Communication Engineering Eng.Mohyee Mikhemar Ain Shams University Aug 2002
Contents <ul><li>Introduction  </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular concepts </li></ul><ul><li>GSM network </li></ul><ul><li>GSM pro...
GSM Network <ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roaming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN capability. </li></ul></ul><u...
GSM Architecture OMS MS BSS SS Operation and Maintenance subsystem Switching Subsystem Base Station subsystem Mobile Station
Mobile Station <ul><li>Mobile Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handset Identity code (32 bit). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SIM c...
Base Station Subsystem <ul><li>BTS: Base Transceiver station  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Antennas: 2 Rx & 1 Tx. </li></ul></u...
Base Station Subsystem <ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of broadcast messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling ...
Switching Subsystem <ul><li>MSC:Mobile Service Switching center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-ordinates call setup </li></ul></...
Switching Subsystem <ul><li>HLR:Home Location Register </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database of all subscribers information </li>...
Switching Subsystem <ul><li>AUC:Authentication center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the security data for subscriber authen...
Switching Subsystem <ul><li>EIR:Equipment Identity Register </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database of all Mobile Equipments </li><...
Switching Subsystem <ul><li>VLR:Home Location Register </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database of all visitors information </li></u...
Switching Subsystem <ul><li>GMSC:Gateway MSC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway to the PSTN </li></ul></ul>MSC HLR VLR GMSC AUC...
Switching Subsystem <ul><li>GIWU:Gateway Networking Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Communication with users outside GSM </...
OMS <ul><li>Operation and Maintenance Subsystem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network operation and maintenance </li></ul></ul><u...
Spectrum Sharing
FDD Uplink Downlink MHz Total Band=25 MHz f      Att.    Atteunation    f 890 915 935 960 MS BS MS BS
FDM Uplink Downlink 124 Carrier 200KHz apart MHz Ch1 F=890 M +100 k Ch2 F=890 M +300 k Ch124 F=915 M -100k 890 915 935 960
FDM Uplink Downlink 124 Carrier 200KHz apart MHz Ch1 F=890 M +100 k Ch2 F=890 M +300 k Ch124 F=915 M -100k Channel Spacing...
FDM Uplink Downlink 124 Carrier 200KHz apart MHz Ch1(up) F=890 M +100 k Ch1(Down) F=935 M +100 k 890 915 935 960
TDMA <ul><li>Every channel is shared among 8 users </li></ul><ul><li>There are 124 Carriers each shared among 8 users. </l...
(C n ,TS k ) C 0 C 1 C 123 f TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 t TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3...
(C n ,TS k ) C 12 ( C 12 ,TS 2  ) TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 t
Channels Space (Copy Right) Frame No TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 T...
Channels <ul><li>Physical Channel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s a time slot on any carrier (C n ,TS k ). </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Channel Types <ul><li>Traffic Channels (TCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used after call setup for transmission of speech. </li>...
Control Channels <ul><li>Broadcast Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Common Control Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Channels...
Control Channels <ul><li>Broadcast Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Common Control Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Channels...
Control Channels <ul><li>Broadcast Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(FCCH): Frequency Correction Channel </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Control Channels <ul><li>Broadcast Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Common Control Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Channels...
Control Channels <ul><li>Common Control Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(PCH): Paging Control Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Control Channels <ul><li>Broadcast Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Common Control Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Channels...
Control Channels <ul><li>Dedicated Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(SDCCH): Stand alone dedicated control Channel </li></ul...
Burst <ul><li>It’s the information contained in one time slot </li></ul><ul><li>1 time slot = 0.577 m.sec. </li></ul><ul><...
Mapping Frame No F D0 S D0 B D0 B D0 C D1 B D1 B D1 C D1 C D2 C D2 F D2 S D2 C D3 C D3 C D3 C D3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1...
Mapping Frame No F D0 S D0 B D0 B D0 C D1 B D1 B D1 C D1 C D2 C D2 F D2 S D2 C D3 C D3 C D3 C D3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1...
Traffic Multiframe (26 Frames) It’s repeated on C 0 , TS 2-7  and all TS’s on all  other carriers <ul><li>Idle: </li></ul>...
Control Multiframe (51 frames) C 0 , TS 0 : B B B B C C C C I F S Idle 10 bursts F S C C C C C C C C 10 bursts F S C C C C...
Control Multiframe (51 frames) C 0 , TS 1 : D:Stand alone (Call setup – SMS ) S:Slow Associated (Power Level-Time Advance)...
TDMA Frame Structure <ul><li>1 time slot =  15/26 m.sec </li></ul><ul><li>1 frame = 8 time slots =  120/26 m.sec. </li></u...
Bust Types <ul><li>Normal burst </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction burst </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization burst </li>...
Bust Types <ul><li>Normal burst </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction burst </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization burst </li>...
Bust Types <ul><li>Normal burst </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction burst </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization burst </li>...
