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  1. 1. Wireless Communications GSM Power and Flexibility in a Single Chip OVERVIEW beyond traditional silicon products, communication platforms towards The 1990’s are witnessing the develop- ranging from specifically developed multi-band and multi- standard ment of GSM as the leading world- FSBs™ (Functional System Blocks) technologies such as UMTS and wide cellular standard. Having and DSP code up to a fully integrated, FPLMTS. achieved a worldwide leadership posi- type-approved GSM chipset. After more tion, GSM is now evolving into multi- than seven years’ activity in the GSM PROCESS band solutions and into multi-mode market, developing our own technolo- TECHNOLOGY systems in combination with other gy as well as working with the stan- Keeping one step ahead, VLSI has wireless technologies. dards bodies, VLSI silicon is now in 3 already moved all current GSM prod- VLSI has maintained a leading market of every 10 phones sold in GSM. ucts to our industry-leading 0.35µm position since the early days of GSM as At an early stage, VLSI recognized the process technology. Coupled with an an ASIC and ASSP supplier to major importance of integrating multiple unmatched library of optimized cells GSM phone manufacturers. VLSI’s future digital communication stan- and Functional System Blocks (FSB). major investment in building up GSM dards. For this reason, in parallel with This enables the company to meet the knowledge has resulted in an out- our GSM development, we have made harsh expectations of overall cost standing GSM competence, keeping us significant investments in DECT, PHS reduction in the market at 20 to 30 ahead of the competition as the lead- and CDMA technology. These strengths percent per annum. In addition, ing edge technology provider in the will allow VLSI to continue to play a migration to the latest silicon process, wireless industry. VLSI’s offerings go leading role in the evolution of future coupled with technical enhancements VLSI Communication Standard Platform
  2. 2. and a reduction of the supply design cycle but also permit rapid skills as well as for its excellent sup- voltage to 2.7V, has cut typi- migration to new silicon process port capability. Dedicated wireless cal idle-mode power con- technologies, thus ensuring long-term ARM cores optimized for minimal sumption to less than 2mA. competitiveness. Standardizing the power consumption are available. The VLSI’s process technology design approach over a complete full suite of libraries and design envi- will allow further supply voltage reduc- product range, as we have done with ronments can be provided to allow tions to 2.4V and 1.8V to optimize our GSM, DECT, PHS and CDMA prod- quick design integration in customer power consumption even more. ucts, delivers still greater advantages, products. VLSI’s long-standing design and allowing fast reaction to the future process capabilities have allowed us to evolution and combinations of these OAK DSP Core integrate full mixed-signal capabilities standards. Furthermore, this design Building on the success of DSP in our standard CMOS process. All our approach eases the design of derivative Technology’s “Pine” digital signal GSM ASSPs incorporate mixed-signal products, allowing custom ASSPs or processor core and serving as a step- technology to implement the voice ASICs to be produced by modifying key ping-stone towards future DSP cores, band analog front end (VBAFE) as well blocks or DSP code, or by combining the Oak DSP core is rapidly becoming as RF front end interface. Thanks to standard design core blocks with cus- an industry standard in cellular appli- this process advantage, we have been tomer-specified functions. cations. VLSI Technology implementa- able to minimize the component tion of the Oak core, the VVF3500, count. By cutting back on interfaces, PROCESSOR achieves 80MHz @3V (typical operat- and providing a dedicated power con- CORES ing conditions). When coupled with trol for each analog block, we have appropriate hardware accelerator cir- been able to reduce the system power ARM7TDMI Cores cuits such as our Viterbi co-processor, consumption significantly. The ARM7TDMI (“Thumb”) includes a this level of processing power gives At the same time, on a functional real time instruction decompression enough flexibility to carry out not only level, these circuits have enabled our circuit which combines the advantages the standard-specific communication customers to win various awards for of the 32-bit RISC core with signifi- processing, but also supplementary best voice quality using the cantly increased code