Wireless Communication Overview
Generic WCS  (Wireless Communication System) Switch Base Station Base Station Handset Handset PSTN (Public Switched Teleph...
Dimensions <ul><li>Carrier/Network Operator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum, PSTN, Internet, …/ISP, Tele Service Provider <...
Essential Functions <ul><li>Initialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Register </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bursty Data/Signaling Tra...
Wireless Communication Challenges <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel imp...
Technology Trend Analog Voice Digital Voice Wireless Multimedia Narrow band Wide band Mobile Phone Mobile Phone + Wireless...
High-Tier v.s. Low-Tier Systems <ul><li>High-Tier Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serving a highly mobile population by mean...
A System View <ul><li>High-Tier Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM, DAMPS, CDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite System...
Existed System Study (1) GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)
Outline <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Numbering & Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Essential ...
GSM Overview <ul><li>GSM  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by European Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following ISDN ...
GSM Air Resource Allocation <ul><li>Spectrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplink Band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>890 - 915 MH...
GSM Network Components <ul><li>MSC:  Mobile Switching Center </li></ul><ul><li>BSC:  Base Station Controller </li></ul><ul...
GSM System Architecture  Data Terminal HLR/ VLR MSC BSC OMC (Operation & Maintenance  Center) Operation Terminal BTS Hands...
SIM Card <ul><li>Subscriber Identity Module </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone number (MS...
Numbering <ul><li>Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping to Mobile Station Roaming Number (M...
Routing <ul><li>Information resident in MS & SIM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IMSI, TMSI, IMEI, and misc. information </li></ul><...
Location Information Hierarchy <ul><li>Location Area Hierarchy </li></ul>HLR VLR VLR MSC1 MSC2 LA1 HLR: Home Location Regi...
Location Information <ul><li>Determines subscriber current location </li></ul><ul><li>Inform network when subscriber enter...
GSM Essential Functions <ul><li>Registration/Location Updating </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing Communication Link </li></ul...
Registration/Location Updating <ul><li>Inform system the new location of a MS when it changes Location Area (LA) </li></ul...
Establish Communication Link <ul><li>Handset request available channel from BTS </li></ul><ul><li>BTS forward the request ...
Handover <ul><li>The process of changing cells during a call is called  handover  in GSM terminology. </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Roaming <ul><li>A subscriber moves from the service area of his/her home service company(or network) to another operating ...
Wireless Data
Computing & Communication Wireless Information Devices Laptop Communicator Smartphone PDA Mobile Phone Communication Compu...
Wireless Voice & Data  Dominate Wireline
Typical Internet Service Requirements <ul><li>Long (or continuous) sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple overlay sessions </...
Challenges <ul><li>IP network </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>New data services  </li></ul><ul><li>Generic s...
Today’s GSM Data Services <ul><li>SMS ( Short Message Service) </li></ul><ul><li>USSD ( Unstructured Supplementary Service...
Convergence GSM/IP Network <ul><li>H.323 </li></ul><ul><li>WAP </li></ul>
H.323 Architecture Home Service System PSTN Visiting MS HLR MAP SS7 Network Terminal gateway Gatekeeper1 Gatekeeper1 Switch
WAP  (Wireless Application Platform) Filter Web Server Filter WAP Proxy WAP Proxy Wireless Markup Language Wireless Network
Future GSM SIM Card GSM mobile GSM/UMTS mobile UMTS mobile Internet (TCP/IP) BSC  (UMTS) UMTS (IMT-2000) Base Station BSC ...
GSM Radio Steps to 3rd Generation Development of Radio Technology Evolution of GSM Platform Introduction of 3rd generation...
Air Interface Protocols <ul><li>SS7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between PSTN and PLMN ( Public Land Mobile Network) </li></ul></...
Air Interface Messages <ul><li>RR: Radio Resource Management Messages </li></ul><ul><li>MM: Mobility Management Messages <...
Air Interface--Channels Traffic channels Signaling channel Full-rate TCH/F half-rate TCH/H Frequency correction FCCH Synch...
Dual Band Network
Dual Band Network  :  GSM 900 & DCS 1800 Air Interface
GSM/DCS Network Differences <ul><li>DCS 1800 cells are generally coverage limited  </li></ul><ul><li>GSM 900 cells tend to...
Integrate GSM and DCS Networks <ul><li>Integrating 900 and 1800 networks by linking 900/1800 cells to same BSC: An Integra...
