use a different shortcode) </li></ul>
  41. 41. The Solution
  42. 42. SMS-data Routing for Mobile Web <ul><li>For Mobile Web access, we need Interoperable SMS-data that can be routed from any home SMSC to any Web service independent of the network with or without Mobile Number Portability </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperable & Portable SMS-data needs to be compatible with existing protocols and infrastructure </li></ul>
  43. 43. Existing SMS-data Technologies <ul><li>SMS Gateway (SMPP – Short Message Peer-to-peer Protocol): This uses shortcodes (SDSI addresses) as port address of SMSC connection. This technology does not interoperate but scales (100s of messages/second) </li></ul><ul><li>GSM Modem: This uses SMS Point-to-Point with one endpoint Mobile phone (with MSISDN as SDSI) working as a data modem and connected to an application. This technology is interoperable but does not scale (Alternate Half Duplex with Over The Air data-rate is < 300 bits/sec) with ~7 messages/minute (roundtrip) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Ubiquitous SMS Routing Service <ul><li>Ubiquitous SMS Routing Service (USRS) routes an SMS-data from any mobile phone of any network roaming in any network to any application in the Web </li></ul><ul><li>It routes an SMS from any home SMSC to any Web application [ Reference: Ubiquitous SMS Routing and Independent Service Creation, submitted for publication in IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology ] </li></ul>
  45. 45. USRS Tunneling <ul><li>Ubiquitous SMS Routing Service Tunneling routes an SMS-data from any mobile phone of any network roaming in any network to an application that is running in the private network of another mobile operator </li></ul><ul><li>It tunnels the SMS-data from any home SMSC to any foreign SMSC which is then routed to the application connected to the foreign network </li></ul>
  46. 46. Universal SMS Routing Service <ul><li>Universal SMS Routing Service (USRS) routes an SMS-data from any mobile phone of any network ported to any other network roaming in any network to an application independent of Donor or Recipient network [ Reference: Mobile Number Portability: Making SMS Data Services Portable, Journal of Indian Institute of Science, pp 81-96, Mar-Apr, 2006 ] </li></ul>
  47. 47. USRS <ul><li>USRS Technology offers SMS-data routing algorithm that is Interoperable and Scalable </li></ul><ul><li>USRS offers SMS-data routing algorithm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That is network independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That is MNP neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That is independent of the end-user device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the investment (uses existing infrastructure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USRS Routing Algorithm has been tested in an Indian GSM network in Meerut near Delhi with mobile phones across India </li></ul>
  48. 48. USRS Compatibility <ul><li>USRS Technology is backward & forward compatible </li></ul><ul><li>USRS coexists with all other network elements </li></ul><ul><li>USRS uses MAP (GSM 09.02) protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the USRS node need to be added in SS#7 network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client interface on phone does not change </li></ul><ul><li>Client continues to work with Shortcode through existing interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Client will work with Global-title through USRS interface </li></ul><ul><li>Server application continues without any change </li></ul>
  49. 49. USRS Routing Architecture Just add the USRS server in SS#7 network within the existing GSM/GPRS network. It uses the existing MAP (GSM 09.02) standards to communicate with other network elements Host Network with USRS Home Network of Sender (Port-to Network) Foster Network SMSC A MS A MSC V VLR V SMS-IWMSC A Application Server in Public Data Network Serving Network (Visiting network) Data Networks SMS-GMSC A USRS HLR A Location Update (VMSC=USRS Routing Info (VMSC=USRS) Send Routing Info HLR B SMSC Other Networks Network Proprietary Services E.164 SDSI Short SDSI SME MSC/VLR SMSC USRS Tunneling Algorithm USRS Algorithm SME
  50. 50. The Proposal
  51. 51. Requirement for SMS-data <ul><li>SMS-data should be interoperable </li></ul><ul><li>SMS-data from any network should be possible to route to any application/service in the Web or private Intranet of any operator </li></ul><ul><li>SMS-data routing should be Number Portability neutral </li></ul><ul><li>For under-privileged, capability of Toll-Free SMS with standard numbering scheme </li></ul>
  52. 52. Recommendation for SMS-data <ul><li>USRS routing algorithm be made international standard for SMS-data routing because it is, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MNP Neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent of end-user device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use existing infrastructure and protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using USRS technology it is possible to implement toll-free and LoCall SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Toll-free and LoCall numbering scheme for SMS-data like 888.xxxxxxxxx, where xxxxxxxxx is the service identity </li></ul>
  53. 53. Questions? Thank you Email:

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