density and functions typically needed in multi- integrated VBAFE. improved performance in systems mode phones as well as for customer- based on 8-bit or 16-bit-wide memory. specific applications such as echo can- System-Level Silicon™ Supporting flexible system clocks, and cellation or speech recognition. System-Level Silicon integrates increas- with the ability to reduce clock rates to ingly complex system logic functions minimize power consumption in bat- Multiprocessor System Design onto a smaller and smaller silicon foot- tery-powered applications, the ARM To support application development print, reducing the size, power con- core spans a wide spectrum of perfor- around the ARM7TDMI-RISC and sumption and the cost of integrated mance and delivers sufficient process- VVF3500 Oak DSP multi-core platform circuits. The market now demands ing power for future communication and to offer a low risk path to system embedded processing power with Risc standards evolution. The core’s pro- design VLSI is offering an integrated controllers and DSP engines. Wether in cessing power allows customer appli- development package including: an ASSP or an ASIC, VLSI leads the field cations to run on the same processor • Multiprocessor Development Chip with its range of embedded processors as the communications protocol; these (MDC) and integrated analog interface cicuits, applications may range all the way · Dual RISC/DSP cores running giving unrivaled system-level silicon. from standard supplementary services asynchronously on chip to provide a up to a full PDA implementation. chip solution for system integration Design Methodology VLSI is one of the founders of ARM • Multiprocessor Development Tools Common high-level hardware descrip- Ltd. and is widely recognized for its (MDT) tion languages (HDLs) used in VLSI’s unmatched application-specific ARM · Complete software device design not only speed the core optimization and integration simulation/emulation development
  3. 3. kit which allows to test, analyze and • Analog microphone and Type Approved GSM Chipset modify the RISC/DSP code before loudspeaker interface VLSI today produces a fully type- the hardware is available • Low power approved two-chip GSM chipset, • Multiprocessor Development · Dedicated mode: 10mA @ 3V, already integrated in a wide range of Platform (MDP) 30mA in EFR mode mobile phones. The chipset is parti- · Flexible development board with · Idle Mode: 30µA @3V tioned into the “GSM Kernel” and the JTAG port, prototyping area and Vocoder (voice coding part). The GSM Logic Analyzer support VP22003 Kernel Processor Kernel handles all the signalling and • Complete peripheral set, SIM, UART protocol stack handling as well as the Future Cores and GPIOs external interface to the MMI. Complementing the currently available • Integrated FSC/CRC check for data The voice coding part is responsible processors, the powerful SH3 and application for all the speech processing and the SH4 cores—based on the VLSI-Hitachi • Battery management and charging interface with the microphone and licensing agreement—open up new control loudspeaker. horizons of performance. • 144 TQFP package • Fully integrated phase 2 data sup- VP22003 GSM Chipset Offering port (T/NT) 0.3-9.6Kbits/s The VP22003 GSM kernel processor is • Low power a direct, fully software-compatible evo- F E AT U R E S · Dedicated: 20mA @ 3V lution of the type-approved VP22002 · Idle: <2mA @ 3V device. The VP22003 uses VLSI’s func- VWS22030 Voice-Coprocessor tional system block (FSB) technology • FR/EFR Voice coding GSM Software with a 32-bit ARM RISC microcon- • Custom echo and noise • L1 software troller. Even when operating at low fre- suppression algorithm • Fully documented and supported quency to minimize power consump- • Asynchronous code & decode • Software modules for tion, the efficient ARM microcontroller • SE, CN, DTX, VAD, test transparent/Non-transparent data delivers enough MIPS to run the full support. protocol stack, at the same time as a TwoC-EFR 3V Solution