Integrated Dual Band Network MSC BSC DCS BTS DCS BTS DCS BTS GSM BTS GSM BTS GSM BTS
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GSM-I

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GSM-I

  1. 1. Wireless Communication Overview
  2. 2. Generic WCS (Wireless Communication System) Switch Base Station Base Station Handset Handset PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)
  3. 3. Dimensions <ul><li>Carrier/Network Operator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum, PSTN, Internet, …/ISP, Tele Service Provider </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protocols/Standards/Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM, AMPS, DECT, PHS, Satellite, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MSC, BSC, BTS, HLR/VLR, IN Elements, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Services/Applications/Service Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice call, data call, add-on services, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Handset/Terminals/Smart Phone/Wireless Info Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OS, User-Interface, Protocol suite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subscriber Behavior </li></ul>
  4. 4. Essential Functions <ul><li>Initialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Register </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bursty Data/Signaling Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paging, channel assignment, control signaling, signaling data, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handoff, roaming </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Wireless Communication Challenges <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel impairment/fading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handover, Roaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User access behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security, Data, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terminal Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul>
  6. 6. Technology Trend Analog Voice Digital Voice Wireless Multimedia Narrow band Wide band Mobile Phone Mobile Phone + Wireless Data Wireless Info Appliance
  7. 7. High-Tier v.s. Low-Tier Systems <ul><li>High-Tier Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serving a highly mobile population by means of sophisticated high-power radios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger cell diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher transmitter power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-Tier Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serving subscribers moving at walking speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller cell diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower transmitter power </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. A System View <ul><li>High-Tier Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM, DAMPS, CDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low-Tier Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CT-2, DECT, PHS, PACS </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Existed System Study (1) GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)
  10. 10. Outline <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Numbering & Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Air Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Band Network Study </li></ul>
  11. 11. GSM Overview <ul><li>GSM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by European Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following ISDN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified as Tele services and Data services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International roaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio transmission is based on TDMA (Time Divide Multiple Access) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. GSM Air Resource Allocation <ul><li>Spectrum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplink Band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>890 - 915 MHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downlink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>935-960 MHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duplex spacing: 45 MHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Channel spacing: 200 KHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total channel number: 124 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of slots per channel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. GSM Network Components <ul><li>MSC: Mobile Switching Center </li></ul><ul><li>BSC: Base Station Controller </li></ul><ul><li>BTS: Base Transceiver Station </li></ul><ul><li>HLR/VLR: Home Location Register/Visting Location Register </li></ul><ul><li>SIM Card: Subscriber Identity Module Card </li></ul><ul><li>Handset </li></ul><ul><li>Service Center </li></ul>
  14. 14. GSM System Architecture Data Terminal HLR/ VLR MSC BSC OMC (Operation & Maintenance Center) Operation Terminal BTS Handset A X.25 A-bis SS7 Network sub-system PSTN Radio sub-system Mobile station UM PSTN
  15. 15. SIM Card <ul><li>Subscriber Identity Module </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone number (MSISDN) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>status of SIM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>service code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>authentication key </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PIN (personal identification code) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PUK (personal unlock code) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Numbering <ul><li>Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping to Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) by HLR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Mobile Subscriber Identify (IMSI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored in SIM/HLR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned by VLR, Stored in VLR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique ID to handset, used by air interface </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Routing <ul><li>Information resident in MS & SIM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IMSI, TMSI, IMEI, and misc. information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routing Information used by Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MSISDN, MSRN </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Location Information Hierarchy <ul><li>Location Area Hierarchy </li></ul>HLR VLR VLR MSC1 MSC2 LA1 HLR: Home Location Register VLR: Visitor Location Register MSC: Mobile Switching Center LA: Location Area MS: Mobile Station LA2
