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  • 3G mobile in the shape of UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) with WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) as radio access technology Addition of new features like – rich voice, MMS, video , infotrainment etc... Built on existing GSM technology They are meant to co-exist i.e., UMTS does not replace GSM
  • Year 2003 – 2004 seem to be the transition period where Mobile is predicted to take over fixed line It has even exceeded Internet subcriptions It seems to rely on technological push till around 1999 From 2000 onwards the Market pull along with the technological push resulted in its exponential growth Look at the growth rates indicated Growth in demand for Bandwidth
  • Cost comparison between GSM & 3G Asia Pacific quite important region It contributed to 50 % of world's GSM subscriber growth in 2002
  • Largest revenue to be generated by voice Infotrainment - The new term – Information & Entertainment Location Based Services Rich voice – extension of normal voice along with simultaneous transmission of photos, graphics , video, maps, documents and other forms of data Services and applications will exhibit distinct regional trends
  • Characteristics Mobility Interactivity Convenience Any time/anywhere Ubiquity Easy access Immediacy Personalization Multimedia Personal communication – more expressive and enhanced Users develop emotional relationships their handsets M-commerce – micropayments can be made instantaneously IP-Multimedia Call Control for IP Multimedia Subsystems(IMS) - SIP Virtual Home Environment – personalized services
  • Common core network Dual Radio Access Network Dual mode terminals Introduction of GPRS(General Packet Radio services) in Phase II specifications EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) – to achieve higher data rates WCDMA & TD-SCDMA will not replace GSM but co-exist WCDMA will be enhanced to support High Speed Downlink and Uplink Packet Access (HSDPA) WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) - will compliment UMTS Enhancement and upgrading of existing platforms
  • Terminals , radio equipment and network platforms from different suppliers can all work together via open interfaces
  • Terminals or handsets no longer support only telephony Multiband and multimode devices capable of operating on GSM, GPRS and WCDMA networks at various frequencies. Interoperatibility 3G handsets might cost higher 120 licenses already awarded for use of IMT- 2000 spectrum to offer 3G mobile services
  • Intrapsychic environment – Conceiving it. Developers of GSM choose unproven digital systems as opposed to then standard analogue cellular systems Construction/Manufacturing environment – Feasibility Thought Phase I GSM specifications were out by 1990 it could not be launched till 1992 due to lack of mobile terminals. Adaptation environment – Saleability In 1980 each country had its own system and hence the equipment they used was incompatible with others. This affected saleability of terminals world wide. Use environment - Usability The developers of GSM were seeking an international standard in order to enable global roaming as well as global trade for equipment. Their prospect did prove beneficial to business as well as consumers This is reflected by the amount of revenue generated by roaming services They however failed to predict the success of SMS and MMS services Failure environment – Sustainability The first GPRS network rolled out was in parallel with existing GSM infrastructure . It was not a replacement The proposed UMTS infrastructure is not going to replace existing GSM or GRPS . They will co-exist and hence enhance sustainability Scrapping environment – Terminability Dismantling cost could be low because of less infrastructure (No wires or fibers involved) Political & Ecological environment – Privacy issues on adding digital cameras to handsets
  • EvolutionGSM-3G.ppt

    1. 1. Evolution of Mobile Technology GSM to 3G Ashish Rajhansha
    2. 2. The History of GSM <ul><li>1980 – Analogue Cellular Telephone Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each country had own system (No compatibility) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1982 – CEPT – Groupe Sp é cial Mobile (GSM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European Commission issued directives to reserve 900 MHz bandwidth to enable roaming. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1989 – GSM responsibility transferred to ETSI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESTI defined GSM as internationally accepted digital cellular telephony standard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1990 – Phase I GSM specifications published </li></ul>
    3. 3. History Cont... <ul><li>Mid 1991 – Commercial service started </li></ul><ul><li>1992 – First GSM network operator – Radiolinja </li></ul><ul><li>1993 – 36 GSM networks in 22 countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roaming agreement established between operators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1994 – 69 GSM networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM – Global System for Mobile interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First network in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1995 – GSM Phase II standardization </li></ul>
    4. 4. History Cont... <ul><li>1996 – Pre paid SIM cards launched </li></ul><ul><li>1997 – First Dual Band GSM phone launched </li></ul><ul><li>1998 – Vodacom introduced free Voice mail </li></ul><ul><li>1999 – GPRS & WAP trials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth specification v1.0 released </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2000 – First GPRS network rolled out </li></ul><ul><li>2001- Popularity of SMS (16 billion messages) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Evolving Mobile Market & Technology <ul><li>Users increased by 20% since 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 users being added each day </li></ul>
    6. 6. 3G - Expected Costs (Compared to GSM) <ul><li>WCDMA - 10 times as much traffic as compared to GSM </li></ul><ul><li>At cost premium of 1 to 1.5 times that of GSM </li></ul><ul><li>20% - 30% lower capital expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>60 % fewer sites required for base stations – initial voice coverage </li></ul><ul><li>40 % fewer sites required for base stations – data coverage </li></ul>
    7. 7. Key Aspects <ul><li>Global Roaming – Key driver in massive global success of GSM (Interoperability between networks) </li></ul><ul><li>GSM handset models - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 600 handset models to choose from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More homogeneous frequency allocation as compared to CDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS – A new business model for packet switched services </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. USIM <ul><li>USIM - Security access, Virus intrusion, Customer profile, Authentication, Downloading etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepaid service activation & control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directory services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile banking </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. 3G Revenue Growth
    10. 10. 3G Service Evolution
    11. 11. Network Evolution
    12. 12. GSM evolution path to 3G
    13. 13. Terminals & Spectrum Development
    14. 14. Perceived PPS environment <ul><li>Intrapsychic environment – Conceiving it. </li></ul><ul><li>Construction/Manufacturing environment – Feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation environment – Salability </li></ul><ul><li>Use environment - Usability </li></ul><ul><li>Failure environment – Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Scrapping environment – Terminability </li></ul><ul><li>Political & Ecological environment </li></ul>
    15. 15. Conclusion Patterns of Innovation <ul><li>GSM – Knight's move ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of new unproven digital technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GSM – to – 3G – More of the same ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds on existing GSM technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMS – to – MMS – Passing over quantity over quality ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading to ' infotrainment ' </li></ul></ul>