  4. 4. sophisticated Man/Machine Interface on existing GSM technology. The new Single Chip and full data functions. It supports full chip complies with all Phase II and 06 Communication GSM Phase II data features (transpar- series GSM ETSI specification. Standard Platform OneC ent/non-transparent data) without The integrated OAK DSP core provides needing expensive external PCMCIA sufficient processing power to support OVERVIEW cards or other hardware coprocessors. integrated noise and echo cancella- Wireless markets have shown a signifi- The GSM kernel also offers an asyn- tion, eliminating the expensive external cant growth, opening up tremendous chronous data port, serial EEPROM and coprocessors needed for today’s development opportunities. But the port, 25-key keypad scanner and gen- hands-free kits. dynamics of the market have also led eral-purpose I/O. Power management The VWS22030, like its predecessor to an intensely competitive environ- facilities permit low-power operation: the VP22020, integrates mixed-signal ment similar to the consumer elec- standby mode consumption is typically circuitry such as a VBAFE (voice band tronic marketplace. To succeed in less than 2mA at 3V. analog front end) with which VLSI’s these markets, companies need a reli- GSM customers have already won able, innovative supplier who enables VWS22030 awards for “Best Voice Quality” in pre- them to implement their differentiation Operating at 3V ±10%, the VWS22030 vious models of GSM mobile phones. ideas, ensuring competitiveness and IC combines the first-generation GSM The VWS22030 is also the first standard profitability in the marketplace. Full Rate (FR) Vocoder function with product in the GSM market to allow the Similarly, time to market is vital to the new Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) customer such a wide range of cus- allow quick product iterations. speech coding providing enhanced tomization capabilities for product fea- The OneC platform approach is dedi- voice quality. Support of the new EFR ture differentiation. Previously, cus- cated to support any future evolution voice codec is a key requirement for tomers could only benefit from such of the GSM standard as well as combi- mobile phones to conform to the features by investing significantly in nations of future standards. But to emerging US PCS1900 standard based time and technology for ASIC solutions. allow customers to differentiate and OneC Platform Architecture
  5. 5. succeed in a increasingly competitive will allow easy customization of stan- GSM Radio Module market, the OneC platform architec- dard products by modifying key blocks • Based on WARM RF chip of WAVE- ture allows high-volume ASIC-like cus- or DSP code but will also permit later COM tomization/adaptations at three levels: ASIC derivatives of standard products • Full specification Class 4 GSM radio • Customization based on additional by combining core blocks of the stan- module on-circuit RAM into which custom dard design with customer-specified • Designed for easy manufacturing DSP code can be downloaded from functions. • Only 0603 SMD components the system memory • Metal-level ROM programmability of Interprocessor Communication GSM WAVECOM Software the GSM-1C product, allowing easy The RISC and DSP cores work in syn- • L1, L2, L3 & Core MMI modification of the on-circuit ROM ergy to make efficient use of the par- • Real time kernel with custom DSP code ticular strengths of each processor. An • Low memory requirements • Implemented using a high-level efficient split of the processing tasks · 64Kbytes RAM design language, the product is over the cores delivers a cost opti- · 256Kbytes ROM core SW designed so that custom hardware mized solution as well as ensuring • Fully documented and supported blocks can easily be added to the maximum flexibility. Such optimization design and existing blocks can be is taken a stage further by a common Performance modified to match customer specifi- bus interface which significantly • Idle current consumption: 9-15mA cations. reduces the pin count of the IC, while @ 4.8V depending on frequency of intelligent memory access technologies paging frame occurrence OneC Platform allow real-time download of different • Data services include transparent Based on the evolving standards, a DSP software algorithms into on-chip and non-transparent data at 0.3- clear trend is visible towards single fast memory depending on the 9.6Kbit/s. ETSI compatible AT com- chip architecture based around the moment-by-moment needs of the mand set is used for interfacing. ARM microcontroller and the OAK DSP end user. core. The single chip architecture has VLSI-WAVECOM Cooperation the following key advantages: VLSI-WAVECOM VLSI and Wavecom entered into coop- • Higher design flexibility for Partnership eration with the objective of providing customization market-leading total solutions to the • First step to full multi-mode WM1-G900 wireless market. The total solution integration concept includes BB, RF and SW • Power consumption, due to Features System design integrated into type-approved fewer interfaces • Licensed GSM Module system design ready for manufacturing. • Reduced number of components, • Size: 64 x 46 x 8mm The relationship between the