  19. 19. Location Information <ul><li>Determines subscriber current location </li></ul><ul><li>Inform network when subscriber enters a new cell </li></ul><ul><li>Have to trade-off between paging and location update traffic in system planning </li></ul><ul><li>Location info contained in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile country code, mobile network code, location area code, cell ID </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location information is the major burden for network </li></ul>
  20. 20. GSM Essential Functions <ul><li>Registration/Location Updating </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing Communication Link </li></ul><ul><li>Handover </li></ul><ul><li>Roaming </li></ul>
  21. 21. Registration/Location Updating <ul><li>Inform system the new location of a MS when it changes Location Area (LA) </li></ul><ul><li>MS continuously measures signal strength to choose the best radio base station </li></ul><ul><li>The mobile station tunes to a new base station with better signal strength </li></ul>
  22. 22. Establish Communication Link <ul><li>Handset request available channel from BTS </li></ul><ul><li>BTS forward the request to BSC </li></ul><ul><li>BSC chooses an available channel and inform BTS to activate the channel </li></ul><ul><li>Information the BSC channel assignment message carries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a reference number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information about allocated channel (type, frequency, time slot, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the initial transmission power level to be used by the handset </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Handover <ul><li>The process of changing cells during a call is called handover in GSM terminology. </li></ul><ul><li>The measurements to choose the best target cell are performed by MSs and BTSs. </li></ul><ul><li>The measurements from the MS and the BTS are processed in the BSC. This evaluation process is called locating. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Roaming <ul><li>A subscriber moves from the service area of his/her home service company(or network) to another operating company(or network) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Wireless Data
  26. 26. Computing & Communication Wireless Information Devices Laptop Communicator Smartphone PDA Mobile Phone Communication Computing
  27. 27. Wireless Voice & Data Dominate Wireline
  28. 28. Typical Internet Service Requirements <ul><li>Long (or continuous) sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple overlay sessions </li></ul><ul><li>High degree of burstiness </li></ul><ul><li>Large span in QoS requirements </li></ul>Fundamentally difference from voice telephony
  29. 29. Challenges <ul><li>IP network </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>New data services </li></ul><ul><li>Generic service platform </li></ul><ul><li>Information appliances (Handhelds, Palm devices, Smart phones, In-Car systems) </li></ul>Lots of bandwidth
  30. 30. Today’s GSM Data Services <ul><li>SMS ( Short Message Service) </li></ul><ul><li>USSD ( Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) </li></ul><ul><li>HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data ) </li></ul><ul><li>GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) </li></ul><ul><li>EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Convergence GSM/IP Network <ul><li>H.323 </li></ul><ul><li>WAP </li></ul>
  32. 32. H.323 Architecture Home Service System PSTN Visiting MS HLR MAP SS7 Network Terminal gateway Gatekeeper1 Gatekeeper1 Switch
  33. 33. WAP (Wireless Application Platform) Filter Web Server Filter WAP Proxy WAP Proxy Wireless Markup Language Wireless Network
  34. 34. Future GSM SIM Card GSM mobile GSM/UMTS mobile UMTS mobile Internet (TCP/IP) BSC (UMTS) UMTS (IMT-2000) Base Station BSC (GSM) GSM Base Station Co-sited GSM+ UMTS Base Station Subsystem GGSN SGSN GPRS+UMTS Landline NW (PSTN/ISDN) Network Subsystem (GSM+UMTS) MSC/HLR (GSM+UMTS) HLR MSC IN service control point SIM
  35. 35. GSM Radio Steps to 3rd Generation Development of Radio Technology Evolution of GSM Platform Introduction of 3rd generation radio 2001 - 2002 New multimedia services Mass market cost of service (IMT-2000) 2000 More capacity when needed (GSM384) 1999 Internet-like IP packet services (GPRS) 1998 Landline-like circuit services (HSCSD) 1997 Basic GSM data at 9.6 kb/s
  36. 36. Air Interface Protocols <ul><li>SS7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between PSTN and PLMN ( Public Land Mobile Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>X.25 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BSC and Operation centers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between BSC and MSC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A-bis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between BTS and BSC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Um </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio interface between BTS and Handset </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Air Interface Messages <ul><li>RR: Radio Resource Management Messages </li></ul><ul><li>MM: Mobility Management Messages </li></ul><ul><li>CM: Call Management Messages </li></ul>
  38. 38. Air Interface--Channels Traffic channels Signaling channel Full-rate TCH/F half-rate TCH/H Frequency correction FCCH Synchronization SCH Broadcast control BCCH Paging PCH Access grant AGCH Random access RACH Stand-alone dedicated control SDCCH Slow associated control SACCH Fast associated control FACCH Two-way Base-to-mobile Two-way
  39. 39. Dual Band Network
  40. 40. Dual Band Network : GSM 900 & DCS 1800 Air Interface
  41. 41. GSM/DCS Network Differences <ul><li>DCS 1800 cells are generally coverage limited </li></ul><ul><li>GSM 900 cells tend to be capacity limited </li></ul><ul><li>Implying a need for more DCS 1800 cells to provide similar coverage to a comparable GSM 900 </li></ul>
  42. 42. Integrate GSM and DCS Networks <ul><li>Integrating 900 and 1800 networks by linking 900/1800 cells to same BSC: An Integrated dual band network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing BSC, MSC, and HLR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse existing resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse spectrum means to enlarge the scalability of network and to improve the utilization of spectrum resource </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify the handoff between networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible and changeable infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Integrated Dual Band Network MSC BSC DCS BTS DCS BTS DCS BTS GSM BTS GSM BTS GSM BTS

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