Bust Types <ul><li>Normal burst </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction burst </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization burst </li>...
Bust Types <ul><li>Normal burst </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction burst </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization burst </li>...
Notes <ul><li>C 0  is called the beacon and is transmitted with the maximum available power in the cell. </li></ul><ul><li...
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  • The vacant time slots are used for power level measurements
  • - GSM Network

    1. 1. Communication Engineering Eng.Mohyee Mikhemar Ain Shams University Aug 2002
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular concepts </li></ul><ul><li>GSM network </li></ul><ul><li>GSM protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit Realization </li></ul>
    3. 3. GSM Network <ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roaming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN capability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of SIM card. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of transmission power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency hopping. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discontinuous transmission. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile-assisted handover </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. GSM Architecture OMS MS BSS SS Operation and Maintenance subsystem Switching Subsystem Base Station subsystem Mobile Station
    5. 5. Mobile Station <ul><li>Mobile Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handset Identity code (32 bit). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SIM card: Subscriber Identity Module </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity (34 bit). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K i : Identity and Authentication key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K c : Ciphering key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 3 , A 5 , A 8 : Ciphering Algorithms </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Base Station Subsystem <ul><li>BTS: Base Transceiver station </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Antennas: 2 Rx & 1 Tx. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microwave link with the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BSC: Base station controller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control many (BTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It handles many functions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Channel Allocation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Link quality Supervision </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Base Station Subsystem <ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of broadcast messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling power level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling frequency hopping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Error correction coding and decoding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data and signaling encryption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital speech transcoding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate adaptation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Switching Subsystem <ul><li>MSC:Mobile Service Switching center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-ordinates call setup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One MSC control several BSC </li></ul></ul>MSC HLR VLR GMSC AUC EIR GIWU
    9. 9. Switching Subsystem <ul><li>HLR:Home Location Register </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database of all subscribers information </li></ul></ul>MSC HLR VLR GMSC AUC EIR GIWU
    10. 10. Switching Subsystem <ul><li>AUC:Authentication center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the security data for subscriber authentication </li></ul></ul>MSC HLR VLR GMSC AUC EIR GIWU
    11. 11. Switching Subsystem <ul><li>EIR:Equipment Identity Register </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database of all Mobile Equipments </li></ul></ul>MSC HLR VLR GMSC AUC EIR GIWU
    12. 12. Switching Subsystem <ul><li>VLR:Home Location Register </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database of all visitors information </li></ul></ul>MSC HLR VLR GMSC AUC EIR GIWU
    13. 13. Switching Subsystem <ul><li>GMSC:Gateway MSC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway to the PSTN </li></ul></ul>MSC HLR VLR GMSC AUC EIR GIWU
    14. 14. Switching Subsystem <ul><li>GIWU:Gateway Networking Unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Communication with users outside GSM </li></ul></ul>MSC HLR VLR GMSC AUC EIR GIWU
    15. 15. OMS <ul><li>Operation and Maintenance Subsystem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network operation and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscription management: charging and billing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile equipment management </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Spectrum Sharing
    17. 17. FDD Uplink Downlink MHz Total Band=25 MHz f   Att.  Atteunation  f 890 915 935 960 MS BS MS BS
    18. 18. FDM Uplink Downlink 124 Carrier 200KHz apart MHz Ch1 F=890 M +100 k Ch2 F=890 M +300 k Ch124 F=915 M -100k 890 915 935 960
    19. 19. FDM Uplink Downlink 124 Carrier 200KHz apart MHz Ch1 F=890 M +100 k Ch2 F=890 M +300 k Ch124 F=915 M -100k Channel Spacing 200 KHz Guard Band 100 KHz 890 915 935 960
    20. 20. FDM Uplink Downlink 124 Carrier 200KHz apart MHz Ch1(up) F=890 M +100 k Ch1(Down) F=935 M +100 k 890 915 935 960
    21. 21. TDMA <ul><li>Every channel is shared among 8 users </li></ul><ul><li>There are 124 Carriers each shared among 8 users. </li></ul><ul><li>A User is assigned a certain time slot on a certain carrier (C n ,TS k ) </li></ul>
    22. 22. (C n ,TS k ) C 0 C 1 C 123 f TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 t TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 t TS1 TS2 t TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 Frame
    23. 23. (C n ,TS k ) C 12 ( C 12 ,TS 2 ) TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 t
    24. 24. Channels Space (Copy Right) Frame No TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 f C 0 C 1 C 2 C 3
    25. 25. Channels <ul><li>Physical Channel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s a time slot on any carrier (C n ,TS k ). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logical Chaneel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s a channel mapped on a physical channel to do a certain job </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Channel Types <ul><li>Traffic Channels (TCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used after call setup for transmission of speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Chaneels (CCH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over head channels used for network administration and SMS. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Control Channels <ul><li>Broadcast Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Common Control Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Channels </li></ul>