compa- easier manufacturing, cost reduction • Target Handset Weight: <160g nies allows continuous development of and yield improvement • Performance the BB, RF and SW portion to deliver The OneC provides a multi-standard · Talk Time: 1.5 to 3 hours an solution optimized in terms of cost, platform. Common high-level hard- · Standby Time: >40 hours performance and size. The coopera- ware description languages (HDLs) · 550mAh batteries @4.8V tion, which started in the field of GSM, used in device design speed the design Baseband will evolve to encompass other stan- cycle, but also permit rapid migration • VLSI TwoC chipset consisting of dards as well as multi-band and multi- to new silicon process technologies to VP22020 Vocoder and VP22002 mode solutions. maintain long-term competitiveness. GSM Kernel Still greater advantages occur as the • Embedded ARM processor About WAVECOM design approach is standardized over a • Analog voice and radio interface WAVECOM S.A., located VLSI’s complete product range, i.e. • Complete peripheral set, SIM, UART in Issy-les-Moulineaux, GSM, DECT, PHS and CDMA, allowing and GPIOs France, was established fast reaction to the future evolution • Battery management and charging in June 1993 to provide and combinations of these standards. control wireless system designs, Such a standardized design approach product and systems for
  6. 6. WISMO GSM Module WISMO • Technology license The WISMO concept (WIreless · Full technology access is provided Standard MOdule) is a generic concept on a system level for RF, BB and fromWAVECOM developed in order to Software architecture simplify the design of wireless termi- The Wavecom product offering is com- nals. Thefirst generation of module plemented by a wide range of custom- developed for GSM900 (referenced erservices which include type-approval WM1-G900) has already obtained sev- services and engineering services up eral FTAs and is today in volume pro- to the full product design. duction. The module allows handset development times which are unique in Future Perspective the market, at a highly competitive The current GSM 900 offering will be price level. The finished-product complemented with offerings for approach completely eliminates the DCS1800 and PCS1900 by mid-1997. widely known technical risk, and The range of offerings will be extended WISMO-based phones typically obtain to cover multi-standard devices as FTA in less than 30 hours. WISMO’s well as multi-mode and multi-band unique full data capability makes it solutions built around the basic GSM very attractive for GSM-data-based ser- solutions at a later stage. vices like PC/PDA mobility and other applications. WAVECOM Offerings radio communication markets. The WAVECOM offering is based WAVECOM’s goal is to support equip- around the type-approved WISMO ment manufacturers in order to launch module. The WISMO offering includes radio communication terminals on the three type of business models: market under the best possible condi- • Module supply tions of cost and delay. · The module is supplied fully tested To this end, WAVECOM has developed and tuned for direct integration into its own technology for cellular phones the end product (GSM , DCS1800, PCS1900), digital • Manufacturing license cordless telephones (CT2 & DECT), · All necessary elements for licensed paging receivers (ERMES) and satellite manufacturing including test and mobile communication (ICO). manufacturing support are provided All brands, product names, and company names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. With respect to the information in this document, VLSI LIFE SUPPORT APPLICATIONS: Technology, Inc. (VLSI) makes no guarantee or warranty of its VLSI’s products are not intended for use as critical compo- accuracy or that the use of such information will not infringe nents in life support appliances, devices, or systems, in which upon the intellectual rights of third parties. VLSI shall not be the failure of a VLSI product to perform could be expected to responsible for any loss or damage of whatever nature result- result in personal injury. ing from the use of, or reliance upon it and no patent or other license is implied hereby. This document does not in For update information, please visit our Web site: any way extend or modify VLSI’s warranty on any product VLSI Technology, Inc. beyond that set forth in its standard terms and conditions of sale. VLSI reserves the right to make changes in its products © 1997 VLSI Technology, Inc. Printed in USA 1109 McKay Drive and specifications at any time and without notice. Document Control: PB-GSM V1.0 October 97 San Jose, CA 95131