    28. 28. Control Channels <ul><li>Broadcast Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Common Control Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Channels </li></ul>
    29. 29. Control Channels <ul><li>Broadcast Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(FCCH): Frequency Correction Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Data just pure carrier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(SCH): Synchronization Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast Mobile Network Identity Code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast Base Station Identity Code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast Current frame number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(BCCH): Broadcast Control Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast location area Identity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast maximum output power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast C 0 of neighboring cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Control Channels <ul><li>Broadcast Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Common Control Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Channels </li></ul>
    31. 31. Control Channels <ul><li>Common Control Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(PCH): Paging Control Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declare a coming call </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(RACH): Random Access Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to initiate a call </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to respond to a paging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(AGCH): Access Grant Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to assign a dedicated channel for further communication </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Control Channels <ul><li>Broadcast Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Common Control Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Channels </li></ul>
    33. 33. Control Channels <ul><li>Dedicated Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(SDCCH): Stand alone dedicated control Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Call setup procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(SACCH): Slow Associated control Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(  ) Setup power level and time advance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(  ) Inform the BS about received power level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(FACCH): Fast Associated control Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stolen for urgent hardover </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Burst <ul><li>It’s the information contained in one time slot </li></ul><ul><li>1 time slot = 0.577 m.sec. </li></ul><ul><li>I frame = 8 time slots = 4.615 m.sec. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Mapping Frame No F D0 S D0 B D0 B D0 C D1 B D1 B D1 C D1 C D2 C D2 F D2 S D2 C D3 C D3 C D3 C D3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 f C 0 C 1 C 2 C 3 Frequency Correction Synchronization Channel Broadcast Channel Common Control Channel T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T
    36. 36. Mapping Frame No F D0 S D0 B D0 B D0 C D1 B D1 B D1 C D1 C D2 C D2 F D2 S D2 C D3 C D3 C D3 C D3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 f C 0 C 1 C 2 C 3 Stand alone Control Channel Traffic Channel Slow Associated Control Channel T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S T T
    37. 37. Traffic Multiframe (26 Frames) It’s repeated on C 0 , TS 2-7 and all TS’s on all other carriers <ul><li>Idle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reserved for future use </li></ul></ul>T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T I S 12 Traffic bursts 12 Traffic bursts <ul><li>Slow Associated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Advance </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Control Multiframe (51 frames) C 0 , TS 0 : B B B B C C C C I F S Idle 10 bursts F S C C C C C C C C 10 bursts F S C C C C C C C C 10 bursts F S C C C C C C C C 10 bursts F S C C C C C C C C 10 bursts
    39. 39. Control Multiframe (51 frames) C 0 , TS 1 : D:Stand alone (Call setup – SMS ) S:Slow Associated (Power Level-Time Advance) 48 bursts D0 I Idle D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 S4 S5 S6 S7 3 bursts 48 bursts D0 I Idle D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 S0 S1 S2 S3 3 bursts
    40. 40. TDMA Frame Structure <ul><li>1 time slot = 15/26 m.sec </li></ul><ul><li>1 frame = 8 time slots = 120/26 m.sec. </li></ul><ul><li>1 traffic multiframe= 26 frame= 120 m.sec </li></ul><ul><li>1 Control multiframe= 51 frame= 235 m.sec </li></ul><ul><li>1 Super frame= 51 traffic=26 Control </li></ul><ul><li>= 1326 frames = 6.12 sec </li></ul><ul><li>1 hyperframe= 2048 superframe </li></ul><ul><li>= 3 hours 28 minutes 53.76 sec </li></ul>
    41. 41. Bust Types <ul><li>Normal burst </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction burst </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization burst </li></ul><ul><li>Access burst </li></ul>
    42. 42. Bust Types <ul><li>Normal burst </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction burst </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization burst </li></ul><ul><li>Access burst </li></ul>Tail Bits Encrypted bits Training Sequence Flag Guard interval 26 1 57 3 8.25 1 57 3
    43. 43. Bust Types <ul><li>Normal burst </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction burst </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization burst </li></ul><ul><li>Access burst </li></ul>3 8.25 142 3 Tail Bits All Zero Pattern Guard interval
    44. 44. Bust Types <ul><li>Normal burst </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction burst </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization burst </li></ul><ul><li>Access burst </li></ul>64 39 3 8.25 39 3 Tail Bits Encrypted bits Training Sequence Guard interval
    45. 45. Bust Types <ul><li>Normal burst </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction burst </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization burst </li></ul><ul><li>Access burst </li></ul>36 3 68.25 41 8 Tail Bits Encrypted bits Training Sequence Guard interval
    46. 46. Notes <ul><li>C 0 is called the beacon and is transmitted with the maximum available power in the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a 3 time slots time shift between the uplink and the downlink, this simplify the circuits and enable using one antenna and a duplexer. </li></ul>TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7

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